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In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading

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New post 01 Jul 2015, 11:55
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In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going to the United States.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going

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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2017, 00:34
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Comma + present participle modifier is used to refer to the complete preceding clause - the modifier describes the result of the preceding clause or explains how the action in the preceding clause is done. Here the present participle "selling nearly...." is required to describe how Argentina became the leading exporter. Thus option D and E are left. IN option D the pronoun "It" does not a valid antecedent. Hence E is the best option among the given.

However in option E, the prepositional phrase "with almost half going.." refers in turn to the present participle modifier "selling..." - such usage is generally considered awkward in GMAT. A better, more GMAT-like construction would be:

In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, selling to foreign markets nearly 90,000 tons a year, half going to United States.

OR

In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, selling to foreign markets nearly 90,000 tons a year, half of them going to United States.

OR

In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, selling to foreign markets nearly 90,000 tons a year, half of which went to United States.

The above three alternatives show the correct usage of three different forms of subgroup modifier (referring to "90,000 tons").
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New post 02 Jul 2015, 17:58
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souvik101990 wrote:
In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going to the United States.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going


A. 'half of which' should be followed by a working verb rather than a participial

B. 'that' is redundant. There is no need to make make the last part parallel to the main clause


C. Two with that followe each other are awkward. The structure after second 'with' is what GMAT doesn't like: preposition + noun + participial. 'markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year' changes the intended meaning.

D. it has no logical referent! Again it not necessary to make the main clause and last part parallel, as they are not of the same importance

E. Correct!
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New post 07 Jun 2016, 11:20
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'with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going' is the detail on how Argentina has become the leader.

Sentence is written in the present perfect tense.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going. 'Sold' in the past tense doesn't coincide with the tense used in the sentence.

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes 'almost half of it' is a fragment

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going 'with almost half of it going' is not connected with proper conjunction with th previous sentence

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes. Argentina has become leader by doing something. -ing is needed rather then simple present 'goes'

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going selling and going are parallel.


D is the answer
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New post 30 Jul 2016, 03:28
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Hi Expert,

I have a query in this question from GMAT Prep - Practice Exam 3.

Question

In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going to the United States.
A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going
B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes
C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going
D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes
E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going

My Analysis

Meaning - Argentina has become the leading exporter by selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets. Half of the honey exported goes to US.

It should be a verb+ing modifier because it tells how Argentina has become leading exporter.

So A,B,C are eliminated.

Option choice D - Sentence Structure - Independent Clause, Modifier and Independent Clause
Meaning of the sentence implies half of the (honey exported) goes to US. So there is no Logical Antecedent for it.
So D is eliminated.

Option choice E is the correct answer.

I had difficulty in understanding the meaning of correct answer choice E.

with almost half going to US
. This is a prepositional phrase modifier. What this modifier is modifying?

I face difficulty in solving the problems with sentence Structure as below:
Independent Clause, First Modifier, Second Modifier.

But GMAT loves to load a sentence with modifiers, so I should also start loving it :) .

I have come across three sentences from official sources with such sentence structure.

    1. Source GMAT prep - Practice Exam 3 - First as mentioned above

    2. Source GMAT prep - In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling other stars. In this sentence the modifier circling other stars modifies 80 massive planets.

    3. Source mba.com - GMAT practice question of the day - Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business more than $100 billion a year. Relative pronoun modifier which already cost business more than $100 billion a year modifies the effects.

Now I tried to understand the role played by Second modifier in all the thee sentences. My understanding is as below:

    1. Kindly help me understand what does prepositional phrase modifies?

    2. Second modifier modifies the noun in the clause

    3. Second modifier modifies the noun in the First modifier

Is there any general rule or method to deal with questions with sentence structure as Independent Clause, First Modifier, Second Modifier. or it is only question specific?


Thanks

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New post 18 Dec 2016, 22:26
Sorry for going off topic, but is it OK to use predicates with different verb form for the same subject using AND?
Such as, 'X is doing great and it will continue to do so'. Is this an acceptable sentence at GMAT?

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New post 28 Mar 2017, 15:28
But - Half seems to denote the fraction half as opposed to "half of something" - Am I missing something? Or is it the case of of all the sentences, this is the best one - So its a compromised correct answer?
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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2017, 03:08
Hello GMATNinja egmat

Can you explain the structure of the sentence in Option E?

It it - Prepositional Phrase, Independent Clause, modifier, modifier

The last modifier that begins with "with" , what is it modifying? Also is it okay when we have two modifiers back to back?

Please help. Thanks
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New post 03 Oct 2017, 03:59
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja egmat

Can you explain the structure of the sentence in Option E?

It it - Prepositional Phrase, Independent Clause, modifier, modifier

The last modifier that begins with "with" , what is it modifying? Also is it okay when we have two modifiers back to back?

Please help. Thanks




Hello pikolo2510,

Thank you for the query. I would be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

Let's take a look at the sentence with the correct answer choice E:

In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going to the United States.


The sentence starts with the prepositional phrase that describes the time frame in which Argentina has become the word's leading exporter of honey. So the opening prepositional phrase modifies the action of the main clause.


Since selling nearly 90,000 tons... is a comma + verb-ing modifier, is modifies the preceding action has become.

Now, the last modifier is again a prepositional phrase modifier that modifies the action denoted by selling.... It further describes that half of the sales goes to the US.

Yes, the usage of back to back modifiers is correct as long as each modifier clearly modifies the entity it is supposed to modify. This official sentence is the classic example of such usage.

All the modifiers clearly modify the entity they are supposed to modify and hence, present the intended meaning with no ambiguity at all.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 03 Oct 2017, 04:30
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TheGMATcracker wrote:
But - Half seems to denote the fraction half as opposed to "half of something" - Am I missing something? Or is it the case of of all the sentences, this is the best one - So its a compromised correct answer?



Hello TheGMATcracker,

I am not sure if you still have this doubt. Nonetheless, here is the explanation. :-)

We need to pay attention to what the sentence intends to say.

The sentence says that Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets. Now half of this nearly 90,000 tons of honey is sold to the US.

So yes, half has been used to show the fraction of the total sales mentioned in the sentence.


IMHO, options A, B, and C are incorrect for the usage of with modifier in the beginning of each choice as the phrase fails to connect logically with the main action. Usage of this modifier seems to suggest that Argentina has become something along with some other action taking place.


Choice D is incorrect because singular it cannot refer to plural nearly 90,000 tons.

Choice E is the correct answer as it clearly presents the intended meaning.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2017, 17:44
Would you help me with these questions?

1) Please correct me if I'm wrong, can 'it' refer to honey in choice D? I discarded D because goes should be has gone, is this reasoning correct?.
2) is going parallel to selling in choice E? Many people have said that, but they are on different modifier phrases, taking different functions and not part of a list, so I can't see how they are parallel.

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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2017, 11:19
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CristianJuarez wrote:
Hi Shraddha egmat

Would you help me with these questions?

1) Please correct me if I'm wrong, can 'it' refer to honey in choice D? I discarded D because goes should be has gone, is this reasoning correct?.
2) is going parallel to selling in choice E? Many people have said that, but they are on different modifier phrases, taking different functions and not part of a list, so I can't see how they are parallel.

Kind regards,
Cristián




Hello @Cristián CristianJuarez


Thank you for your post. I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

1) Pay very close attention to context of the sentence. The sentence states how Argentina has become the word's leading exporter of honey. In the description, the sentence mentions a specific amount and then says that half goes to the US.

So the sentence presents an instance in relevance of which it mentions the US. So logically, it must refer to 90,000 tons and not just honey.

I am afraid your reason to reject Choice D is not correct. It is a general fact that the US imports almost half of the quantity of the honey exported by Argentina. Hence, use of simple present tense verb goes is correct in Choice D.


2) You are correct in your understanding about the usage of selling and going in Choice E. They are NOT parallel as there is no parallel marker between them. The with modifier is just the extension of the information provided in the comma + selling modifier.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2018, 21:55
My Explanation is somewhat different.
daagh @gmatninza please correct if my approach is wrong.
First, We need a Verb+Ing modifier to modify the entire clause “Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey”. Hence, ABC are out.
In choice D & E, “and almost half of it goes”, “,” before and is used to join two ICs. Here, second one is not IC rather DC. Hence, answer is E without any pronoun trap as well.
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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2018, 03:37
souvik101990 wrote:
In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going to the United States.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going


this is terribly hard problem and we will see it if we get 40 + on SC.

"with +noun+noun modifier"can be used to modify a preceding clause or a participle doing . we normally see the first case

i learn gmat, with many other persons going out for change.
the second case is choice E, in which "with+noun+noun modifier" can modify doing as a participle (participle is the doing form which has some fuctions of verb and of adjective as oppose to gerund which have some fuctions of verb and of noun".

understanding what is participle is hard, so , understanding that "with+noun+noun modifier" can modifier is harder.

choice E is a terrible pattern in English language. choice E shows that GMAT makers is terrible persons.
who are gmat makers?

look at choice A b and c
the pattern "with+noun+noun modifier" can exist without "with" as in choice A. choice A has no preceding clause or participle for "noun+noun modifier" or " with+noun+noun modifier " to refer. A is wrong grammatically.

choice B.
here, "noun+noun modifier " has no preceding clause or participle to refer to. wrong grammatically
choice C.

choice D
here "with+noun+ noun modifier " has not preceding clause or participle to refer to, wrong grammatically
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Re: In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 17:43
Most of the responses here only seem to justify why E is the correct answer.

There's so much inconsistency in the elimination of (A) to (C) that It's rather frustrating to read through the replies here.

@E-gmat or GMATNinja could you kindly and simply articulate why (A)-(C) are incorrect?
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New post 26 Jan 2019, 02:54
[quote="Divyadisha"]'with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going' is the detail on how Argentina has become the leader.

Sentence is written in the present perfect tense.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going. 'Sold' in the past tense doesn't coincide with the tense used in the sentence.

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes 'almost half of it' is a fragment

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going 'with almost half of it going' is not connected with proper conjunction with th previous sentence

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes. Argentina has become leader by doing something. -ing is needed rather then simple present 'goes'

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going [color=#00a651]selling and going are parallel.

give me one chance more
choice A
"which" is wrong. relative pronoun need a clause to be in or need an infinitive to precede.
I need a person whom to give my gmat books. this is correct. or which must be in a clause
choice B.
"half of it" must modifies "sale of 90 ton", so, "half of it" can not follow "and". if we use "and" , we do not have any phrase to which "haft of it" follow
choice C
"with almost half" can not modify " with the sale of " grammatically though we need "with the half " modify "with the sale" logically
choice D
"and almost half of it" can parallel with which phrase in the beginning. I do not have that phrase.
choice E is best .
"with+noun...) normally modiies a full clause but choice E, it modifies participle phrase. this is hard point. second thing is that "almlost half " is unclear. however E is best
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New post 28 Feb 2019, 01:49
souvik101990 wrote:
In little more than a decade, Argentina has become the world’s leading exporter of honey, with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going to the United States.

A. with nearly 90,000 tons a year sold to foreign markets, almost half of which going

B. with the sale of nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it that goes

C. with the sale to foreign markets of nearly 90,000 tons a year, with almost half of it going

D. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, and almost half of it goes

E. selling nearly 90,000 tons a year to foreign markets, with almost half going


why choice B is wrong.
"with+noun+noun modifier " can modifies the preceding clause or preceding phrase as in choice E. if we have "and " after "with," each phrase will modifu the preceding clause as in the case of choice B

in choice B, "with... and half of it..." modifier the main clause "has become. this mean "half of it..." dose not modifies "sale of 90000 ton..." but modifies "has become" . this is not logic.

the best logic modification is that "half of if..." modifies "sale, selling of 900000 ton".
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New post 09 Mar 2019, 01:43
I think choice A, B, and C can be wrong immediately because
though 'with+noun+noun modifier " can work as an adverb modifying the preceding clause, we do not know who sell . this is unclear. because "with+noun+noun modifier' is an adverb, it can not refer to any noun in the preceding clause. So, it is unclear who sell. this is terrible meaning error which can be realize easily.
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New post 21 Mar 2019, 21:37
one of typical error on gmat is that two items connected by "and" are not parallel logically. the are parallel gramatically but not logically.
choice d make terrible mistake that "half of it goes" is parallel with "acgentia has become...". this parallelism makes no sense.

this kind of mistake is typical on gmat. this mistake is subtle but basic.
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