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# In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the

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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
In the main idea question, the validity of the assumption is challenged only in the last paragraph. Although other options are not even related, I am not understanding how to tackle such type of questions. I had crossed this option as it only pertained to the 2nd paragraph.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
rajeshgmat2019
PLease explain the question number 3

rajeshgmat2019

Quote:
3) The author mentions "the success of a certain well-known Japanese automaker" most probably in order to

The Author mentions "the success of a certain well-known Japanese automaker" in para 1 to demonstrate the effectiveness of "strategic partnerships" with their external business partners (a Business practice) to the Western Management circles.

Option B resonates the same and is the correct answer.

Hope this helps!
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
I got the idea that the most important step of nailing RC is to understand the structure and the main idea(the author's attitude) of the whole passage.
However, as gmat RC is getting harder, sometimes it is really difficult for me to make a decision about which sentence to read, which not! Since the description has to be understood in order to understand somebody's views.

I'd make a examples:
In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the exhortations of business journalists and academics to move their companies toward long-term, collaborative "strategic partnerships" with their external business partners(e.g., suppliers). The experts advice comes as a natural reaction to numerous studies conducted during the past decade that compared Japanese production and supply practices with those of the rest of the world. The link between the success of a certain well-known Japanese automaker and its effective management of its suppliers, for example, has led to an unquestioning belief within Western management circles in the value of strategic partnerships. Indeed, in the automobile sector all three United States manufacturers and most of their European competitors have launched programs to reduce their total number of suppliers and move toward having strategic partnerships with a few.

However, new research concerning supplier relationships in various industries demonstrates that the widespread assumption of Western managers and business consultants that Japanese firms manage their suppliers primarily through strategic partnerships is unjustified. Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed, but they also make extensive use of market-exchange relationships, in which either party can turn to the marketplace and shift to different business partners at will, a practice usually associated with Western manufacturers.

Which of the following is cited in the passage as evidence supporting the author`s claim about what the new research referred to in line 20(see highlighted text) demonstrates?(first reading this question, what the hell is ABCDE talking about...none of them is similar to what I understand..)
A The belief within Western management circles regarding the extent to which Japanese firms rely on strategic partnerships
B The surprising number of European and United States businesses that have strategic partnerships with their suppliers
C The response of Western automobile manufacturers to the advice that they adopt strategic partnerships with their suppliers
D The prevalence of "market‐exchange" relationships between Japanese firms and their suppliers
E The success of a particular Japanese automobile manufacturer that favors strategic partnerships with its suppliers

Although it is clear that a view has been questioned from the big "HOWEVER", it is still difficult for me to choose what to read for the first time. Also, some description is vague and indirect, it takes me a lot of time to understand what the author is trying to talk about.

So, I guess I really should understand each views presented in the article during my first time reading! Even if I couldn't understand the sentence for the first time, I should repeat reading it until I get it and move on to next...
(I realized just moving my eyes from line to line and getting nothing in my mind are really annoying, I couldn't barely understand the DETAILED QUESTIONS)

Also, I really have a Nemo's memory,
For some really clarified structure, such as:
paragraph1
A view, why the view is held by many people, however, the view has two limitations.. There are two opposing views about how to solve the limitations
paragraph2
A new research justifies that one of the opposing view is correct.. how the study is conducted...

OK, I got the structure, and I understand all the first paragraph is talking about(everything!!)
but I could not remember which two limitations are...When I saw a question about it...I have to go back and find and read again..
However, if I DO NOT understand what the two opposing views are talking about, I could not understand the next paragraph is talking about right??
So... I really do not know how to solve it

For a non-native speaker like me, it is already difficult to understand the passage(so many long and complex sentences) in a short time, there is a huge GAP between understanding the passage and getting right on questions!!!

Sometimes I wonder, what the hell is the question talking about? or what the hell do those ABCDE mean(sometimes they look long and complex)...
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
Hi Rebekah,

I’m glad you reached out, and I’m happy to help. So, you actually answered your own question when you said, “So, I guess I really should understand each view presented in the article during my first time reading! Even if I couldn't understand the sentence for the first time, I should repeat reading it until I get it and move on to next…” Although it may seem obvious, you are 100% correct in saying that you must understand what you are reading in one sentence prior to moving to the next. After all, if you rushed through a passage without fully (or even partially) understanding what you read, then how could you be expected to correctly answer questions based on the passage, right?

When reading an RC passage, take your time and learn to understand exactly what is being said, reading one sentence at a time or even one word at a time, if necessary. There is no way around this work. You have to learn to comprehend what you are reading. Your goal should be to take all the time you need to understand exactly what is being said and arrive at the correct answer. If you can learn to get correct answers taking your time, you can learn to speed up. Answering questions is like any task: The more times you do it carefully and successfully, the faster you become at doing it carefully and successfully.

Regarding what you remember from the passage after reading, you are not expected to have the minute details memorized, but rather you simply need to have enough of an understanding of the passage to know where to find those details. Thus, I don’t think there is anything wrong with referring back to the passage to pull out key details and answer questions. For now, make it your goal to understand what a passage is about, and as you get better at that, you can then start working on speed.

If you have any further questions, please reach out.

Good luck!
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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can someone help with n.5?
I'm struggling between A and D
I think what A means is the paraphrase of the "Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed,", so why not A?
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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rinkumaa4
why in the Q 3? E is wrong.

Expecting some better explanation though I choose B as my answer.

Regards

Hi Rinkumaa4

If you continue reading the last two lines of the first paragraph , you will notice that the strategy has already been adopted now so we can eliminate option E as it say they need to change their strategy. Also the second last line says "unquestioning belief within Western management circles in the value of strategic partnerships" , this clearly suggests a beleif that has made the West to change its business practice.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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Rebekah
can someone help with n.5?
I'm struggling between A and D
I think what A means is the paraphrase of the "Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed,", so why not A?

Happy to help. Actually answer A is the exact opposite of the right answer. The correct answer should have been " the extent to which Japanese firms rely on strategic partnerships"...What made the answer choice wrong is the first half " The belief within Western management circles "...The belief was the exact opposite of the finding regarding the extent of reliance on strategic partnership.Thus the answer is wrong.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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for easy question, we need prethink the answer before reading the answer choices. we can see a match and the job is done. but for the hard questions, prethinking helps us eliminate just 2 or 3 answer choices. for the last answer choice, POE (power of elimination) only works. POE permit us to realize the wrong answer choices which are close the the correct one. POE is powerfull in that it helps us realize the wrong answer choices which is wrong in only 1 or 2 words.

so, we prethink and we use POE. when we are stuck, think of POE.

after reading the question, the first natural action we do is prethinking the answer. but remember this works only for easy questions. if we are stuck, try to use POE.

many passages in gmat are easy to understand but their questions are hard. in this case, gmat want to test our ability to infer and this passage is called infering focused. process of infering is we need to infer an information similar to information in the correct answer from an information/a sentence in the passage. infering is not hard bur for infering fucused questions, prethinking dose not work because the infered information can not be prethought. only POE works in this case.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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Can some one please tell me the explanation of Qn 4. I picked D
Question 4 asks us to find an example of "the practice referred to in the last sentence of the passage," so let's take another look at that sentence:
Quote:
Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed, but they also make extensive use of “market-exchange” relationships, in which either party can turn to the marketplace and shift to different business partners at will, a practice usually associated with Western manufacturers
In this sentence, the author contrasts strategic partnerships with the practice of "market-exchange" relationships. In this practice, "either party can turn to the marketplace and shift to different business partners at will."

Let's apply this information to each answer choice:
Quote:
A. A department store chain that employs a single buyer to procure all the small appliances to be sold in its stores
The department store chain is employing a single buyer rather than shifting to different business partners. This is clearly not an example of a market-exchange relationship, so (A) is out.

Quote:
B. An automobile manufacturer that has used the same supplier of a particular axle component for several years in a row
Again, this manufacturer is using one supplier rather than shifting to different business partners. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
C. A hospital that contracts only with union personnel to staff its nonmedical positions
Contracting only union personnel is not a clear example of turning to the marketplace or shifting business partners at will. (C) is out.

Quote:
D. A municipal government that decides to cancel its contract with a waste disposal company and instead hire its own staff to perform that function
In this statement the municipal government cancels its contract with a partner, but it does not "turn to the marketplace" or "shift to different business partners." Instead, it decides to "hire its own staff to perform that function." Because the municipal government finds an internal solution in this scenario, this is not a good example of a market-exchange relationship. Answer choice (D) is out.

Now take another look at answer choice (E):
Quote:
E. A corporation that changes the food-service supplier for its corporate headquarters several times over a five-year period as part of a cost-cutting campaign.

Here, the corporation changes one supplier for another several times in order to cut costs. This is a clear example of "turn[ing] to the marketplace and shift[ing] to different business partners at will." (E) is the correct choice for question 4.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
GMATNinja
How is D a better answer than E for Q.4?
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
Debashis Roy
GMATNinja
How is D a better answer than E for Q.4?
(E) is the correct answer for question 4. Please see this post and let us know if it doesn't resolve your doubts.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
Debashis Roy
GMATNinja
How is D a better answer than E for Q.4?

Old research: strategic partnership means fewer suppliers.
New Research: Japanese Change strategic partnership frequently

E stands against the new research.

Hope It Helps!
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
Rebekah
can someone help with n.5?
I'm struggling between A and D
I think what A means is the paraphrase of the "Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed,", so why not A?

The question is asking for the evidence to support 'new research' but option A isn't an evidence that supports it, rather option D is the right answer.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
Rebekah
can someone help with n.5?
I'm struggling between A and D
I think what A means is the paraphrase of the "Not only do Japanese firms appear to conduct a far smaller proportion of their business through strategic partnerships than is commonly believed,", so why not A?

It is quite simple. Option A is the claim (almost close) that the author makes and Option D is the evidence that he uses. A is a typical GMAT style trap choice.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
I chose E as answer thinking that passage discussed about supplier relationships in Japanese and Western manufacturers.
Didn't get it.
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
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fauji
I chose E as answer thinking that passage discussed about supplier relationships in Japanese and Western manufacturers.
Didn't get it.

Official Explanation

1) The passage is primarily concerned with

Difficulty Level: Medium

Main idea question

Explanation

This question asks fr an assessment of what the passage as a whole is doing. The passage discusses how Western business managers have been following the advice of academics and journalists to pursue strategic partnerships with their suppliers. The advice is based on studies comparing Japanese production and supply practices with those of the rest of the world. Newer research, however, indicates that Japanese practices actually diﬀer from those indicated in the earlier studies and are not significantly diﬀerent from practices associated with Western manufacturers.

A. The passage is not primarily concerned with economic factors contributing to the success of Japanese companies, but rather with whether Japanese relationships with suppliers confirm to the practices recently adopted by Western business manufacturers.

B. Although the passage discusses strategic partnerships and market-exchange relationships, it does not discuss their relative merits.

C Correct. The passage does question the view promoted by several studies regarding the relationship Japanese firms have with their suppliers.

D. The passage does not indicate that Western companies have been slow to adopt any particular practice favored by Japanese companies.

E. Rather than pointing out diﬀerences between Japanese and Western supplier relationships, it actually suggests that they are more similar than generally realized.

Hope it helps
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Re: In recent years, Western business managers have been heeding the [#permalink]
In Q4, I dont get how E is better than D.