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In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout

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In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2015, 03:16
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In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout the country will experience power failures if they do not modernize their electrical substations. The vast majority of substations in the country already handle currents between 60% and 80% of their maximum capacity, and currents are expected to rise, perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade, because of population increase and the increased demand from both industry and electronics in individual homes.

Which of the following is an assumption of the above argument?

A) An electrical substation fails when the current it handles rises above its maximum capacity.
B) A modernized electric substation would be able to handle at least three times the amount of current as does a current substation.
C) Ten years from now, the average household will own a greater number of electronic devices than does the average household today.
D) Many electrical substations in operation today are old, and have several aged components that could break down, leading to power failures, even if current levels don't increase substantially.
E) The cost of modernizing the substations is small compared to the average profits of electrical power companies.

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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2015, 08:06
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Hi anupama,

As per B the modernised substation would be able to handle atleast 3 times the current. means greater than or equal to 3.

As per the para we see that its predicted that the current consumption might increase PERHAPS by AS MUCH AS a factor of three.

That means that its possible that it can be less than or equal to 3. Given that it is not necessary that the modernized substations be capable of handling that much current only.

Hence if you negate B and see the argument does not fall apart.

Hope its clear?

Regards,
Dom
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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2015, 01:28
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Only A makes sense.

As per A: The substation will fail if the current exceeded the maximum capacity.

negate A: The substation will not fail if the current exceeded the maximum capacity.

If the negated A were acceptable there wont be any requirement to possibly upgrade the system firstly. Hence the argument will fall apart.

Hence A is the correct answer.

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Dom.
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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2015, 05:30
Could you please explain your thought process on this?
what is wrong with B
How A is correct?

I was stuck between A VS B
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Modernize their electrical substations [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2015, 11:52
In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout the country will experience power failures if they do not modernize their electrical substations. The vast majority of substations in the country already handle currents between 60% and 80% of their maximum capacity, and currents are expected to rise, perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade, because of population increase and the increased demand from both industry and electronics in individual homes.

Which of the following is an assumption of the above argument?

(A) An electrical substation fails when the current it handles rises above its maximum capacity.

(B) A modernized electric substation would be able to handle at least three times the amount of current as does a current substation.

(C) Ten years from now, the average household will own a greater number of electronic devices than does the average household today.

(D) Many electrical substations in operation today are old, and have several aged components that could break down, leading to power failures, even if current levels don't increase substantially.

(E) The cost of modernizing the substations is small compared to the average profits of electrical power companies.
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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2015, 15:02
tuanquang269 wrote:
In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout the country will experience power failures if they do not modernize their electrical substations. The vast majority of substations in the country already handle currents between 60% and 80% of their maximum capacity, and currents are expected to rise, perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade, because of population increase and the increased demand from both industry and electronics in individual homes.

Which of the following is an assumption of the above argument?

(A) An electrical substation fails when the current it handles rises above its maximum capacity.

(B) A modernized electric substation would be able to handle at least three times the amount of current as does a current substation.

(C) Ten years from now, the average household will own a greater number of electronic devices than does the average household today.

(D) Many electrical substations in operation today are old, and have several aged components that could break down, leading to power failures, even if current levels don't increase substantially.

(E) The cost of modernizing the substations is small compared to the average profits of electrical power companies.

Topics merged. tuanquang269, please search for a question before starting a new thread.
Thanks,
Mike :-)
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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2017, 14:03
Hi mikemcgarry

Can you please help in explaining A vs B.

Thanks in advance :)
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Re: In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2017, 17:08
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Poorvasha wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Can you please help in explaining A vs B.

Thanks in advance :)

Dear Poorvasha,

I'm the author of this question and I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the prompt:
In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout the country will experience power failures if they do not modernize their electrical substations. The vast majority of substations in the country already handle currents between 60% and 80% of their maximum capacity, and currents are expected to rise, perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade, because of population increase and the increased demand from both industry and electronics in individual homes.

Which of the following is an assumption of the above argument?


Notice that the conclusion is in the the first sentence, and the second sentence is pure evidence. Also, notice that the argument strictly is about what will happen if municipalities "do not modernize their electrical substations." That means, what happens if and when they do "modernize their electrical substations," is, strictly speaking, irrelevant to the argument. The argument is about what will cause the current substations to fail.

We will use the Negation Test.

A) An electrical substation fails when the current it handles rises above its maximum capacity.
Suppose the opposite is true: when current rises about the maximum capacity, the electrical substation are fine and can still function as normal. This would obliterate the arguments. Essentially, the "maximum capacity" ratings would be meaningless, because electrical substation would function and not fail even above these levels. This destroys the argument. Because negating this destroys the argument, this is an assumption.

B) A modernized electric substation would be able to handle at least three times the amount of current as does a current substation.
This is a very tempting wrong answer. Notice, first of all, the argument about what will cause the current substations to fail--that's the focus, the main problem. Also, notice that the argument says that the expect rise will be "perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade"--in other words, it's not certain that the electrical current demands will go this high. Whether the modernized electric substations can handle things or fail has no bearing on the current problem--in other words, the current substations are very likely to fail, regardless of what the modernized electric substations can or can't do. Also, we don't know for sure exactly how high the current needs will go. Suppose the modernized electric substations can't handle 3 times the current level, but can handle up to, say, 2.5 times the current level. Well, if current levels rise to a maximum of 2.3 times the current level, then the modernized electric substations would be able to handle that. Thus, this choice can be negated and the argument still works, so this isn't a true assumption.

(A) is right and is the OA. (B) is a very tempting incorrect answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout [#permalink]

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New post 04 Nov 2017, 15:18
mikemcgarry wrote:
Poorvasha wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Can you please help in explaining A vs B.

Thanks in advance :)

Dear Poorvasha,

I'm the author of this question and I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the prompt:
In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout the country will experience power failures if they do not modernize their electrical substations. The vast majority of substations in the country already handle currents between 60% and 80% of their maximum capacity, and currents are expected to rise, perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade, because of population increase and the increased demand from both industry and electronics in individual homes.

Which of the following is an assumption of the above argument?


Notice that the conclusion is in the the first sentence, and the second sentence is pure evidence. Also, notice that the argument strictly is about what will happen if municipalities "do not modernize their electrical substations." That means, what happens if and when they do "modernize their electrical substations," is, strictly speaking, irrelevant to the argument. The argument is about what will cause the current substations to fail.

We will use the Negation Test.

A) An electrical substation fails when the current it handles rises above its maximum capacity.
Suppose the opposite is true: when current rises about the maximum capacity, the electrical substation are fine and can still function as normal. This would obliterate the arguments. Essentially, the "maximum capacity" ratings would be meaningless, because electrical substation would function and not fail even above these levels. This destroys the argument. Because negating this destroys the argument, this is an assumption.

B) A modernized electric substation would be able to handle at least three times the amount of current as does a current substation.
This is a very tempting wrong answer. Notice, first of all, the argument about what will cause the current substations to fail--that's the focus, the main problem. Also, notice that the argument says that the expect rise will be "perhaps by as much as a factor of 3 in the next decade"--in other words, it's not certain that the electrical current demands will go this high. Whether the modernized electric substations can handle things or fail has no bearing on the current problem--in other words, the current substations are very likely to fail, regardless of what the modernized electric substations can or can't do. Also, we don't know for sure exactly how high the current needs will go. Suppose the modernized electric substations can't handle 3 times the current level, but can handle up to, say, 2.5 times the current level. Well, if current levels rise to a maximum of 2.3 times the current level, then the modernized electric substations would be able to handle that. Thus, this choice can be negated and the argument still works, so this isn't a true assumption.

(A) is right and is the OA. (B) is a very tempting incorrect answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)




Thank you Mike. This was very helpful. :). +1
In the next decade, a large percentage of municipalities throughout   [#permalink] 04 Nov 2017, 15:18
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