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Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century

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Metal rings recently excavated from seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts.

Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century
(B) Whether travel between western Mexico and Ecuador in the seventh century would have been primarily by land or by sea
(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.
(D) Whether metal tools were used in the seventh-century settlements in western Mexico
(E) Whether any of the techniques used in the manufacture of the metal rings found in western Mexico are still practiced among artisans in Ecuador today

OG2017 Diagnostic V69 P34

Originally posted by kimmyg on 05 Oct 2005, 08:49.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 23 Mar 2018, 19:18, edited 2 times in total.
fixed typos
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2005, 10:16
I think choice A is best.
If it can be determined that the metal were not traded, it can be safely hypothesised from the other evidences that the Mexicans learned from Ecuadorians.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2005, 10:21
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I'd go for A

A) That there has been communication between those two folks is undoubtful. Whether the Mexicans have imported these rings or have build them on their own can be found out by answering A. If true, it would cast doubt on the archaeologists hypothesis.

B) Out of scope, there has never been a differentiation between land and sea

C) If so... The Ecuadorians could've traveled to mexico to teach the techniques or the Mexicans could've learned them in Ecuador. It does not answer the question, whether they have learned those techniques or just have bought the metal rings

D) distortion, the stem talks about metal rings and metallurgic techniques... tools are never mentioned

E) Out of scope... the use of techniques today does not give light to the happenings in the seventh century.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2005, 11:36
Another one for A! None of the others "evaluate" the hypothesis.
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New post 05 Oct 2005, 11:45
Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts.

Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) It challenges the hypothesis by asking whether is possible or nor for Mexican to have imported metal rings.
(B) It is irrelevant
(C) It is irrelevant for the hypothesis whether the Mexicans artisans left Mexico or not to learn this thecnique.
(D) Irrelevant
(E) Irrelevant

IMO A is the best choice.

OA plz
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2005, 12:47
Goign with A. we need to see if there is another way to have the rings in Mexico. The other way to have it would be if there was trade between the two groups.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2005, 19:39
(A) - best choice. If the rings found in Western Mexico came from trading with Ecuador, then the theory that the West Mexicans learnt the technique for the Ecuadorians does not hold.
(B) - irrelevant
(C) - not important to know this
(D) - irrelevant
(E) - not important

A for me.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2013, 13:12
I really don't see how you believe it's A not C.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2013, 01:39
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Hi Score,

For answer C

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.

This doesn't actually matter. We need to know if they could learn these techniques from Ecuador, it doesn't matter where they were when they did it, it's no more likely that they got the info from travelling, from traders, etc.

But A....

(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century


This gives direct evidence for conversations between Mexico and Ecuador happening during this period, so makes it more likely that they would learn from each other.

So I'm confident A is correct.

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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2013, 08:29
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plumber250 wrote:
Hi Score,

For answer C

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.

This doesn't actually matter. We need to know if they could learn these techniques from Ecuador, it doesn't matter where they were when they did it, it's no more likely that they got the info from travelling, from traders, etc.

But A....

(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century


This gives direct evidence for conversations between Mexico and Ecuador happening during this period, so makes it more likely that they would learn from each other.

So I'm confident A is correct.

James


Why are you focusing on where they were and where they did it. This is just an extra piece of information that does not affect the essential piece of information in C which is whether they learned the technique. I understand that by saying that they learned it without leaving Mexico, we exclude the possibility that they learnt it from ecuadorians in other ways for example by visiting Ecuador or etc. Yet, I still find answer C overall to be more relevant than answer A. Since when exchange of products means exchange of skills to make the products, especially that we are talking about "complex techniques". Conversations between the two people is an assumption. Maybe in the question stem they could have hinted at this but they did not. Net, I think this question is just annoyingly unclear.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2013, 08:45
We'll have to agree to disagree.

It's an OG question - so like it or lump it it's exactly the kind of question that will come up.

I'd find questions like it in the OG and give them some thought.
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New post 26 Mar 2013, 09:25
plumber250 wrote:
We'll have to agree to disagree.

It's an OG question - so like it or lump it it's exactly the kind of question that will come up.

I'd find questions like it in the OG and give them some thought.



You are right, ok I will still give it a thought and look for other questions like it. Thanks again
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 09:16
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score780 wrote:
Why are you focusing on where they were and where they did it. This is just an extra piece of information that does not affect the essential piece of information in C which is whether they learned the technique. I understand that by saying that they learned it without leaving Mexico, we exclude the possibility that they learnt it from ecuadorians in other ways for example by visiting Ecuador or etc. Yet, I still find answer C overall to be more relevant than answer A.


Hi,

Let's look at below two questions:

Did you score 750 on GMAT?

Did you score 750 on GMAT in Mexico?

Would both questions help you in finding out whether the person has scored 750 on GMAT or not?

The answer is No. While the answer to the first question will obviously help you in determining whether the person has scored 750 on GMAT or not, the answer to the second question may not. If the answer to the second question is no, we have no clue whether the person did not score 750 on GMAT or he scored 750 but not in Mexico.

So, we can't really ignore part of questions to understand their meaning.

Now, let's look at option C:

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.

This is similar as saying "whether you can score more than 750 on GMAT without taking an classes". This is different from saying "whether you can score more than 750 on GMAT". The latter question is more about your capability to score 750 while the former question is more about your dependence on classes to score more than 750.

Similarly, option C is concerned about whether artisans could have learnt those techniques without leaving western Mexico. Now, we understand that learning inside or outside Mexico is irrelevant for us. Therefore, option C is irrelevant and incorrect.

score780 wrote:
Since when exchange of products means exchange of skills to make the products, especially that we are talking about "complex techniques". Conversations between the two people is an assumption.


Now, the highlighted part is wrong here. Conversation between the two groups is not an assumption here. The passage very clearly states that "the people of these two areas were in cultural contact".

Now, coming to option A as to why it is correct

The conclusion is "the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts."

This is based on the premise that "Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period."

Now, what if Mexican artists didn't even create these metal rings. What if these metal rings were actually created by Ecuadorian artisans and then brought through trade in Mexico? In that case, can we say that Mexican artists learnt techniques from Ecuadorian counterparts? No. In that case, we would be even doubtful whether Mexican artists knew about the techniques or not.

So, option A is on the same lines as our questions above. Therefore, it is correct.

Hope this helps!

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2015, 05:49
egmat wrote:
score780 wrote:
Why are you focusing on where they were and where they did it. This is just an extra piece of information that does not affect the essential piece of information in C which is whether they learned the technique. I understand that by saying that they learned it without leaving Mexico, we exclude the possibility that they learnt it from ecuadorians in other ways for example by visiting Ecuador or etc. Yet, I still find answer C overall to be more relevant than answer A.


Hi,

Let's look at below two questions:

Did you score 750 on GMAT?

Did you score 750 on GMAT in Mexico?

Would both questions help you in finding out whether the person has scored 750 on GMAT or not?

The answer is No. While the answer to the first question will obviously help you in determining whether the person has scored 750 on GMAT or not, the answer to the second question may not. If the answer to the second question is no, we have no clue whether the person did not score 750 on GMAT or he scored 750 but not in Mexico.

So, we can't really ignore part of questions to understand their meaning.

Now, let's look at option C:

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.

This is similar as saying "whether you can score more than 750 on GMAT without taking an classes". This is different from saying "whether you can score more than 750 on GMAT". The latter question is more about your capability to score 750 while the former question is more about your dependence on classes to score more than 750.

Similarly, option C is concerned about whether artisans could have learnt those techniques without leaving western Mexico. Now, we understand that learning inside or outside Mexico is irrelevant for us. Therefore, option C is irrelevant and incorrect.

score780 wrote:
Since when exchange of products means exchange of skills to make the products, especially that we are talking about "complex techniques". Conversations between the two people is an assumption.


Now, the highlighted part is wrong here. Conversation between the two groups is not an assumption here. The passage very clearly states that "the people of these two areas were in cultural contact".

Now, coming to option A as to why it is correct

The conclusion is "the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts."

This is based on the premise that "Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period."

Now, what if Mexican artists didn't even create these metal rings. What if these metal rings were actually created by Ecuadorian artisans and then brought through trade in Mexico? In that case, can we say that Mexican artists learnt techniques from Ecuadorian counterparts? No. In that case, we would be even doubtful whether Mexican artists knew about the techniques or not.

So, option A is on the same lines as our questions above. Therefore, it is correct.

Hope this helps!

Thanks,
Chiranjeev


Top-notch explanation. Kudos!

I fell for C, because when looking at the answer choices, i was desperately looking for something that proved no cultural contact or proved the knowledge couldnt be learnt. While i knew C wasnt airtight i had rejected A so early in my answering process that I never came back to dissect it.

I feel this is a good question since a) it preys on assumption most people would make that if something was excavated at a certain place, the people there made it and b) the correct answer choice is well worded. If it were worded, "Mexico imported metal rings from Ecuador", this would have been a no-brainer, but when you read A carefully, thats exactly what it says.

Gotta love the official material for such questions :)
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2016, 13:49
It seems the topic seems to be closed already. Still, I have concerns about the official explanation and explanations given here.
I see that almost everyone is for A (as well as OG). However, any test should say if hypothesis is correct or not.
So if we go with A - what would positive answer mean for hypothesis? What would negative one mean?
OG says that if trade existed it is in favor for hypothesis.
Here I see most say that if trade existed it makes hypothesis even more doubtful.
I see contradiction in these explanations. And I myself cannot say would positive/negative answer for this test (answer A) would mean.
We know from passage that there was communication, so knowledge about techniques could be passed to Mexico. We need to understand if specific knowledge crossed the border. Trade of metal objects indicates there was exchange of physical objects as well. But how does it help to check passage of knowledge?
As an example - porcelain was traded to Europe from China. But this did not lead to export of the technique (it was replicated in Europe only centuries after).
So I do not see A as good answer.

Would appreciate your response/explanation!
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2017, 20:56
kimmyg wrote:
Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts.

Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century
(B) Whether travel between western Mexico and Ecuador in the seventh century would have been primarily by land or by sea
(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.
(D) Whether metal tools were used in the seventh-century settlements in western Mexico
(E) Whether any of the techniques used in the manufacture of the metal rings found in western Mexico are still practiced among artisans in Ecuador today

OG2017 Diagnostic V69 P34


Metal Rings
 
Step 1: Identify the Question

The words useful to establish in order to evaluate in the question stem indicate that this is an Evaluate the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Metal rings: 7c W. Mex same tech as Ec 7c + b4
Tech complex; prob not dev ind
Hyp: E dev first, M learn

Abbreviate heavily. You’ll only be on this problem for a couple of minutes; your short-term memory can retain the idea that “prob not dev ind” means “probably not developed independently.”

The archaeologists mentioned in the argument hypothesize that the Es developed this technology first because the technique was used in E earlier than the period in which the recently-found metal rings were made in M.

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Evaluate questions, the goal is to find an answer choice that could “swing” the argument in two directions, either strengthening the argument or weakening it. A choice that can either strengthen or weaken the argument gives you a good way to evaluate whether the argument is valid.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) CORRECT. If metal objects were traded from E to M in the relevant timeframe, then it is at least somewhat more likely that the Es also passed along information regarding how to manufacture these objects. That would strengthen the argument. On the other hand, if such objects were not traded, then it is somewhat less likely that the Es taught the Ms how to manufacture the metal—if they weren’t trading at all, or if the Ms didn’t find the metal rings interesting enough to trade for, then it’s less likely that the Es would have an opportunity to teach the Ms how to make these rings. This would weaken the argument. Since this choice could either strengthen or weaken, it is correct.
(B) How people from the two cultures may have traveled does not impact whether the Es might have taught the Ms this particular technique. What matters is that they did interact with one another in some way, not by what method they traveled.
(C) The Ms could have learned the techniques from Es traveling to M. The Ms also could have learned the techniques by traveling to E. Either way, this choice does not provide additional information to help determine whether the initial hypothesis (that Es taught Ms this process) is valid.
(D) The argument doesn’t depend upon whether the metal rings were created from metal tools or tools made of other materials. Nor does it specify whether the metal rings were intended as tools or were for some other purpose, such as jewelry. The question of tools is irrelevant to whether the Es taught the Ms the technique in question.
(E) The argument does not hinge upon the future use of the techniques in question. It claims only that the Es taught the Ms these techniques at some point in or prior to the seventh century.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century settlements in the western part of Mexico were made using the same metallurgical techniques as those used by Ecuadorian artisans before and during that period. These techniques are sufficiently complex to make their independent development in both areas unlikely. Since the people of these two areas were in cultural contact, archaeologists hypothesize that the metallurgical techniques used to make the rings found in Mexico were learned by Mexican artisans from Ecuadorian counterparts.

Which of the following would it be most useful to establish in order to evaluate the archaeologists' hypothesis?

The argument says that a certain metallurgical technique was prevalent in both Mexico and Ecuador in 7th Century and this MT is quite complicated hence its independent development at both places is unlikely. Hence, Mexicans must have learned this MT from their Ecuadorian counterparts since, there was some cultural contact between the two areas...


(A) Whether metal objects were traded from Ecuador to western Mexico during the seventh century
Seems a valid point. What if no metal trade was done in that cultural contact between the two places ? Conclusion will fall apart...
If metal trade was done, then there is a possibility that this MT may have been shared between the two...


(B) Whether travel between western Mexico and Ecuador in the seventh century would have been primarily by land or by sea
Whether they traveled by sea or land (or flight !!) it does NOT make any difference on whether they could have traded this MT...

(C) Whether artisans from western Mexico could have learned complex metallurgical techniques from their Ecuadorian counterparts without actually leaving western Mexico.
The argument never said that its learned at one place (mexico or ecuador) ...whichever place it may be ..we need proof that the MT was exchanged...
This option does not help us in doing that .


(D) Whether metal tools were used in the seventh-century settlements in western Mexico
Lets say yes its used...so what ???
and lets say No..then what ???
Does not touch our conclusion at all


(E) Whether any of the techniques used in the manufacture of the metal rings found in western Mexico are still practiced among artisans in Ecuador today
Again...it does not make any difference whether they use this technique now or not ...
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 00:51
Why is the answer A? Metal rings can be found in Mexico even if no trade between the two countries exist. The cultural contact would have enabled Mexicans to learn how to make the rings without ever necessitating trade between Mexico and Ecuador. Trade isn't the only form through which knowledge can be transfered.
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Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2017, 13:47
this is a common pattern in gmat. That is, in CR section, the question will be either an assumption or strengthen with the argument as follows: one discovery about technique in the past in one place shares features with the technique in another place before and during the period of time.

wrong answers can be made up in different ways. The right answer is normally something like A.
C is apparently wrong b/c C concerns primarily with "whether learned without leaving outside Mexico"
Re: Metal rings recently excavated form seventh-century &nbs [#permalink] 01 Nov 2017, 13:47
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