dinesh86 wrote:
People with serious financial problems are so worried about money that they cannot be happy. Their misery makes everyone close to them—family, friends, colleagues—unhappy as well. Only if their financial problems are solved can they and those around them be happy.
Which one of the following statements can be properly inferred from the passage?
Conc: FP solved ----> Happiness (ana. to x --> y)(A) Only serious problems make people unhappy - 'serious problems' is superset and we are concerned for 'serious financial problems'' only. Language is extreme.(B) People who solve their serious financial problems will be happy - Correct. Go with argument(C) People who do not have serious financial problems will be happy - no mention of people having no serious FP.
(D) If people are unhappy, they have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that (-y) --> (-x)
(E) If people are happy, they do not have serious financial problems - If x --> y then it doesn't mean that y --> xCorrect me if I am wrong in my reasoning....
To solve this question I found helpful to review the
logic of conditionality If X then Y This is the equivalent of:
If non Y then non X. Example: If it rains, then I will take an umbrella with me. I don't have a umbrella with me. That must mean it is not raining.
This is NOT equivalent to: If Y then X, or If Y then non X, or if non Y then X. In fact, if we know "If X then Y" and Y occurred, X may or may not happen.
Example. If it rains, then I will definitely take an umbrella with me. I have a umbrella with me today. Is it raining? It may or may not be raining. I said if it rains I will take an umbrella with me. But I could also take an umbralla with me just for the sake of it, even if it doesn't rain. By the same token, if it is not raining, do I have an umbralla with me? I may or may not have.
Using symbols:
X->Y nonY>nonX
nonX->Y nonY>X
X->nonY Y>non X
You can also think of it through the concept of
necessary and sufficient conditions:
To get an A+ (sufficient) you must study (necessary).
Studying (necessary) is necessary to get an A+ (sufficient).
Only someone who studies can get an A+.
Sufficient indicator words: If, When, Whenever, Every, All, Any, People who, In order to
Necessary indicator words: Then, Only Only if, Must, Required, Unless, Except, Until, Without
Necessary conditions: If A is a necessary condition of B, that means A must happen for B to happen. In other words, if B happened, A must be true. If A is not true, then B can't happen. In summary: If B then A. If non A then non B.
Sufficient conditions: If A is a sufficient condition of B, that means if A happens B must happen. In other words, if B did not happen, A must be false. In summary: If A then B. If non B then non A.