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# Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2006, 03:08
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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

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Re: RC passage....sort but though [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2006, 03:33
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1 - A
2 - B
3 - B
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2012, 12:01
I hope someone ansvvers this one
in A it is mentioned that

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.

tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2012, 14:10
My answers are A, B and D

to the question:
Quote:
tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?

yes, only geologists are mentioned. i think geologists need to be assumed as scientists to answer this questions. I know, but this does happen in some RC questions and I get it wrong because of that

for the last question:
The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
ew cannot say that there were errors in measurement, only that the previous theory was incorrect (we dont know if they actually measured it earlier
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
they did try to explain presence of clay, but types of clay - not sure if that is mentioned
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
hmm, not leaning towards this one. seems to be nowhere near. where is that technique mentoined?
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
i dont think this is what the author wanted to say, but this is the closest. I did not like this one because the heat could be generated and dissipated immediately. nevertheless, the closest one
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
no, we do not even think these plates had rocks - so, how can we say this confirmed the friction of limestone/granite?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2013, 06:50
akrish1982 wrote:
My answers are A, B and D

to the question:
Quote:
tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?

yes, only geologists are mentioned. i think geologists need to be assumed as scientists to answer this questions. I know, but this does happen in some RC questions and I get it wrong because of that

for the last question:
The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
ew cannot say that there were errors in measurement, only that the previous theory was incorrect (we dont know if they actually measured it earlier
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
they did try to explain presence of clay, but types of clay - not sure if that is mentioned
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
hmm, not leaning towards this one. seems to be nowhere near. where is that technique mentoined?
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
i dont think this is what the author wanted to say, but this is the closest. I did not like this one because the heat could be generated and dissipated immediately. nevertheless, the closest one
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
no, we do not even think these plates had rocks - so, how can we say this confirmed the friction of limestone/granite?

But 'temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected'

Doen't this show that A is correct?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2013, 11:04
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Hi Roopika,

I don't think that it does.

Whilst Heyney found that temperatures were not that high, it says nowhere that anyone else had measured the temparature. The previous wisdom that temperatures were high, was not based on any actual data, just an assumption.
So A is not correct.

Hope that helps.

James
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 23:28
Bumping up.
In question 1, A talks about scientists as discussed earlier, Option B talks about recent research suggesting explanations of Heyney's finding should be modified.

Isn't this option better than A, we know there are Geologist/Scientist involved but the Heyney's finding have been challenged once and now again the challenge is being challenged.

Can't we infer that passage is suggesting modification?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2014, 23:27
Can some explain Q3

D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction

What I see in the passage is
"The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. "

This effectively means that two factors contributed to frictional heating

1) Rocks' properties
2) Pressure

How can option D be correct which says that the heat was not generated due to friction. Both the factors finally leads to frictional heating only.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2014, 05:07
My answers are A, B, D.

Q3 D is the correct answer because it highlights that some wrong assumptions were made about rocks generating heat due to friction. This is in sync with the passage.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2015, 04:38
Complicated passage. The last question did not convince me fully.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2015, 04:30
Heyy,
Q3) IMO A
While i have read plumber250's points i have the below to suggest
"Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite"
THIS CLEARLY MENTIONS - assumptions concerning the Heat generated.....i.e how hot it got was based on calculations with limestones & granite.

Hence the Geologists theorized the Temperature OR - How hot it got in the center based on Limestone / Granite rock Experiments
These Calculations were challenged by Hayney who found that temp was not as elevated.

Hence Hayneys Contribution was towards revealing an error in the previous measurements of temperature......which was measured based on calculations of Rocks theorized to be Limestones / Granite instead of clay.

Nowhere does Hayney or the Passage refute that the heat was not caused by Friction between the plates. In fact the passage suggests that the high pressure is equally important along with Properties of the rock which together increase friction & thereby the heat. The answer choice D literally questions the entire idea proposed in the passage.

am i doing something wrong here????
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2015, 06:36
took 4 minutes for me to answer the passage. Got the 1st one wrong. The passage clearly states that scintists are still trying to deduce the reason for finding low-tempratures at the location of friction of plates. So isn't B a better answer choice for the 1st question ?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2015, 06:36
took 4 minutes for me to answer the passage. Got the 1st one wrong. The passage clearly states that scintists are still trying to deduce the reason for finding low-tempratures at the location of friction of plates. So isn't B a better answer choice for the 1st question ?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2016, 08:17
For this question:
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

From the passage :

Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other
----> They are not sure --- > Answer A
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2016, 22:19
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2016, 21:05
total 6'15

?
B
D

Henyey's findings were the absence of friction-generated heat. In the second para, scientists confirmed that it is the pressure, not the features of rock that affects the heating.
Now seems A is reasonable.
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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2016, 01:07
aniketm.87@gmail.com wrote:
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance

Agree with you on the same lines, why not C
D is out because we are not questioning the finding, but the assumptions. why? because heat is however generated.
Earlier it was assumed that heat was generated due to hard rocks but now its proved that its hard as well as soft rocks, which heats up on pressure.

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2016, 21:34
Tricky questions... took 7mins... A B D .. :D
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2016, 08:57
Gauss wrote:
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

A (scientists still not sure), B(it was an unexpected finding),D (between A & D, I was stuck but then I thought there were no previous measurements just assumptions)
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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock [#permalink]

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22 May 2017, 05:14
took 6:46 got all correct
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock   [#permalink] 22 May 2017, 05:14

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