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Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by

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Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 21:54
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Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies.

A) are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies

B) are increasingly discouraged by the fact that viewership is shrinking and that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet

C) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet

D) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership, the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, the competition from new services that stream content over the internet, and traditional movies

E) increasingly are discouraged because viewership is shrinking, viewers are fast-forwarding through commercials, and the competition from traditional movies as well as new services that stream content over the internet
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New post 15 Jul 2018, 00:41
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I found this question pretty good and thus wanted to share with you guys. It's a nested parallelism question. Here's the OE:

(A) The first two parallel elements are prepositional phrases: discouraged by X and by Y. To maintain the parallel structure, the third element (competition) should also be a prepositional phrase: discouraged by X and by Y, as well as by Z.

In addition, the nested parallelism is ambiguous. Is the competition from one source—new services that stream two things (content and traditional movies)? Or is the competition from two sources—traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet?

(B) Choice (B) changes the first two elements in the list; they now both begin with the word that (that viewership is shrinking and that many viewers fast-forward through commercials). To maintain the parallel structure, the third element (competition) should also begin with that.

(C) CORRECT. The split between increasingly are and are increasingly is a red herring: The adverb can be placed before or after the verb. This sentence adds the word by before the competition, fixing the broken parallelism.

(D) This sentence fixes the initial broken parallelism: now, discouraged by introduces the list and the preposition is (correctly) not repeated in each of the later elements in the list. However, the sentence now has just one list with four elements (discouraged by W, X, Y, and Z). As written, this sentence indicates that the ad-purchasers are discouraged by … traditional movies, as though the ad-purchasers dislike traditional movies themselves. In fact, they are discouraged by the competition from traditional movies.

(E) The first two elements in the list are now full sentences (viewership is shrinking, viewers are fast-forwarding through commercials); however, the last element (the competition from traditional movies as well as new services that stream content over the internet) is not a sentence; it lacks a verb, breaking the parallelism.

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 22:12
Bulleride wrote:
Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies.


A) are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies
B) are increasingly discouraged by the fact that viewership is shrinking and that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet
C) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet
D) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership, the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, the competition from new services that stream content over the internet, and traditional movies
E) increasingly are discouraged because viewership is shrinking, viewers are fast-forwarding through commercials, and the competition from traditional movies as well as new services that stream content over the internet


I was confused between A and C. I went in for C, however, I am not sure if it is the best answer choice. Could you shed some light on the same? Perhaps provide the OE. I feel the OA should be A. Could you confirm that, please?

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Re: Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2018, 23:56
Hi,

from what I remember, 'as well as' is used to indicate an afterthought...and what follows after 'as well as' isn't an afterthought but one of the factors that is had led purchasers of TV ads to be discouraged from purchasing tv ads...request you to post the official explanation...
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Re: Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2018, 04:14
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Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies.

A) are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies <- stream content over internet AND movies? nope
But this option gives a good idea what the intended meaning is:
purchasers are discouraged by
1. shrinking viewership
2. the fact that many...
3. competition from streaming services
4. competition from movies

B) are increasingly discouraged by the fact that viewership is shrinking and that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet <-- that structure not followed; parallelism issues

C) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet <- makes sublist of point 3 and 4, which is fine!

D) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership, the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, the competition from new services that stream content over the internet, and traditional movies

E) increasingly are discouraged because viewership is shrinking, viewers are fast-forwarding through commercials, and the competition from traditional movies as well as new services that stream content over the internet

D & E have clear parallelism issues.
Answer: C
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New post 15 Jul 2018, 13:44
I answered B as the correct choice .
My reasoning
I personally feel B should be correct . discouraged by [the fact ......... ]as well as the competition ...... Here fact and competition are nouns and parallel .
discouraged by shrinking viewership and many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet
In C , by A and by B , as well as by C. How is this structure parallel
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New post 31 Jul 2018, 11:45
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The common structure here is- Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged ... so if we list out,
C. discouraged by shrinking viewership
discouraged by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as
discouraged by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet.
whereas in B,
B. discouraged by the fact that viewership is shrinking and
discouraged that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as
discouraged the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet - incorrect
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New post 13 Feb 2019, 15:33
For answer choice B, I am failing to see how it is not parallel. "purchasers are discouraged by THE FACT, as well as THE COMPETITION. Both are nouns and they both follow the same structure. Why is this not parallel?
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kchen1994 wrote:
For answer choice B, I am failing to see how it is not parallel. "purchasers are discouraged by THE FACT, as well as THE COMPETITION. Both are nouns and they both follow the same structure. Why is this not parallel?

Good catch.

While a second "by" after "as well as" would perhaps make (B) easier to read, (B) is basically parallel as written.

Meanwhile, in (C), the placement of "increasingly" is suboptimal. It makes more sense to place "increasingly" directly before "discouraged," as "increasingly" is in (B).

The point to be made is not that the purchasers "increasingly are" something. The point to be made is that the purchasers are "increasingly discouraged."

At the same time, in (B), "by the fact that x and that y" does not make complete sense. We have two facts, but the singular "fact" is used. Ideally, either "fact" would be repeated before the second "that" or the plural "facts" would be used.
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New post 13 Feb 2019, 17:40
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
kchen1994 wrote:
For answer choice B, I am failing to see how it is not parallel. "purchasers are discouraged by THE FACT, as well as THE COMPETITION. Both are nouns and they both follow the same structure. Why is this not parallel?

Good catch.

While a second "by" after "as well as" would perhaps make (B) easier to read, (B) is basically parallel as written.

Meanwhile, in (C), the placement of "increasingly" is suboptimal. It makes more sense to place "increasingly" directly before "discouraged," as "increasingly" is in (B).

The point to be made is not that the purchasers "increasingly are" something. The point to be made is that the purchasers are "increasingly discouraged."

At the same time, in (B), "by the fact that x and that y" does not make complete sense. We have two facts, but the singular "fact" is used. Ideally, either "fact" would be repeated before the second "that" or the plural "facts" would be used.


Great point. So to re-iterate, the issue with B is that facts has not been made plural to properly refer to the TWO facts that follow?
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New post 13 Feb 2019, 17:53
kchen1994 wrote:
Great point. So to re-iterate, the issue with B is that facts has not been made plural to properly refer to the TWO facts that follow?

Yes, that is the issue with (B).

That said, I am not sure whether (B) or (C) is better. "Increasingly are" in (C) is pretty illogical as well.
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New post 14 Feb 2019, 18:34
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
kchen1994 wrote:
Great point. So to re-iterate, the issue with B is that facts has not been made plural to properly refer to the TWO facts that follow?

Yes, that is the issue with (B).

That said, I am not sure whether (B) or (C) is better. "Increasingly are" in (C) is pretty illogical as well.



Hi Marty,

Do you find it logical to compare 'shrinking' and 'the fact' in this sentence?
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New post 14 Feb 2019, 19:31
Mo2men wrote:
MartyTargetTestPrep wrote:
kchen1994 wrote:
Great point. So to re-iterate, the issue with B is that facts has not been made plural to properly refer to the TWO facts that follow?

Yes, that is the issue with (B).

That said, I am not sure whether (B) or (C) is better. "Increasingly are" in (C) is pretty illogical as well.



Hi Marty,

Do you find it logical to compare 'shrinking' and 'the fact' in this sentence?

Hi.

I find that, in this context, using "shrinking viewership" and "the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials" as two elements of the same list is fine.
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New post 15 Feb 2019, 13:14
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Mo2men wrote:
Do you find it logical to compare 'shrinking' and 'the fact' in this sentence?


I received a PM requesting that I respond.
No comparison appears in the OA.

C: discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
Here, and serves to connect the two modifiers in blue.
Each blue modifier is an ADVERB expressing HOW purchasers are discouraged.
Question:
HOW are purchasers discouraged?
Answer:
They are discouraged BY SHRINKING VIEWERSHIP.
They are discouraged BY THE FACT THAT MANY VIEWERS FAST-FORWARD THROUGH COMMERCIALS.
Since the two blue portions serve the same grammatical and semantic purpose, it seems logical to connect them with a conjunction such as and.

Parallel forms need not look the same.
Consider the following OA in the OG19:
Seldom more than 40 feet wide or 12 feet deep but running 363 miles across the rugged wilderness of upstate New York, the Erie Canal connected the Hudson River at Albany to the Great Lakes at Buffalo.
Here, the two blue portions are constructed differently:
The second begins with a VERBing modifier.
The first does not.
Even so, the two blue portions are considered parallel because each is an adjective serving to describe the following subject (the Erie Canal).
Since the two blue portions serve the same grammatical and semantic purpose, it is logical to connect them with a conjunction such as but.
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New post 15 Feb 2019, 13:27
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
Do you find it logical to compare 'shrinking' and 'the fact' in this sentence?


I received a PM requesting that I respond.
No comparison appears in the OA.

C: discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
Here, and serves to connect the two modifiers in blue.
Each blue modifier is an ADVERB expressing HOW purchasers are discouraged.
Question:
HOW are purchasers discouraged?
Answer:
They are discouraged BY SHRINKING VIEWERSHIP.
They are discouraged BY THE FACT THAT MANY VIEWERS FAST-FORWARD THROUGH COMMERCIALS.
Since the two blue portions serve the same grammatical and semantic purpose, it seems logical to connect them with a conjunction such as and.


Thanks GMATGuruNY

Thanks for your explanation.

1- In OA, if 'and' is omitted, could the choice still correct and still parallel?

2- Is 'as well as + prposition' correct? I recall one of your earlier posts, if not mistaken, that this construction is not true.

Thanks in advance
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Re: Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2019, 05:19
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Mo2men wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
Do you find it logical to compare 'shrinking' and 'the fact' in this sentence?


I received a PM requesting that I respond.
No comparison appears in the OA.

C: discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
Here, and serves to connect the two modifiers in blue.
Each blue modifier is an ADVERB expressing HOW purchasers are discouraged.
Question:
HOW are purchasers discouraged?
Answer:
They are discouraged BY SHRINKING VIEWERSHIP.
They are discouraged BY THE FACT THAT MANY VIEWERS FAST-FORWARD THROUGH COMMERCIALS.
Since the two blue portions serve the same grammatical and semantic purpose, it seems logical to connect them with a conjunction such as and.


Thanks GMATGuruNY

Thanks for your explanation.

1- In OA, if 'and' is omitted, could the choice still correct and still parallel?


In the OA, and may not be omitted.
The two by-modifiers must be connected by a conjunction.

Quote:
2- Is 'as well as + prposition' correct? I recall one of your earlier posts, if not mistaken, that this construction is not true.


If at some point in the GMAT's history it was considered improper for as well as to be followed by a preposition, that rule is no longer valid.
SC136 in the OG16:
That a ruined structure found at Aqaba, Jordan, was probably a church is indicated by its eastward orientation and overall plan, as well as by the artifacts, such as glass-oil lamp fragments, found at the site.
In the OA, as well as is followed by the prepositional modifier in blue.
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New post 16 Feb 2019, 05:28
GMATGuruNY wrote:
Mo2men wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote:
I received a PM requesting that I respond.
No comparison appears in the OA.

C: discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
Here, and serves to connect the two modifiers in blue.
Each blue modifier is an ADVERB expressing HOW purchasers are discouraged.
Question:
HOW are purchasers discouraged?
Answer:
They are discouraged BY SHRINKING VIEWERSHIP.
They are discouraged BY THE FACT THAT MANY VIEWERS FAST-FORWARD THROUGH COMMERCIALS.
Since the two blue portions serve the same grammatical and semantic purpose, it seems logical to connect them with a conjunction such as and.


Thanks GMATGuruNY

Thanks for your explanation.

1- In OA, if 'and' is omitted, could the choice still correct and still parallel?


In the OA, and may not be omitted.
The two by-modifiers must be connected by a conjunction.



Hi GMATGuruNY

I apologize for the confusion. In my first question, I meant to ask, if we can omit the second 'by'? Like the example:
Next week I'm going to go shopping and to swim in the sea. Here we can omit second to could be mitted but meaning and grammar are correct.
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New post 16 Feb 2019, 05:43
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Mo2men wrote:
Hi GMATGuruNY

I apologize for the confusion. In my first question, I meant to ask, if we can omit the second 'by'? Like the example:
Next week I'm going to go shopping and to swim in the sea. Here we can omit second to could be mitted but meaning and grammar are correct.



C, with the second by omitted:
discouraged by shrinking viewership and the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
Here, the two blue portions are each intended to serve as an object of by, but they are structured so differently that the sentence is hard to follow.
The addition of a second by seems needed to make the intention clear:
discouraged BY shrinking viewership and BY the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials
The second by could safely be omitted if the two blue portions were more similar, as follows:
discouraged by shrinking viewership and lower revenues
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Re: Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2019, 14:53
Bulleride wrote:
Purchasers of television advertising are increasingly discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, in addition to the competition from new services that stream content over the internet and traditional movies.

B) are increasingly discouraged by the fact that viewership is shrinking and that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet

C) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership and by the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, as well as by the competition from traditional movies and new services that stream content over the internet

D) increasingly are discouraged by shrinking viewership, the fact that many viewers fast-forward through commercials, the competition from new services that stream content over the internet, and traditional movies


Tough one! I broke this sentence down and stripped out some words in an attempt to look at the parallelism. Take of it what you will...



(B) Purchasers are discouraged by the fact that V is shrinking and that many viewers fast forward, as well as by the competition from X and Y.

(C) Purchasers are discouraged by shrinking and by the fact, as well as by the competition from X and Y.

Notice the parallel use of the word "by"

(D) Purchasers are discouraged by shrinking, the fact, the competition from X, and Y.

The competition is from X and Y.
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