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Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The

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Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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GMAT® Official Guide 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: CR 587
Page: 523

Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The deuterium content of wood reflects the deuterium content of rainwater available to trees during their growth. Wood from trees that grew between 16,000 and 24,000 years ago in North America contains significantly more deuterium than wood from trees growing today. But water trapped in several North American caves that formed during that same early period contains significantly less deuterium than rainwater in North America today.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the two findings?


(A) There is little deuterium in the North American caves than the deuterium in the water trapped there.

(B) Exposure to water after a tree has died does not change the deuterium content of the wood.

(C) Industrialization in North America over the past 100 years has altered the deuterium content of rain.

(D) Trees draw on shallow groundwater from rain that falls during their growth, whereas water trapped in caves may have fallen as rainwater thousands of years before the caves formed.

(E) Wood with high deuterium content is no more likely to remain preserved for long periods than is wood with a low deuterium content.

ID - CR03749

Deuterium in Water

Step 1: Identify the Question

The question asks you to reconcile the two findings so this is an Explain the Discrepancy question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

Trees 16K-24K = more D

Cave water same time = less D

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Discrepancy questions, your goal is to find a piece of information that makes the findings in the argument less surprising. It often helps to restate exactly what is surprising in the argument in your own words; it is strange that the trees and water from caves of the same age have different levels of deuterium. What would resolve this discrepancy?

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) The argument is comparing deuterium from water in trees and caves. The fact that there is little deuterium in the caves aside from the water found there does not explain the different levels observed in caves and trees.

(B) This answer actually makes the finding more surprising. If the deuterium content increased after trees died, this might explain the higher deuterium content in wood. But if the level does not change, then it’s still unclear why the trees and caves from the same time period have different levels of deuterium.

(C) The argument compares the deuterium content in wood and cave water from several thousand years ago; anything that happened in the last 100 years is not relevant.

(D) CORRECT. This answer suggests that even though the trees and caves are of the same age, the water in the trees and the water in the caves may be of different ages (cave water may be thousands of years older). If the water is from different time periods, different levels of deuterium are less surprising.

(E) This information makes the findings even more puzzling. Only wood that remains preserved can be analyzed thousands of years later, so if high deuterium wood was more likely to be preserved that could explain the higher deuterium levels in wood. But if, as this answer states, wood with any level of deuterium can remain preserved, then it’s still not clear why the trees and caves from the same time period have different levels of deuterium.

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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2016, 02:34
Wood from trees that grew between 16,000 and 24,000 years ago in North America contains significantly more deuterium than wood from trees growing today. But water trapped in several North American caves that formed during that same early period contains significantly less deuterium than rainwater in North America today.

Pre - thinking - both the water in trees and North american caves are not from the same period . Just because the caves were formed between 16,000 and 24,000 years ago , the water trapped in the caves need be from the same period .
Or maybe wood from trees with high deuterium content is likely to remain preserved .
Paradox -

A) There is little deuterium in the North American caves than the deuterium in the water trapped there. Does not explain
B) Exposure to water after a tree has died does not change the deuterium content of the wood. Does not explain
C) Industrialization in North America over the past 100 years has altered the deuterium content of rain. Irrelevant
D) Trees draw on shallow groundwater from rain that falls during their growth, whereas water trapped in caves may have fallen as rainwater thousands of years before the caves formed.
E) Wood with high deuterium content is no more likely to remain preserved for long periods than is wood with a low deuterium content.
This states the opposite of what we are looking for .
If wood with high deuterium content is more likely to remain preserved for long periods than is wood with a low deuterium content , then this might explain the paradox .

Correct answer D
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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 01:58
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I expected the answer to say something to the effect of "trees and caves use different kinds of water" or "trees and caves use water differently". Answer choice D fits the profile. :-D
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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 00:02
AbdurRakib wrote:
Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The deuterium content of wood reflects the deuterium content of rainwater available to trees during their growth. Wood from trees that grew between 16,000 and 24,000 years ago in North America contains significantly more deuterium than wood from trees growing today. But water trapped in several North American caves that formed during that same early period contains significantly less deuterium than rainwater in North America today.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to reconcile the two findings?

A) There is little deuterium in the North American caves than the deuterium in the water trapped there.
B) Exposure to water after a tree has died does not change the deuterium content of the wood.
C) Industrialization in North America over the past 100 years has altered the deuterium content of rain.
D) Trees draw on shallow groundwater from rain that falls during their growth, whereas water trapped in caves may have fallen as rainwater thousands of years before the caves formed.
E) Wood with high deuterium content is no more likely to remain preserved for long periods than is wood with a low deuterium content.

OG 2017 New Question



Argument says :

D content of wood = deuterium content of rainwater available to trees during their growth.

water trapped in several North American caves < rainwater in North America
Wood from trees that grew between 16,000 and 24,000 years ago in North America > wood from trees growing today
this should not be the case


Assumption is that water trapped in several North American caves = deuterium content of rainwater available to trees during their growth.

So if we break this assumption, we would be able to figure out discrepancy in finding.


D) Trees draw on shallow groundwater from rain that falls during their growth, whereas water trapped in caves may have fallen as rainwater thousands of years before the caves formed.

D says = D content of tree = rainwater and
water trapped in caves may have fallen as rainwater thousands of years before the caves formed.


so water trapped in cave doesn't represent the rainwater of that time but 1000 years before. that changes our time frame and thus the different finding.
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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2017, 05:25
Hi,

Can anyone please explain option D . What does that mean ?

Why to eliminate option A ?
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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2017, 08:47
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SANGEET77 wrote:
Hi,

Can anyone please explain option D . What does that mean ?

Why to eliminate option A ?


Option A says "A) There is little deuterium in the North American caves than the deuterium in the water trapped there. "This means other than the Deuterium that is available in the trapped rain water in the caves, there is not much (or no) deuterium from other sources.

Firstly, we want some explanation that tells us why the deuterium in caves is lesser than that in the trees, or why the deuterium in trees is more than that in caves. If we can find any reason to explain the above discrepancy, then that should be the correct answer. Option A doesn't say anything about it.

Option A says Deuterium content is lesser in caves, but the content whatever is present is totally from rainwater. So it just eliminates any chance to further strengthen the PARADOX. But it does not give any reason to resolve the paradox.

So A can't be the answer. Please acknowledge my reply.

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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2017, 11:51
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sangarajubharadwaj wrote:
SANGEET77 wrote:
Hi,

Can anyone please explain option D . What does that mean ?

Why to eliminate option A ?


Option A says "A) There is little deuterium in the North American caves than the deuterium in the water trapped there. "This means other than the Deuterium that is available in the trapped rain water in the caves, there is not much (or no) deuterium from other sources.

Firstly, we want some explanation that tells us why the deuterium in caves is lesser than that in the trees, or why the deuterium in trees is more than that in caves. If we can find any reason to explain the above discrepancy, then that should be the correct answer. Option A doesn't say anything about it.

Option A says Deuterium content is lesser in caves, but the content whatever is present is totally from rainwater. So it just eliminates any chance to further strengthen the PARADOX. But it does not give any reason to resolve the paradox.

So A can't be the answer. Please acknowledge my reply.





-Bharadwaj



But what I understand is that North American caves water has little deuterium .But water trapped from now-a-days rain has many deuterium. So this may resolve paradox!




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Re: Rainwater contains hydrogen of a heavy form called deuterium. The  [#permalink]

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