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# Scientists typically do their most creative work before the

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Manager
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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23 May 2017, 10:09
I am confused between C & E. Can anyone explain why E is the right answer??
My thought process was like this -->
1st Bold Face ??? Evidence against argument (in the first line)
2nd Bold Face ??? Explanation of the 1st one (why it is so...?)
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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24 May 2017, 04:10
2
merajul wrote:
I am confused between C & E. Can anyone explain why E is the right answer??
My thought process was like this -->
1st Bold Face ??? Evidence against argument (in the first line)
2nd Bold Face ??? Explanation of the 1st one (why it is so...?)

IMHO, there is problem with your thinking process:
First, let's analyze the argument: There are 2 explanation for a situation, the 1st explanation is challenged and the 2nd one is favored by author. Evidence is given.
1st Bold Face ??? Evidence against 1st explanation (not against argument). The word "however" indicates this. In another word, the 1st BF is evidence supporting the 2nd explanation.
2nd Bold Face ??? The 2nd explanation (not the 1st one).

That's why (E) is correct.

I think your wrong identification of functions of 2BF leads to wrong choice.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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24 May 2017, 04:28
The BF1 and BF2 are both on the 'same side' whereas the options stated in answer choice D are on 'opposing sides'.

E should be the correct answer.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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24 May 2017, 06:48
I went through all the posts on this questions, but did not find valuable explanation why E is the correct answer.
For me it should be D.

Agrument favors: commonly thought that age brings loss of creativity. So lower creativity beyong 40
Argument against: Most highly creative scientists beyond 40 entered their field older than usual (Age does not affect creativity)--------BF1
Agrument favors: High creativity beyond 40 is due to the time spent on the field (Not because of age)------------------------------------BF2

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2017, 21:58
guialain wrote:
I went through all the posts on this questions, but did not find valuable explanation why E is the correct answer.
For me it should be D.

Agrument favors: commonly thought that age brings loss of creativity. So lower creativity beyong 40
Argument against: Most highly creative scientists beyond 40 entered their field older than usual (Age does not affect creativity)--------BF1
Agrument favors: High creativity beyond 40 is due to the time spent on the field (Not because of age)------------------------------------BF2

Argument favors: commonly thought that age brings loss of creativity. So lower creativity beyond 40.
The argument also favors the idea that some scientists made discoveries beyond the age of 40 doesn't mean age doesn't affect creativity. It is just because they have worked in the field more. Age is still a factor.
BF1: scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. This supports the explanation that argument favors.
BF2: This is that explanation.

Thus E.
Hope it's clear.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2018, 06:59
I chose C, but I got confused on what they refer to as the "argument"

Is the argument the main conclusion or is it everything after the counterpoint, which is the initial claim "It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity."?
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2018, 19:52
bpdulog wrote:
I chose C, but I got confused on what they refer to as the "argument"

Is the argument the main conclusion or is it everything after the counterpoint, which is the initial claim "It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity."?

The "argument" refers to the author's entire line of reasoning (i.e. the argument in general, not just a specific piece of the argument).

The conclusion is: "the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field."

In other words, the conclusion says, "The finding strongly suggests that the real reason is not Explanation A but Explanation B." The second boldfaced portion is Explanation (B), which is the explanation that the author (and the author's argument) favors. The first boldfaced portion is evidence supporting Explanation B.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2018, 01:48
abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.

In a general sense the first part is favorably presented by the author. Only E captures that gist for the first boldface.
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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14 Jun 2018, 09:09
Can someone please explain how first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors.?
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2018, 12:08
bpdulog wrote:
Can someone please explain how first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors.?

Quote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

Let's start by identifying the author's conclusion:

• "the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field."

Here's how the author reaches this conclusion:

• Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of 40.
• The majority of scientists who reach age 40 have been working in their field for at least 15 years (i.e., they entered their field at age 25 or younger).
• There are atypical scientists who produce highly creative work after they've turned 40.
• Studies show that a disproportionately large number of these atypical scientists entered their field at an older age than is usual. Unlike the majority of scientists, they have likely been working in their field for fewer than 15 years. This provides an alternate explanation for creative work in a given scientific field: being relatively new to that field.
• Therefore, these studies suggest that the loss of creative capacity in scientists is caused by spending a long their in the same field, not simply by aging.

The author argues that the commonly held explanation ("aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity") is wrong.

• The first boldface statement is evidence (i.e. study results) that identifies an alternate cause of highly creative work: being relatively new to the field. As explained in this post, this alternate cause is the explanation that the argument favors.
• The second boldface statement incorporates that evidence into an alternate explanation for the loss of creative capacity: spending too long in a given field. This explanation is part of the author's argument against the commonly held thought.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2018, 08:17
As D says "The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors." Is it talking about the same explanation or different explanations? Because of the articles present I assumed they are different.
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Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2018, 12:25
How does the argument favor BF-1 as this is not view of author? Isn't author neutral in this argument?
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2018, 15:26
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abhi758 wrote:
Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.

Step 1: Read question stem to determine question type (In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?)
This is a Structure question (aka Boldface question)

Step 3: Identify the premises and conclusion

Step 4: Using GENERIC LANGUAGE, summarize the roles played by the boldfaced portions (do this BEFORE examining the answer choices)

PREMISE: Scientists most creative BEFORE 40
PREMISE: Some feel this is caused by aging itself
PREMISE: Creative scientists OVER 40 typically started career later
PREMISE: By the age 40, most scientists have already spent at least 15 years in field
CONCLUSION:Age doesn't kill creativity. Career boredom kills creativity

Here's my summary;
The first bolded part is a premise that supports the conclusion. The second bolded part is part of the conclusion.

Cheers,
Brent
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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2018, 17:48
In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

Do you think first boldface accuracy is at stake , absolutely not

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

First is a position that supports the argument not against
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.
First support argument

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.
First support argument
(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.
Right one

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Re: Scientists typically do their most creative work before the   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2018, 17:48

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