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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter

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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?


(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.

(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.

(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.

(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.

(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.


If livestock are routinely fed antibiotics, as choice A states, meat from livestock is likely to contain the resistant bacteria, since any routine of antibiotics can result in resistance bacteria. Thus, choice A is the best answer.

How cases of food poisoning are treated (choice B) fails to indicate whether the infection bacteria are resistant bacteria. Choice C suggests that meat consumption is not the primary culprit for the high incidence of resistant bacteria. Choice D tends to support the competing hypothesis that prescription antibiotics are responsible. Choice E asserts that livestock farmers claim that the hypothesis is false, but it provides no basis for evaluating the truth of this claim.

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Originally posted by noboru on 22 Sep 2009, 11:49.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Jan 2019, 23:40, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2010, 09:52
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ajit257 wrote:
. Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?
(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.


Can someone explain this question and how to tackle such a question...thanks.


Read the question stem first. It is a strengthen question. Read the stimulus with focus on scientists' hypothesis.
It is the following: most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.
The stimulus also tells us that routine use of antibiotics create resistant bacteria.
Option (A) - Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
If livestock get antibiotics, then the livestock that was bacterially infected in the first place, perhaps harbor resistant bacteria. If people ate that infected meat, it is quite possible that they will harbor resistant bacteria too. This would strengthen the hypothesis that resistant bacteria in people derive from consumption of infected meat.

(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
If people were prescribed antibiotics, they would develop resistant bacteria in their own bodies. So it doesn't strengthen the hypothesis that the resistant bacteria are transferred from consumption of meat.
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
Comparison of rural and urban areas is irrelevant.

(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
It strengthens the other view "the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics." given in the stimulus, not the hypothesis of the scientists.

(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.
The claim of producers holds no value. Even if it did, it would weaken the hypothesis of the scientists.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2009, 13:44
noboru wrote:
. Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?
(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.


A. SUFF. The first sentence talks about bacteria becoming resistant and if A is true, whatever bacteria left from the constant antibacterial injection should be very resistant.
B. This just talks about the "fix"
C. out of scope - quality doesn't equal bacterial infected
D. out of scope
E. weakens the hypothesis
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2009, 19:43
Looks A to me .

Conclusion:Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals. - satisfies this conclusion as well as premise
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New post 22 Sep 2009, 23:44
I m not happy with A
I`d like to Choose C
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2009, 07:25
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It looks like A.
Constant exposure to antibiotics causes Resistance in bacteria. If antibiotics are injected into all meat for consumption, then, if any meat is infected with bacteria, those bacteria will develop resistance to the antibiotics. On consumption of such infected meat, those resistant bacteria will be transmitted to humans. That makes sense.

According to B, antibiotic use by humans is still responsible for antibiotic resistance in humans. This weakens the scientists' hypothesis.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2012, 12:09
I feel like there should be an additional information in A: how do we know if the bacteria in meat actually transmits to humans? Are we assuming it as a common knowledge? Thank you
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2012, 23:19
Scientists hypothesis: most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

We need to STRENGTHEN!

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals
Antibiotics lead to resistant bacteria in meat so when these are consumed by humans they get it

C - out of scope, urban and rural meats are not compared.
E - Weakens the argument
B - talks about treatment but doesnt support the hypothesis
D - This is the opposite. It argues that antibiotics are the cause and not the meat.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2017, 21:15
librrra wrote:
I feel like there should be an additional information in A: how do we know if the bacteria in meat actually transmits to humans? Are we assuming it as a common knowledge? Thank you


Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
Basically, as per the reasoning from the argument, the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments.

Now, as per option A, Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed, this implies that resistant bacteria will be surviving in the livestock. In other words, if livestock get antibiotics, perhaps will harbor resistant bacteria. Now, if this livestock is consumed by the humans in the form of meat, the resistant bacteria will be automatically transmitted in humans. This is general common sense, there is no assumption of any common knowledge.

For example, if you are eating any infected food, automatically you are getting infected indirectly through that infected food.
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Re: Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2017, 11:09
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals. -Correct. Bacteria become resistant before even entering human body.
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics. -Out of scope
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality. -This weakens the argument by saying that the cause is not bacteria, but the cause is related to environment in which people live.
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria. -Out of scope
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat. -Out of scope
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New post 30 Aug 2017, 20:10
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

For reference, I narrowed down to A&B, chose "A" at the last second. Very tricky. See my reasoning below

CONCLUSION: most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat (as opposed to via prescription antibiotics)

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.
- Meat that consumers are eating are "infected" with antibiotics. The idea is producers are speeding up maturity process to slaughter animals for food. Theoretically to increase the amount of meat that consumers can eat
(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.
- I didn't like this b/c of "food poisoning". We don't know consumers got food poisoning at all. Also, note the difference between "ANTIBIOTICS" & "PRESCRIPTION ANTIBIOTICS"
(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.
- Quality of meat = irrelevant
(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.
- least = extreme language. out.
(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.
- opposite of what we want to go for.

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New post 14 Mar 2018, 22:28
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noboru wrote:
Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacteria capable of surviving antibiotic environments, the presence of resistant bacteria in people could be due to the human use of prescription antibiotics. Some scientists, however, believe that most resistant bacteria in people derive from human consumption of bacterially infected meat.

Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the hypothesis of the scientists?

(A) Antibiotics are routinely included in livestock feed so that livestock producers can increase the rate of growth of their animals.

(B) Most people who develop food poisoning from bacterially infected meat are treated with prescription antibiotics.

(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.

(D) People who have never taken prescription antibiotics are those least likely to develop resistant bacteria.

(E) Livestock producers claim that resistant bacteria in animals cannot be transmitted to people through infected meat.


give rise to something = to cause something to happen or exist

If livestock are routinely fed antibiotics, as choice A states, meat from livestock is likely to contain the resistant bacteria, since any routine of antibiotics can result in resistance bacteria. Thus, choice A is the best answer.

How cases of food poisoning are treated (choice B) fails to indicate whether the infection bacteria are resistant bacteria.

Choice C suggests that meat consumption is not the primary culprit for the high incidence of resistant bacteria.

Choice D tends to support the competing hypothesis that prescription antibiotics are responsible.

Choice E asserts that livestock farmers claim that the hypothesis is false, but it provides no basis for evaluating the truth of this claim.
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New post 28 Jan 2019, 20:37
I feel like there should be a piece of additional information in A: how do we know if the bacteria in meat actually transmit to humans? Are we assuming it as common knowledge?
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New post 28 Jan 2019, 23:06
chandru42 wrote:
I m not happy with A
I`d like to Choose C


The question requires us to provide a statement that strengthens the claim put forward by the scientists. C does not strengthen that claim. It in fact provides a situation in which the situations in the both the cases of the rural and urban areas are put on the same platform. Answer choice A is clear winner as it strengthens the claim put forward by the scientists. According to A, livestock are given antibiotics in their feed and the meat of such livestock when ingested by the people delivers the resistant bacteria to those people. This increases the chances of meat consuming people of harbouring such resistant bacteria.

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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2019, 00:15
Can someone please explain me option C.
this is what I understood after reading option C: meat quality in the rural area is better than the urban area. Therefore urban people who ate infected meat have higher resistant bacteria than rural people. Isn't this supporting the conclusion?
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New post 29 Jan 2019, 00:21
mallya12 wrote:
Can someone please explain me option C.
this is what I understood after reading option C: meat quality in the rural area is better than the urban area. Therefore urban people who ate infected meat have higher resistant bacteria than rural people. Isn't this supporting the conclusion?


C states that the incidence of resistant bacteria tends to be higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Also, the quality of meat in both urban and rural areas is comparable/almost same. This simply adds some more information to the given scenario and does nothing to strengthen or weaken the author's argument.
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Since the routine use of antibiotics can give rise to resistant bacter  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 02:23
mallya12 wrote:
Can someone please explain me option C.
this is what I understood after reading option C: meat quality in the rural area is better than the urban area. Therefore urban people who ate infected meat have higher resistant bacteria than rural people. Isn't this supporting the conclusion?

Answer choice (C) is a trap answer that may seem to say something that affects the argument, but says nothing that affects the argument.

(C) The incidence of resistant bacteria in people has tended to be much higher in urban areas than in rural areas where meat is of comparable quality.

The statement "meat is of comparable quality" means that the quality of the meat in the two types of areas is similar.

So, what (C) is saying is that in areas of two types where meat quality is similar, the incidence of resistant bacteria is higher in areas of one of the types than in areas of the other type.

By making this comparison between the incidences of resistance bacteria in the areas of two types, (C) creates the illusion that it is saying something that can be used to strengthen the argument, and gives a test-taker an opportunity to concoct a convoluted story explaining why (C) adds support to the conclusion.

However, (C) does not add support to the conclusion, as it says nothing that indicates that consumption of meat is the reason for the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

In fact, if anything, (C) provides a reason to question the explanation, because, even though people in the areas of the two different types consume similar meat, the incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria is higher in areas of one type than it is in areas of the other type. So, since (C) indicates that, without a difference in meat, there is a difference in incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, what (C) says tends to indicate that something other than meat consumption is responsible for the presence of the antibiotic resistant bacteria.
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