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The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an

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The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2015, 11:44
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The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460. One scholar has recently argued that the 1460 date be amended to 1409, based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, MCCCCLX and MCCCCIX, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the scholar's hypothesis concerning the date of the Testament?


(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.

(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe.

(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals.

(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460.

(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406.


ID - CR13108

William Thorpe

Step 1: Identify the Question

The words if true and support indicate that this is a Strengthen the Argument question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

ToWT pub = 1530, dated 1460

Exam dated 1406

© S: ToWT actually 1409 b/c confuse roman numeral

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

On Strengthen questions, the correct answer should make the conclusion at least somewhat more likely to be valid. In this case, you want to support the scholar’s hypothesis that work is actually from 1409 rather than 1460.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Right

(A) This information suggests that the date of Thorpe’s death is not firmly established. This does not directly influence the publication date of The Testament because the argument states that it is not clear whether The Testament should be attributed to Thorpe.

(B) Attributing the works to Thorpe on the date of publication does not provide any additional information as to when Thorpe may have written The Testament. It could have happened in 1906 or 1460 (or some other date entirely).

(C) This information weakens the scholar’s argument because it is less likely that there would have been confusion over the date due to Roman numerals (because the date may also have appeared somewhere in regular numbers).

(D) CORRECT. This information provides an additional reason to believe The Testament was published in 1409 rather than 1460: The book discusses an event that apparently occurred during the writing of The Testament and this date occurred in 1409 but not 1460.

(E) The fact that few post-1406 references are in the book does not help clarify between the two possible publication dates; someone could write a book now that only referenced events before 1406. If there were mentions of events after 1409, that would provide evidence supporting the theory that The Testament was published in 1460.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 06:24
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The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460. One scholar has recently argued that the 1460 date be amended to 1409, based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, MCCCCLX and MCCCCIX, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the scholar's hypothesis concerning the date of the Testament?
We need to strengthen the scholar's hypothesis that the dates might have been confused through scribal error.

(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.

Irrelevant to the question asked since we do not need to know when William Thorpe died

(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe.

Does not help ascertain the date , only the author

(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals.

Crucial to note the difference between "Few" and "A Few". Few, when used without a preceding 'a', means "very few" or "none at all". On the other hand, a few is used to indicate "not a large number".
The way this answer choice is written it actually weakens the scholars hypothesis because if almost no one wrote their dates using only Roman Numeral , the chance of scribal error is lower.

(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460.

Is correct since September 20, 1460 was not a Friday and so the text does not allude to that year.

(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406.

Again "few" here means almost none. But it does not matter if the testament not reference historical events post 1406 ( Or maybe it references 1 event post 1406 which could well be in 1460) Uncertain hence incorrect.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2015, 20:05
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through process of elimination, we can get to 2 answers, C and D.
C - if few writers marked dates using only Roman numerals, then the scholar's opinion that the dates might have become confused through scribal error is valid. Someone did not correctly read the dates, and thus made the mistake.
D - this one provides evidence in support of scholar's opinion. Nevertheless, the Testament might have a date of September 20, but it does not mean that the work was done in the same year. With the same luck, he might have mentioned an earlier date.

Based on my analysis, I disagree with the OA...maybe some thoughts here? :)
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2015, 07:09
@e-gmat or mikemcgarry - could you pls. provide any feedback on this question? :)
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 04:36
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Dear mvictor,

OA is correct here.


You are correct in thinking that "Friday (September 30)" could be even earlier also (before 1409)?

Well, it could be later too (after 1409 or may be after 1460 or may be in the 20th century; we do not know). Isn't it.

But see how clearly the answer choice (D) only mention about the two discussed years i.e. 1409 and 1460. On the basis of this we can logically conclude that this option support scholar's hypothesis.

Hope it helps!
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 07:14
WillGetIt,

I completely agree with you. Yet, the conclusion is "the date should be 1409, because someone did not rewrite correctly from Roman to Arabic numbers". The strengthening question asks for smth that would support this conclusion. The correct answer just simply states 2 facts, while the answer C directly tells us that few writers were using roman numbers, that's why, there was a mistake.
Between C and D, I believe C is more strong.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 07:41
Dear mvictor,

Please tell me, whether the use of Roman numerals by FEW in FIFTEENTH CENTURY have any impact on the argument?

Just have a another thought on this problem.

I would post detailed explanation if you still have doubts.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2015, 07:49
WillGetIt wrote:
Dear mvictor,

Please tell me, whether the use of Roman numerals by FEW in FIFTEENTH CENTURY have any impact on the argument?

Just have a another thought on this problem.

I would post detailed explanation if you still have doubts.



My thought is, since only few used roman numerals, the likelihood of errors in the translation from roman to arabic numbers is possible. Since the errors are possible, the conclusion stands true. It is the case that only few used roman numerals, and thus, only a handful of people knew how to decipher these numbers (not our case). 15 century - 1401-1500. This covers the period given in the argument, and we know for sure that the author used roman numerals.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2016, 21:00
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I still did not understood , why option C is not supporting the scholar's evidence.
Or we are saying that both C and D supports the evidence, but D supports more than C.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2016, 22:33
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Hello 282556,

Lets analyze answer choice C:

(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals

Can you say that the few writers who marked dates as Roman numerals wrote Testament of William Thorpe ::::: NO

Ok, now lets modify the answer choice C for better clarity:

(C) Most writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals

Now can we say that the few writers who marked dates as Roman numerals wrote Testament of William Thorpe ::::: NO AGAIN

Because the writes who wrote Testament of William Thorpe could belongs to the left ones (ALL - Most = Few Left).

Hence answer choice C is incorrect.

Hope it helps!
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2016, 18:21
I am unable to comprehend what it actually means? Can anybody explain this.

The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460.

As I understood Testament of William Thorpe(TWT) was published in 1530 but was mentioned in appendix of Examination. This means TWT was written before Examination. But scholars doubt this fact. Since TWT was written in 1460 and Examination in 1406. One of scholars found TWT is dated to be 1409 because of problem in translating Roman numerals..

What is the conclusion here? Can anybody please help me understand this.

Moderators plz. Can u answer this question
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2016, 07:25
Since OG (OA) is the final authority, I will go with (D), but (C) is the most supporting (strengthening) option when reasoned among the answer choices (Unless someone can throw more light on why D and not C).

Thanks
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2016, 16:21
Why is choice (c) wrong:
(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals.

Nowhere in the question is "England" mentioned.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2016, 09:35
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Premise: Testament of William Thorpe --> published in 1530 --> Scholars doubt attribution to Thorpe
Examination – 1406 but Testament – 1460.

Scholar --> 1460 to be corrected to 1409 as roman numerals are confused.

(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament. – Incorrect. Weakens by supporting the date of Testament as 1460.

(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe. – Incorrect. There is only one work discussed here – a testament of William Thorpe.

(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals. – Incorrect. Okay they marked using roman numerals, but does this strengthen the hypothesis that the date has to be corrected? No.

(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460. – Correct. Supports the hypothesis by stating that the year has to be corrected to 1409.

(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406. – Incorrect. No effect on the scholar’s hypothesis.

Answer: D
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2016, 04:21
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This seemed to be a tricky question, especially with a couple of the choices. Let me take a stab at an explanation.

notwithstanding wrote:
The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460. One scholar has recently argued that the 1460 date be amended to 1409, based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, MCCCCLX and MCCCCIX, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error.


The argument boils down to:
1. Examination in 1406, Testament in 1460
2. Scholar states the date of the Testament be changed from 1460 to 1409 --> because:
3. Roman numerals for both years look similar, so can be confused

notwithstanding wrote:
Which of the following, if true, would most support the scholar's hypothesis concerning the date of the Testament?


Question requests us to strengthen scholar's hypothesis: so we could do this by providing evidence that supports 1409 and/or opposes 1460

(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament. this could go either way- 1460 or 1409, because Thorpe died after 1460
(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe. irrelevant- does not reveal anything about the dates in question i.e., 1409 and 1460
(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals. irrelevant - few writers does not mean Thorpe was the only such writer to use roman numerals; also, does not help resolve the question above
(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460. good choice- date mentioned in Testament refers to a date in the year 1409 - so this provides evidence that supports 1409
(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406. initially a confusing choice, but realized this could go both ways- if the Testament were written in 1409 or 1460, it could have "few references" to events that occurred after 1406. Or, looked at in another way: if Testament were written in 1460, that does not mean it needs to have "many" references to events after 1406

D seems to be the best choice.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 04:20
I was between C and D and incorrectly chose C. I am having the trouble seeing why C is wrong. If not many writers used roman numerals, one could assume the scribes may not have had much practice and hence made the careless error? Whereas if everyone used roman numerals, the scribes would have had practice and not made the error

D could just be a coincidence?
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2017, 21:23
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Quote:
The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460. One scholar has recently argued that the 1460 date be amended to 1409, based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, MCCCCLX and MCCCCIX, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the scholar's hypothesis concerning the date of the Testament?

(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.
(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe.
(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals.
(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460.
(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406.

okay wrote:
I was between C and D and incorrectly chose C. I am having the trouble seeing why C is wrong. If not many writers used roman numerals, one could assume the scribes may not have had much practice and hence made the careless error? Whereas if everyone used roman numerals, the scribes would have had practice and not made the error

D could just be a coincidence?

okay, that analysis is quite creative, but here's why choice (C) is not the best answer...

The scholar's hypothesis is "based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error." Notice the word "when." Yes, writers would have more practice if Roman numerals were used all the time, but if Roman numerals were not actually used in fifteenth-century England, then the scholar's observation would have no relevance!

Also, the scholar's hypothesis does not depend upon levels of practice. According to the scholar, it's an easy mistake to make (with or without practice), so if we could determine that Roman numerals were actually used in fifteenth-century England, the scholar's hypothesis might be applicable.

In order for choice (C) to work, we would have to assume that even though most writers in fifteenth-century England did NOT mark dates using only Roman numerals, for some reason the dates of these two particular works were marked using only Roman numerals. That's too much of a stretch, and choice (D) is a much better answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2018, 08:27
mvictor wrote:
through process of elimination, we can get to 2 answers, C and D.
C - if few writers marked dates using only Roman numerals, then the scholar's opinion that the dates might have become confused through scribal error is valid. Someone did not correctly read the dates, and thus made the mistake.
D - this one provides evidence in support of scholar's opinion. Nevertheless, the Testament might have a date of September 20, but it does not mean that the work was done in the same year. With the same luck, he might have mentioned an earlier date.

Based on my analysis, I disagree with the OA...maybe some thoughts here? :)



Option C can actually weaken the argument when it says few writers marked dates in their works using only roman numerals. Here few can be 1 writer or more than 1 writer and Thorpe may not come under these few writers.
Whereas option D specifically talks about the date mentioned in testament.
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Apr 2019, 07:12
Is choice A a grammatically incorrect sentence?

A. The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.

I spent a long time but could NOT figure out what this sentence is trying to say, is it saying:

The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460, WHICH WAS was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.

Otherwise the sentence just does not make sense...WHAT was the presumed date of publication - 1460? then it shouldn't have been phrased this way - super confusing
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Re: The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2019, 08:30
Quote:
The Testament of William Thorpe was published around 1530 as an appendix to Thorpe's longer Examination. Many scholars, however, doubt the attribution of the Testament to Thorpe because, whereas the Examination is dated 1406, the Testament is dated 1460. One scholar has recently argued that the 1460 date be amended to 1409, based on the observation that when these numbers are expressed as Roman numerals, MCCCCLX and MCCCCIX, it becomes easy to see how the dates might have become confused through scribal error.


Conclusion:'1460' is by mistake copied wrong from '1409' because of confusion/error.
Therefore, we have to find a statement that would support the point that scribal error/confusion in Roman Numerals(This is the hypothesis) was the cause.

Which of the following, if true, would most support the scholar's hypothesis concerning the date of the Testament?


Quote:
(A) The sole evidence that historians have had that William Thorpe died no earlier than 1460 was the presumed date of publication of the Testament.

This statement means - The reason for the date 1460 to be presumed in the first place was because William Thorpe died after 1460. This statement in no way is addressing the confusion of dates. Hence, it cannot support the hypothesis.

Quote:
(B) In the preface to the 1530 publication, the editor attributes both works to William Thorpe.

This choice means - In 1530 Edition of the book 'Examination', Editor mentioned in the preface that both 'Testament' and 'Examination' were written by William Thorpe. Once again, no mention of the confusion.

Quote:
(C) Few writers in fifteenth-century England marked dates in their works using only Roman numerals.

Few writers used Roman numerals. So what? What is this telling us about the scribal error?

Quote:
(D) The Testament alludes to a date, "Friday, September 20," as apparently contemporaneous with the writing of the Testament, and September 20 fell on a Friday in 1409 but not in 1460.

This choice means- In the testament, it was hinted that the testament was written on Friday, September 20. In the year 1460, September 20th was not a Friday, but in the year 1409 - September 20th fell on a Friday. So, this suggests that apparently there was some sort of scribal error while copying the dates.

Quote:
(E) The Testament contains few references to historical events that occurred later than 1406.

Once again, irrelevant because of no mention of error/confusion.
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