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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce

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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses

(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses

(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious

(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

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Originally posted by souvik101990 on 09 Oct 2012, 02:14.
Last edited by hazelnut on 29 Jul 2018, 07:28, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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New post 09 Oct 2012, 02:44
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souvik101990 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


Concept tested: Constructions, Parallelism, Meaning
Difficulty: Hard
Illustration:
E. Who, referring to individuals, is not responsible for psychological responses
D. this means lying produces the responses. Incorrect
C. this means that the individuals are creating psychological responses. Incorrect.
B. creates is singular while the subject (emotional reactions) is plural

A. Correct

Tip: verb+ING when follows a noun without a comma MUST modify that noun.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Oct 2012, 18:24
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The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

The easiest place to start is probably with the create/creates split. What "create(s)...responses"? The emotional reaction. (Strictly speaking the subject of the verb "create" is the pronoun "that." More on this issue later.) Since "emotional reactions" is plural, we want a plural verb, "create." That eliminates B and E. "Creating" in C is a present participle, and "to create" in D is an infinitive, so neither of these is either singular or plural.

Next we might consider which form of the verb "create" is appropriate, the verb "create," the present participle "creating," or the infinitive "to create." A verb-form split usually signals either an idiom problem or a problem with parallelism, but not in this case. Rather, neither C nor D captures the original meaning. Answer C: A present participle (-ing word) immediately preceded by a noun (no comma separating them) attributes action to that noun. So C means that "an individual" creates responses. Answer D: Here, "to create" suggests that the goal of producing emotional reactions is to create physiological responses.

That leaves A, the correct answer.

Addendum 1. I began by asking "What creates responses?" This common-sense question is usually adequate to match a verb to its subject. Sometimes you'll have a couple of reasonable answers, and you'll have to look more closely at the grammar. The verbs in relative clauses--noun-modifying clauses that start with "that" or one of the "wh-" words, "which," "who/m," "when," "where"--actually modify the relative pronouns that precede them, but those relative pronouns are themselves singular or plural depending on the nouns to which they refer. The long and short of it is that you're probably better off with the common-sense question than with the subtle grammatical question here.

Addendum 2. With few exceptions, relative clauses modify the nouns or noun phrases they touch. In this question, "that...create...responses" touches the noun "individual," but it also touches the noun phrase "emotional reactions in an individual," that is, the noun "reactions" plus the adjective "emotional" plus the prepositional phrase "in an individual." That whole phrase, or if you prefer the noun at its heart, is modified by the relative clause. Frankly, I think that it's a little clumsy here, and I might have had a bit of trouble had I started with the modifier issue.
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Originally posted by MichaelS on 14 Oct 2012, 11:04.
Last edited by MichaelS on 14 Oct 2012, 18:24, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 09 Oct 2012, 14:51
(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn [ verb disagreement - responses....creates]
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses [it seems that the individual is creating the psychological responses not the emotional reactions]
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious [same as C]
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn[/quote] [ same as C]
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New post 14 Oct 2012, 05:13
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souvik101990 wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn


Concept tested: Constructions, Parallelism, Meaning
Difficulty: Hard
Illustration:
E. Who, referring to individuals, is not responsible for psychological responses
D. this means lying produces the responses. Incorrect
C. this means that the individuals are creating psychological responses. Incorrect.
B. creates is singular while the subject (emotional reactions) is plural

A. Correct

Tip: verb+ING when follows a noun without a comma MUST modify that noun.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 12:46
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MichaelS wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

The easiest place to start is probably with the create/creates split. What "create(s)...responses"? The emotional reaction. (Strictly speaking the subject of the verb "create" is the pronoun "that." More on this issue later.) Since "emotional reactions" is plural, we want a plural verb, "create." That eliminates B and E. "Creating" in C is a present participle, and "to create" in D is an infinitive, so neither of these is either singular or plural.

Next we might consider which form of the verb "create" is appropriate, the verb "create," the present participle "creating," or the infinitive "to create." A verb-form split usually signals either an idiom problem or a problem with parallelism, but not in this case. Rather, neither C nor D captures the original meaning. Answer C: A present participle (-ing word) not immediately preceded by a noun (no comma separating them) attributes action to that noun. So C means that "an individual" creates responses. Answer D: here, "to create" suggests that the goal of producing emotional reactions is to create physiological responses.

That leaves A, the correct answer.

Addendum 1. I began by asking "What creates responses?" This common-sense question is usually adequate to match a verb to its subject. Sometimes you'll have a couple of reasonable answers, and you'll have to look more closely at the grammar. The verbs in relative clauses--noun-modifying clauses that start with "that" or one of the "wh-" words, "which," "who/m," "when," "where"--actually modify the relative pronouns that precede them, but those relative pronouns are themselves singular or plural depending on the nouns to which they refer. The long and short of it is that you're probably better off with the common-sense question than with the subtle grammatical question here.

Addendum 2. With few exceptions, relative clauses modify the nouns or noun phrases they touch. In this question, "that...create...responses" touches the noun "individual," but it also touches the noun phrase "emotional reactions in an individual," that is, the noun "reactions" plus the adjective "emotional" plus the prepositional phrase "in an individual." That whole phrase, or if you prefer the noun at its heart, is modified by the relative clause. Frankly, I think that it's a little clumsy here, and I might have had a bit of trouble had I started with the modifier issue.


Thanks Michael for your detail explanation. Among other things, the best part of your explanation is that you give us the approach to solve these problems rather than just listing out the error, something that will help us a lot.

Regarding Addendum 2, the below question is taken from GMAT prep and the OA is B

Some scientists suggest the moon had been formed out of part of the Earth, which was dislodged perhaps by a meteor.
A)the moon had been formed out of part of the Earth, which was dislodged perhaps
B)that the moon was formed from part of the Earth that had perhaps been dislodged
C)that part of the Earth formed the moon, which was dislodged perhaps
D)the moon was formed out of part of the Earth, having perhaps been dislodged
E)that the moon had been formed from part of the Earth, which perhaps had been dislodged

Since this from GMAT prep the only conclusion that I could draw is If you have X of Y that" then "that" is allowed to modify the whole "X of Y", instead of only X
Is this understanding correct? If it were to modify only the preceding noun then option B wouldn't make any sense...

Because of this ambiguous "that", which I didn't know how to handle, I was torn between B and D. Could you please let us know how we can eliminate D and pick B.

I wasn't able to eliminate using "Suggest that" split because in one of Thursdays with Ron video he had given the below 2 examples, both of which is right

I proposed that we meet on Wednesday rather than Tuesday.
I proposed a new meeting time.

so "that" after suggest is not mandatory, hence I can't use that for elimination.
The "having" in D also makes sense,right?, because "having" is a verbing modifier which modifies action of the preceding clause in this case " the moon was formed out of part of the Earth"

Could you please enlighten us on how to deal with this SC problem?

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 13:17
Hey
According the examples that you have given with the verb "proposed" a pattern can be observed.
When I use "that" with propose I usually mean a finding/report/suggestion/proposal etc!
When I don't use that, I mean something specific.
If I am being a little inexplicable here, I apologize.
What I mean can be illustrated with the following example.
My boss suggested that I work harder.
She suggested a banana for breakfast.
Hope this helps.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 13:27
souvik101990 wrote:
Hey
According the examples that you have given with the verb "proposed" a pattern can be observed.
When I use "that" with propose I usually mean a finding/report/suggestion/proposal etc!
When I don't use that, I mean something specific.
If I am being a little inexplicable here, I apologize.
What I mean can be illustrated with the following example.
My boss suggested that I work harder.
She suggested a banana for breakfast.
Hope this helps.



ahhhh... I get what u are saying...

Scientists suggest the moon -> they are not suggesting the noun MOON
Scientists suggest that the moon is.... blah blah... -> they are suggesting something about the moon...

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New post 14 Oct 2012, 19:49
Yet another clue to eliminate at least 2 choices will be the placement of the adverbial phrase ‘in turn’. The adverb modifies the verb create and therefore should be obviously placed adjacent to that. B and E lose weight because of the wrong word order of the phrase -in turn -.
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2013, 01:22
MichaelS wrote:
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

(A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
(B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
(C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
(D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
(E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

The easiest place to start is probably with the create/creates split. What "create(s)...responses"? The emotional reaction. (Strictly speaking the subject of the verb "create" is the pronoun "that." More on this issue later.) Since "emotional reactions" is plural, we want a plural verb, "create." That eliminates B and E. "Creating" in C is a present participle, and "to create" in D is an infinitive, so neither of these is either singular or plural.

Next we might consider which form of the verb "create" is appropriate, the verb "create," the present participle "creating," or the infinitive "to create." A verb-form split usually signals either an idiom problem or a problem with parallelism, but not in this case. Rather, neither C nor D captures the original meaning. Answer C: A present participle (-ing word) immediately preceded by a noun (no comma separating them) attributes action to that noun. So C means that "an individual" creates responses. Answer D: Here, "to create" suggests that the goal of producing emotional reactions is to create physiological responses.

That leaves A, the correct answer.

Addendum 1. I began by asking "What creates responses?" This common-sense question is usually adequate to match a verb to its subject. Sometimes you'll have a couple of reasonable answers, and you'll have to look more closely at the grammar. The verbs in relative clauses--noun-modifying clauses that start with "that" or one of the "wh-" words, "which," "who/m," "when," "where"--actually modify the relative pronouns that precede them, but those relative pronouns are themselves singular or plural depending on the nouns to which they refer. The long and short of it is that you're probably better off with the common-sense question than with the subtle grammatical question here.

Addendum 2. With few exceptions, relative clauses modify the nouns or noun phrases they touch. In this question, "that...create...responses" touches the noun "individual," but it also touches the noun phrase "emotional reactions in an individual," that is, the noun "reactions" plus the adjective "emotional" plus the prepositional phrase "in an individual." That whole phrase, or if you prefer the noun at its heart, is modified by the relative clause. Frankly, I think that it's a little clumsy here, and I might have had a bit of trouble had I started with the modifier issue.


thank you , manhantan expert for your posting here and we can learn from you

2 things I want to discuss.

"which/that clause" modifying far noun or noun groun is consider inferior or in your word "clumsy". it is accepatable in above sentence but is considered an error in other problem. for example, in the question 48 og13, it is considered unacceptable. what I learn from this is that we have to eliminate it if we have better choice.

second thing.

in your posting, you said that "what create" and you find out "reaction"

the important point for success on this question and for all question on sc is to understand the intended meaning when we read only the original sentence. all native persons can realize soon that "reactions" do "create" but for non native, to realize this meaing require a great effort and more time. native spearkers can realize that "reaction" do "create" in 5 seconds but non native need at least 50 seconds, I think, to choose between 2 meanings, "reaction" do "create" or "lying" do "create". This process is painfull to the non native but is key to success on sc problems

that is why the process of understanding/predicting the intended meaning when reading only the original choice is a good strategy for non native. the non native need to do a process which the native do subconciously and without effort. The difference is clear.

in your posting, the above process is mentioned in a few words because you , the native, do this process naturally and without effort.

when reading the original choice which normally a distorted meaning, the native can immediately realize the intended meaning and so can realize the errors easily. in contrast, when the non native read the distorted meaning, the original choice, they find hard to infer the intended meaning and if they do not try to infer the intended meaing and go to answer choice prematurely, they meet more difficulties.

pls comment, is my thinking correct?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2017, 13:10
The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an
individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses.

A. that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses
Seems correct as it is …

B. that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
“creates” is singular …where as our subject is “reactions” – plural
Incorrect

C. creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses
a comma before “creating” is required if it has to modify the preceding clause …in its present form – without comma - “creating” is modifying “individual”

D. to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious
“to create” gives an impression that lying intentionally produces emotional reactions in order to create unconscious physiological responses

E. who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn
Because of “who” the sentence now says that “individual” is creating unconscious physiological responses
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New post 06 May 2018, 01:52
souvik101990 GMATNinja

In option A, "that" is referring to "reaction". If thats the case, then "creating" will also refer to "reaction" and not "individual"

Can you let me know where I am going wrong?
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New post 06 May 2018, 08:51
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Although I have retired from posting explanations on the verbal forums, but WTH!

pikolo2510 wrote:
souvik101990 GMATNinja

In option A, "that" is referring to "reaction". If thats the case, then "creating" will also refer to "reaction" and not "individual"

Can you let me know where I am going wrong?


Nah. Good point though. Think about these two sentence.

I bought the new iPhone from a retailer that has no headphone jack.

- it is pretty clear that in this sentence that the verb "has" is used for the noun iPhone and not the noun retailer. Most of the times GMAT will have sentences where modifiers set off by words such as which and that modify the closest proceeding noun, but in a few cases the noun has been separated by a small phrase as in this case from a retailer

However, if there are no modifiers at all the verb will invariable be acted by the noun proceeding it. For example,

I went to see her in the hospital feeling sorry. - WRONG

This might be okay in a conversational sense, but in formal writing, this does not work at all. The hospital is not really feeling anything (unless you are playing Resident Evil where hospitals are a living being that produce nurse-zombies, but we are not!)

I want to sit next to the girl wearing the dragon tattoo - The girl is the one wearing the fabled tattoo and not you.

General rule to remember - if there is an ING construction right after a noun (without a comma), the ING must refer to the noun, and for most of the cases on the GMAT it will be a wrong answer choice.
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New post 07 May 2018, 12:11
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New post 13 May 2018, 12:55
souvik101990 wrote:
Although I have retired from posting explanations on the verbal forums, but WTH!

Nooooooooooooooooo! You can't retire!!! ;)
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 13 May 2018, 14:01
GMATNinja wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Although I have retired from posting explanations on the verbal forums, but WTH!

Nooooooooooooooooo! You can't retire!!! ;)


haha I will keep swinging by. This reminds me, my explanation had a glaring typo - I used the verb "seem' but then later changed the sentence which made it look really weird. Fixed it :)
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2018, 20:39
souvik101990 wrote:
haha I will keep swinging by. This reminds me, my explanation had a glaring typo - I used the verb "seem' but then later changed the sentence which made it look really weird. Fixed it :)

Do I get fired for failing to notice the typo? :oops:
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2018, 17:50
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How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?
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Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2018, 04:26
Blackishmamba wrote:
How come "that" modify a plural noun reactions? Isn't the use of "those" appropriate here?


That can act as relative as well as demonstrative pronoun:
1. Acting as relative pronoun - 'That' can refer to singular/plural noun
2. Acting as demonstrative pronoun - 'That' can only refer to singular noun, and those is used for plural noun.

In the above sentence 'that' is acting as a relative pronoun.
Re: The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produce &nbs [#permalink] 29 Jul 2018, 04:26
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