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V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16

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V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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Rene Descartes, a 16th century Frenchman often regarded as one of the founders of modern philosophy, penned one of its most famous slogans: “I think, therefore I am.” This statement was the conclusion to an approach of systematic doubt, the goal of which was to arrive at a new foundation for knowledge. He might have been able to doubt all the evidence of his senses, Descartes reasoned, but he could not doubt the proposition that he himself existed to do the doubting. His statement might almost be rephrased as: “I doubt, therefore I am.” Yet despite the fact that philosophers since the early 19th century have made heavy use of this conclusion, Descartes in his own day was most influential as a scientist, not a philosopher.

Throughout 16th century Europe, for example, Descartes was well known for his work in physics, geometry, and physiology, and modern scholars still consider him one of the precursors of the scientific revolution. His attempts to use algebra to solve problems of space and motion essentially created the field of analytic geometry, upon which modern applied mathematics is still largely based. Descartes discovered the law of refraction, which explains why straight objects appear bent when immersed partly in water, and was one of the first to theorize that the workings of human bodies can be studied in similar fashion to the workings of machines. Even his “Discourse on Method,” which contained the famous philosophical statement, was intended merely as the framework within which a collection of essays on optics, meteorology, and geometry was to be understood.
1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

(a) The career of a well-known historical figure is traced chronologically
(b) Two opposing perspectives on a well-known historical figure are presented
(c) Two fields of study are compared and contrasted
(d) A common misconception in introduced, then put in wider context
(e) A common misconception is introduced, then refuted
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


2. Information from the passage suggests that the author would most likely regard which of the following statements as INCORRECT?

(a) Descartes’ contributions to the field of mathematics have largely been superseded.
(b) Descartes’ work has greatly influenced philosophers since the early 19th century.
(c) Descartes was not as famous for his quote as for his scientific works when he lived.
(d) Descartes took a rational approach to the search for a new foundation of knowledge.
(e) Descartes intended his scientific work and his philosophical work to be closely interrelated.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


3. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(a) To inform readers about the context in which Descartes’ famous statement was written
(b) To review Descartes’ contributions to modern scientific fields
(c) To offer an explanation for why Descartes’ philosophical works are more popular than his scientific ones
(d) To argue that Descartes should be considered more a scientist than a philosopher
(e) To explain the relationship of analytic geometry to metaphysics
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


4. It can be inferred from the passage that Descartes came to be known as a philosopher rather than a scientist for which of the following reasons?

(a) Because doubt is a very common problem for the modern individual
(b) Because more of his philosophical than scientific writings have been preserved
(c) Because of his popularity with philosophers since the early19th century
(d) Because he himself considered philosophy to be more important than science
(e) Because optics is no longer a significant scientific field
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


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New post 16 Sep 2014, 01:57
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question V02-13 explanation
This question concerns the way the author has organized information in the passage. The first paragraph introduces Descartes as a well-known historical figure and explains that, because of a famous statement, he is most often associated with the field of philosophy. The second paragraph, however, argues that the idea of Descartes as primarily a philosopher is a misconception; details in the paragraph are meant to refute this by arguing for an alternate understanding of his importance.
  1. Though certain time periods are mentioned, neither paragraph is primarily concerned with chronology.
  2. The two perspectives are not merely presented; the author intends to use the second perspective to argue against the first.
  3. The passage is concerned with Descartes in relation to each field of study, not the fields themselves.
  4. The second paragraph is meant to argue an opposing perspective, not to give context.
  5. A common misconception is introduced using details about its origin, and then is refuted using other details.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question V02-14 explanation
The word suggests in the question indicates that the answer depends on making an inference. Additionally, the word incorrect in the question means that all of the answer choices will be correct EXCEPT ONE. To answer this question correctly, locate the lines or sections in the passage where the ideas present in each answer choice are discussed, and identify the only one with which the author would not agree.
  1. The author does not believe that Descartes’ contributions to mathematics have been superseded, or outdated. See these lines.
  2. The author does agree that Descartes’ work has had great impact on philosophers since the early 19th century. See these lines.
  3. It can be inferred from the list of interests in paragraph 2 that Descartes was curious about the natural world, meaning that the author would agree with this statement.
  4. This line suggests that Descartes’ approach was rational, or based on reason, indicating that the author would agree with this statement.
  5. This line indicates that Descartes intended his philosophical work to serve as a framework for his scientific work, meaning that the author would agree with this statement.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question V02-15 explanation
This question requires an understanding of the passage as a whole, especially the author’s tone. The first paragraph introduces Descartes as an important historical figure most often associated with philosophy. The words yet and despite in the last sentence of the first paragraph indicate that the author disagrees with this association; the author also claims that Descartes is more properly understood as a scientist. The second paragraph provides details for this claim, and uses the language of argument to clarify the author’s position.
  1. Context is provided only in the first paragraph, not the entire passage.
  2. The words yet and despite in the last sentence of the first paragraph indicate that the author intends to draw a strong contrast, not merely to review.
  3. The author is more concerned with general interests than specific works.
  4. The contrast indicated by the words yet and despite prepares the reader for the author’s conclusion in the second half of the sentence that Descartes in his own day was most influential as a scientist, not a philosopher. This sentence begins an argumentative tone that continues in the second paragraph.
  5. Outside the scope of the passage. This relationship is never discussed directly.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question V02-16 explanation
This question requires that a logical conclusion be drawn from information stated in the passage. Since the author discusses the misconception that Descartes is a philosopher when he should be known as a scientist, review the passage to discern what reasons the author may give for this.
  1. The modern individual is not mentioned in the passage.
  2. The passage does not mention which of Descartes’ works have been preserved.
  3. In this line, the author implies that Descartes remains well-known as a philosopher today because of his popularity with philosophers in the early 19th century.
  4. The passage does not discuss Descartes’ thoughts on the relative importance of the two fields.
  5. The passage does not give information about the current state of optics as a scientific field.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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I think this question is good and helpful.
"these lines" are not clickables. It would be useful to have this feature. Thanks!
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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2015, 05:34
Don't agree with the answer to the first question.
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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2016, 06:36
I don't agree with the explanation. It is no where mentioned in the passage that curiosity about natural world led him to exploration of many fields. Kindly explain.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2016, 09:00
garima1 wrote:
I don't agree with the explanation. It is no where mentioned in the passage that curiosity about natural world led him to exploration of many fields. Kindly explain.


V02-14 Option C modified in the test database. Thank you.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2016, 02:01
sayantanc2k wrote:
garima1 wrote:
I don't agree with the explanation. It is no where mentioned in the passage that curiosity about natural world led him to exploration of many fields. Kindly explain.


V02-14 Option C modified in the test database. Thank you.


Did not understand why option 'C' is incorrect in question-2.

Please explain
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V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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sayantanc2k wrote:
garima1 wrote:
I don't agree with the explanation. It is no where mentioned in the passage that curiosity about natural world led him to exploration of many fields. Kindly explain.


V02-14 Option C modified in the test database. Thank you.


Did not understand why option 'C' is incorrect in question-2.

Please explain



The author would agree with the statement given in option C. Please refer to the last line of the first paragraph "Yet despite the fact that philosophers since the early 19th century have made heavy use of this conclusion, Descartes in his own day was most influential as a scientist, not a philosopher." This line implies that " Descartes was not as famous for his quote as for his scientific works when he lived." (option C).

Therefore option C is an incorrect option (because the author would NOT consider it incorrect).

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2016, 06:51
Hi

I have a query in the question : Which of the following best describes the organisation of the passage?

Passage states that Descartes was a scientist and not a philosopher.

The explanation states that the second perspective(Descartes as Scientist) argues against the first perspective (Descartes as Philosopher).

The passage no where states that two perspective are opposing. I understand that second perspective is an alternate perspective rather than an opposing perspective.

Experts kindly clarify.

Thanks
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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2016, 09:21
sahilmalhotra01 wrote:
Hi

I have a query in the question : Which of the following best describes the organisation of the passage?

Passage states that Descartes was a scientist and not a philosopher.

The explanation states that the second perspective(Descartes as Scientist) argues against the first perspective (Descartes as Philosopher).

The passage no where states that two perspective are opposing. I understand that second perspective is an alternate perspective rather than an opposing perspective.

Experts kindly clarify.

Thanks
Sahil


The passage does not state that "Descartes was a scientist and not a philosopher." In fact the passage is not about what he was, but about what he was known as. The first paragraph states he was known as a philosopher. The second paragraph then refutes the idea and states that he was known as a scientist. Hence the explanation and the answer is alright.

In case you are not satisfied with this explanation, please write back.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2016, 06:48
In the question : Which of the following best describes the organisation of the passage?

How do we consider the details in paragraph 1 ( Descartes was known as a philosopher) as a misconception ?

How is option B wrong here.

Kindly explain.Thanks.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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prateekgmat16 wrote:
In the question : Which of the following best describes the organisation of the passage?

How do we consider the details in paragraph 1 ( Descartes was known as a philosopher) as a misconception ?

How is option B wrong here.

Kindly explain.Thanks.


The perspectives are not opposing - the first perspective is that Descartes was a philosopher. The second perspective however does not state that he was NOT a philosopher.

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Re V02-14 [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 04:04
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate. Whenever an answer choice is amended, please amend the answer explanations also. It is misleading here that answer explanation for C is not matching with C.

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Re: V02-13, V02-14, V02-15, V02-16 [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2017, 23:39
It is mentioned that Descartes was regarded as the founder of modern philosophy in the first line itself. Then why does the correct option refer to it as a misconception?

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Re V02-15 [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2017, 02:57
I think this is a high-quality question and I agree with explanation.

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Re V02-15   [#permalink] 30 Sep 2017, 02:57
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