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According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of

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According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.


(A) equivalent to the enrollment of

(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in

(C) equal to those who are enrolled in

(D) as many as the enrollment of

(E) as many as are enrolled in


Verbal Question of The Day: Day 214: Sentence Correction


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Question No.: SC 90
Page: 264


https://www.nytimes.com/1985/04/02/science/education-jobless-workers-learn-new-skills.html

According to a recent report by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, ''Corporate Classrooms: The Learning Business,'' American companies are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment in the nation's four-year colleges and universities.

Originally posted by chalven on 19 Jun 2009, 17:17.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Sep 2018, 03:59, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: QOTD: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for  [#permalink]

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This one is a classic, and it might make the top-ten list of questions that cause the most frustration in GMAT-land. It’s a comparison question, but with some ugly tweaks – and if you’re not really, really strict and literal with the meaning, you’ll get twisted up in this one. (And if you want more on comparisons, check out this YouTube video and this sequel.)

Before we get rolling: the sentence is clearly trying to compare the number of people who receive job training with the number of people who are enrolled in four-year colleges and universities. And plenty of the answer choices sound decent, but only one really conveys that meaning with precision.

Quote:
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of

So what’s being compared when we look strictly and literally at (A)? Basically, the sentence is saying that “eight million people” who receive job training from companies are “equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

Hm. That’s not quite right. The word “equivalent” generally suggests that two things are similar in quality or function, and “enrollment” generally refers to an entire group of students as a collective. So (A) is literally saying that the eight million people in job training are “similar in quality or function” to the collective group of students in universities.

And that doesn’t make any sense. We’re not saying that the groups of people are similar in quality; we’re trying to say that the groups have the same number of people.

So (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in

The word “those” always catches my eye, especially on comparison questions. “Those” is a plural pronoun, and in this case, “those” presumably refers to “people.”

So that gives us: “…eight million people (in job training), the equivalent of the people enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.” Superficially, it’s nice that this compares “eight million people” in job training to “the people enrolled in… colleges and universities”, but we’re still saying that the two types of people are “equivalent” – again, roughly similar in quality or function. And that doesn’t make sense, for the same reasons as (A).

So (B) can be eliminated, too.

Quote:
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in

This one sounds better! Only trouble is, we don’t care about sound on SC.

Since “those” once again refers to “people”, we now have “eight million people (in job training), equal to the people who are enrolled in… colleges and universities.” This is really subtle, but this is telling us that the actual people in job training are “equal to” the actual people in colleges and universities.

Literally, that seems to making a social statement about equality among people in different situations in life. Personally, I like that sentiment, but it really has nothing to do with what the sentence is trying to say. The point isn’t that people in job training are “equal to” the people in universities; the sentence is trying to say that the number of people in each group is the same.

And since (C) doesn’t actually say that, we can get rid of it.

Since (D) and (E) are so similar, let’s line those two up side-by-side:

Quote:
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

Meaning-wise, the phrase “as many as” is a huge improvement over our options in (A), (B), and (C). It’s finally clear that we’re comparing the number of people in each group, so that’s great.

But (E) makes a little bit more sense than (D). Why? Well, the word “enrollment” generally refers to the collective group of students enrolled in colleges and universities, so (D) is saying that “eight million people” receiving training from companies are “as many as” the collective enrollment of colleges and universities. And that’s not quite right: it’s clearer to say that the “eight million people” is the same number of people as are enrolled in colleges and universities.

So (E) conveys the correct meaning just a little bit more clearly, and it's the best answer.
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New post 19 Aug 2011, 07:35
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The sentence compares people with nation's four year enrollment (Countable noun with countable noun). Equivalent and Equal are used to modify uncountable noun. Such as water, sugar. As many as is used to modify countable noun.

In D people are improperly compared with enrollment.
E is the correct answer.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2009, 02:08
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yesiwill wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of----eight million people are compared with enrollment
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in-----eight million people are equivalent to those.. wrong comparison
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in----Wordy, awkword
(D) as many as the enrollment of------wrong comparison again
(E) as many as are enrolled in----OK to me


So "E" for me.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 29 Jul 2009, 04:56
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According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of compares quantity with process of enrolling
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in compares quantity with people
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in compares quantity with people
(D) as many as the enrollment of better, although still compares uncomparable things (quantity with process)
(E) as many as are enrolled in Right one!

What is OA?

P.S. Please underline the part of the sentence which is under question.

Originally posted by DenisSh on 29 Jul 2009, 04:30.
Last edited by DenisSh on 29 Jul 2009, 04:56, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2010, 21:11
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First some tips -

1. Whenever there is a multiplication kind of comparison, such as I am 2 times as old as my sister, use- as comparison verb as. And not as two times greater than or so.

2. Whenever there is addition or subtraction kind of comparison,such as I am 2 years older than my sister, use - Verb + er, than and not 'as comparison verb as'.

I believe if you follow this structure of multiplication and addition/subtraction you will sail through this easily.
More on this is available in Manhattan Sentence Correction the latest version.

Coming to the question.
By POE - C and E prevail.

C : eight million people, a number has been compared with 'those' which refers to people and not a number. Hence eliminated.

E: as many as clearly shows the same number of people are present in the 4 year colleges and the universities.

Hence IMO : E.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2014, 03:15
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yesiwill wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in


"equivalent to the enrollment" messes up the comparison. You want to compare people to people. A is gone.

"the equivalent of those enrolled", you're equating people to "those enrolled", which doesn't make sense. B is gone.

"equal to those who are enrolled", in what way are they "equal"? Equal implies that the traits of X and Y are equal, or that the beliefs of X and Y are equal. But you don't want to compare traits/beliefs of X and Y, you want to compare X to Y. So, C is gone

"as many as the enrollment" compares the people to the enrollment. Doesn't make sense, so D is gone.

E "as many as are enrolled in" is a perfect segway into the non-underlined part to the right, this portion connects the traits of the 8 million people to the enrolled people in american colleges. That's the intended comparison.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2014, 09:57
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I go with E.

In this question, we compare "nearly eight million people" with the number of people enrolling the nations four-year colleges. So:
A. Compare "people" with "the enrollment" -> wrong
B. Wrong word for comparison: the equivalent of
C. Wrong comparison: "equal" is used for uncountable nouns.
D. Compare "people" with "the enrollment" -> wrong
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New post 14 Dec 2014, 20:50
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Sentence Correction is largely a test of logic. A basic characteristic of logic is that one can only have an apples to apples comparison.

With B, the sentence would be:

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about the equivalent of those enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.

Focusing on the underlined portion and slightly expanding it, the sentence becomes:

Eight million people are equivalent of those (people) enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.

But this is an illogical comparison, Eight million people (a number) cannot be equivalent of people (enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities).

At the very least, the sentence should have been (not that this is perfect):

..eight million people, about equivalent to the number of people enrolled in the nations four-year colleges and universities.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2015, 14:11
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According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of "Equivalent" is an adjective, modifying the amount (which is another red flag). The "number" must not be omitted. None of them follow so it's grammatically incorrect.
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in "equivalent of" is wrong because the idiomatic phrase is "equivalent to".
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in "Equal" is also a modifier, so it must have amount/value/size. Without it, the phrase is not grammatical.
(D) as many as the enrollment of This violates the rules of comparison construction, where enrollment, being a process, cannot be compared to number of people.
(E) as many as are enrolled in Best choice. "As many as" is typically preferred for comparisons of equivalence. We know this because most of us write with "as many as". None of us use with "equivalent" or "equal" left alone. I suppose knowing which are countable and uncountable modifiers would help in how to eliminate the answer choices and what "equal" and "equivalent" generally refer to. We say "equal" and "equivalent" in English because what we are comparing in generally unquantifiable.
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New post 19 Jun 2015, 12:03
The 2015 Official GMAT Guide for Verbal Review claims that the word equal is usually used to describe uncountable values (Sentence Correction Q. #85).

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.
(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in


Their explanation to the incorrect answer (C) reads, "Equal is generally used for uncountable quantities, such as equal justice, not countable quantities, such as people."

But, isn't "equal" used all the time for discrete values, for example, math and the other GMAT section known as Quantitative? Sure, it's represented with two different formats, spelled out in grammar vs. mathematical notation in symbol form, but the function is the same, no?

Can you not say, "The number of oranges and the number of apples are equal in quantity." Or even with continuous values like, "The water level is equal in all tanks." Granted, the GMAT explanation states that it's usually for uncountable quantities. I just think that it's a bad answer choice to have if that's the reason behind (C) being incorrect.

Is it grammatically incorrect to state, "Five million people in country A is equal to the population who are in country B"? In that case, one would be making equal "Five million people" to "population". So, the people themselves aren't equal to the population, it's the number of people that's equal to the population which needs to be clearly distinguished (?). Is that the reason?
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New post 19 Jun 2015, 14:44
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I think that OG explanation is misleading, so I wouldn't focus on it too much. The word 'equal' is used in different ways, and I think they're thinking only about one of the definitions.

We often use 'equal' in what you might call its 'mathematical meaning' when comparing two numbers, or two amounts, so we say "the number of people in the auditorium is equal to the number in the foyer", or "the amount of milk in the pitcher is equal to the amount on the floor". When using 'equal' in that way, you need to be sure you're comparing like with like - an amount with an amount, or a number with a number. That usage is the one the OG explanation seems to be ignoring.

But 'equal' is often used in a more metaphorical sense to mean something like 'roughly the same', even in cases where we aren't discussing things that can be measured numerically. So we say "the two tasks are of equal difficulty", or "the employees received equal treatment", or "all things being equal". I have to guess that's the usage the person writing the OG solution had in mind.

It is not the usage of 'equal' in C that makes C incorrect. It's that the sentence doesn't draw a proper comparison. When it uses 'those', it is referring to the people enrolled in four-year colleges. So answer C is saying the people receiving training are equal to the people in college. That's not what the question means to say - the sentence isn't saying the people in both groups are roughly the same. it means to say that the number of people in college is equal to the number in training. It would be possible to use the word 'equal' in a correct answer here, but it would need to be clear that one number was being compared with another.

And as for your three example sentences:

"The number of oranges and the number of apples are equal in quantity." --> this is fine except that the 'in quantity' at the end is redundant (the rest of the sentence makes clear you're comparing quantities), so would best be cut

"The water level is equal in all tanks." --> that seems good to me

"Five million people in country A is equal to the population who are in country B"? --> this is not drawing a correct comparison. You could say the population of one country was equal to the population of the other, or something like "There are 5m people in country A, and an equal number in country B".
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New post 07 Nov 2016, 21:12
Hello experts

What is the subject for 'are' in this sentence?

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New post 12 Jan 2017, 10:59
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Shiv2016 wrote:
Hello experts

What is the subject for 'are' in this sentence?

Thanks


Consider the following structure:

I own as many shirts as you own.
I own as many shirts as are owned by you.
I own 4 shirts, as many as are owned by you.

The latter clause in the second and the third sentences are written in passive (the object of the first clause is the subject of the second clause) - the subject (shirts) is omitted from the second clause in the third sentence.

Similarly, in option E the subject "people" has been omitted. The following sentences are written in an analogous way:

Companies are providing training to as many people as colleges enroll.
Companies are providing training to as many people as are enrolled in colleges.
Companies are providing training to 8 million people, as many as are enrolled in colleges.
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According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

There is a special significance to the term 'equal' or 'equivalent' in English. We cannot call something as equal or equivalent to some other thing just basing on one parameter such as the number of people enrolled. 'Equal' denotes a stature based on qualitatively comparable metrics such as charisma, charm, caliber, and class. We cannot call anyone equal to Mahatma or Lincoln or Mandela because they were beyond comparison. That is the reason A, B, & C lose steam. In D, the comparison is between 8M people with enrollment. E is the best.
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New post 14 May 2017, 20:11
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2016

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 90
Page: 264

According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

GMATNinjaTwo Where is the subject in answer (E)? Does "as many as people who are enrolled in" sound correct?

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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2017, 07:39
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hazelnut wrote:
According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about equivalent to the enrollment of the nation’s four-year colleges and universities.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of
(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in
(C) equal to those who are enrolled in
(D) as many as the enrollment of
(E) as many as are enrolled in

GMATNinjaTwo Where is the subject in answer (E)? Does "as many as people who are enrolled in" sound correct?

Here is the sentence using choice (E):

"...companies in the United States are providing job training and general education for nearly eight million people, about as many as are enrolled in the nation’s four-year colleges and universities."

In that sentence, people is the implied subject of "are enrolled". How many people are provided with job training and general education? Nearly eight million (say, for example, 7.9 million). How many people are enrolled in the nation's four-year colleges and universities? Approximately the same number of people (not necessarily less than 8 million but close to 7.9 million). The "as many as" construction correctly compares these two countable quantities (people provided with job training and general education and people enrolled in four-year colleges and universities).
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2018, 07:13
enrolment
ɪnˈrəʊlm(ə)nt/Submit
noun
noun: enrollment
the action of enrolling or being enrolled.
"the amount due must be paid on enrolment in October"
NORTH AMERICAN
the number of people enrolled at a school or college.

This above part is google's definition.

So, enrollment can refer to the number of people enrolled - So why A is wrong. Though I agree E is right. I thought even A is a good contender.
daagh, GMATNinja please help me out.
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Re: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2018, 19:55
Nightmare007 wrote:
enrolment
ɪnˈrəʊlm(ə)nt/Submit
noun
noun: enrollment
the action of enrolling or being enrolled.
"the amount due must be paid on enrolment in October"
NORTH AMERICAN
the number of people enrolled at a school or college.

This above part is google's definition.

So, enrollment can refer to the number of people enrolled - So why A is wrong. Though I agree E is right. I thought even A is a good contender.
daagh, GMATNinja please help me out.

The issue isn't necessarily with the word "enrollment." Thing is, we're trying to compare the NUMBER of people in job training programs with the NUMBER of people enrolled in colleges and universities. And (E) captures that meaning pretty thoroughly.

So what's the problem with (A)? I'd argue that the biggest issue is the word "equivalent," which can also just be used to indicate something that's approximately similar in function or in quality. For example, if I say "Dazbog Coffee is the local equivalent to Starbucks", I'm not saying that they're exactly equal -- I'm suggesting that they're roughly similar or comparable in quality or function. (And if anybody reading this has actually been to Dazbog, feel free to weigh in on the quality of their coffee and snacks! I have totally useless and irrelevant opinions about this.)

Anyway, I don't think that's quite right in (A), which is saying that "eight million people" in job-training programs are somehow "equivalent" to the "enrollment of the nation's four-year colleges and universities." We're not trying to say that these people are "equivalent" (roughly equal in quality or function) to those other people; we're trying to say that the numbers are equal. (E) states that much more clearly.

I hope this helps!
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Re: QOTD: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Feb 2018, 07:29
Well this is a comparison question. While solving such question, keep one thing in mind that it is a right comparison, apple to apple. Here "for nearly eight million people" is one side of the comparison. let find the other side.

(A) equivalent to the enrollment of --- 80 mil people compared with enrollment. not a right comparison.

(B) the equivalent of those enrolled in --- 80 mil people compared with people enrolled. absurd.

(C) equal to those who are enrolled in --- 80 mil people compared with "those" again for individual people. absurd.

(D) as many as the enrollment of --- 80 mil people compared with "enrollment". quiet silly.

(E) as many as are enrolled in --- right comparison. 80 mil people compared with "as many as are enrolled".

Hopefully E should be right.

Mr. GMATNinja - one kudos for your food blog. Looking at your food choices, I say give a try to Indian food, specially in Delhi.
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Re: QOTD: According to a study by the Carnegie Foundation for &nbs [#permalink] 02 Feb 2018, 07:29
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