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According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198,

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According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, 113 female science and engineering graduate students, almost 42% of the graduate students in those fields, twice as much as 1981.

(A) twice as much as 1981

(B) twice as many as 1981

(C) double the figure for 1981

(D) double what it was in 1981

(E) a number double that of 1981’s
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 16 Sep 2017, 18:56, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 29 Aug 2007, 03:23
I will go wtih E as well.

I believe the comparision is between the no of students in 1981 and 2003, however owing to the insertion of the inessential modifier clause "almost ..." which only serves to describe what 198,113 means in terms of percentage, we need to clarify what we are comparing i.e. a number double..... Choice E removes any ambiguity as to what is being compared.
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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Hi All,
So, this was a question from MGMAT Cat. It was in the 700-800 range. Like some of you I had put B. But OA is C.

Here is their explanation:

In the original sentence, “much” incorrectly references the quantity of female graduate students. Students are countable, so “many” is the correct term. Additionally, “as 1981” incorrectly completes the comparison, illogically comparing the number of people (the “198,113 female science and engineering graduate students”) to a year (“1981”).


Choice B- “As 1981” incorrectly completes the comparison, illogically comparing the number of people (the “198,113 female science and engineering graduate students”) to a year (“1981”).

Choice C- “Double the figure” places the emphasis on the number of female graduate students, and correctly completes the comparison between the number of people in one year (198,133 in 2003) and the number of people in another year (the figure for 1981).

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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Choice D is wrong because- “What it was” is wordy, awkward, and unclear. The singular pronoun "it" has no clear antecedent.

Choice E is wrong because- “Double that of 1981’s” is wordy, awkward, and unclear. The singular pronoun "that" has no clear antecedent. The possessive "1981's" is not followed by a noun to possess.

Still thinking about if " double the figure IN 1981" is correct.....

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2007, 05:07
Figure for 1981 is anytime better than Figure In 1981.

I cannot find the reasoning for this but if you pick annual reports for any good company, u'll find tons of phrases like this and comparisions of this sort involving figures and years.
Eventually Figure for.. starts sounding better. :P

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2007, 09:24
I agree. I looked at the explanation again for each of the choices. And they don't seem to pick on " ..IN 1981". Therefore, i don't think it's wrong. However, given the choice between the two- I would pick " ...FOR 1981"

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198,113 female science and engineering graduate students, almost 42% of the graduate students in those fields, twice as much as 1981.

a. twice as much as 1981 comparing 198K to 1981, wrong

b. twice as many as 1981 comparing 198K to 1981, wrong

c. double the figure for 1981 ok

d. double what it was in 1981"it" is 198K or 42%? wrong

e. a number double that of 1981’s 1981 cannot be a possessive noun, wrong

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2012, 08:51
A - as much for numbers is wrong
B - X, twice as many as - this is right construction. Needs the number right before twice to modify.
D - 'what it was' - wordy and it has no clear referent
E - 'that' has no clear referent.

IMO C.
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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Howdy all, :)

I think that @NYCAnalyst did a nice job of clearly explaining the answer choices, so I don't want to spend a lot of time analyzing them. I'd like to talk about a specific aspect of this question. In this sentence, what is the roll of "double?"

Let's start by looking at the correct answer in the sentence:

ColumbiaDream wrote:
According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198,113 female science and engineering graduate students, almost 42% of the graduate students in those fields, double the figure for 1981.


So in this sentence, it's important to realize that "double" is not modifying anything. It is not an adjective. In this sentence, it is a predeterminer. To learn more about pre-determiners, you can start here, and then read the Wiki article on Combinations of Determiner. You can see here that "double" can function as a predeterminer in its definition.

We could re-write the sentence by removing the modifying phrases and simplifying some of the language to make this clear:

Quote:
In 2003, there were 198,113 female science and engineering graduate students, double the figure for 1981.


So in this case, "double" is a predeterminer for "figure" which refers back to the 198,113 students. So what it really means is that the figure from 2003 is twice the number from 1981; it's twice as much. This is one of the reasons that (C) is the best choice. It is the most concise expression of "twice as much as the figure."

I hope that this helps everyone understand this question a little bit more. It's a tough one! :)
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 08:48
ColumbiaDream wrote:
According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198,113 female science and engineering graduate students, almost 42% of the graduate students in those fields, twice as much as 1981.


we are comparing # of people in 2003 with # of people in 1981.

a. twice as much as 1981
much is not correct for countable nouns. moreover, it compares # of people with a YEAR. incorrect.

b. twice as many as 1981
many is correct, but this option compares # of people with a year.

c. double the figure for 1981
looks good.

d. double what it was in 1981
it does not have an antecedent...

e. a number double that of 1981’s
not clear what the comparison is.

C looks good!

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 18:13
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 06:43
GMATNinja

Sir if I had written option E in the following way,would it be right then?

" a number doubling the figure of 1981’s"

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2017, 14:16
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Quote:
GMATNinja

Sir if I had written option E in the following way,would it be right then?

" a number doubling the figure of 1981’s"


Good question. This wouldn't actually be correct, mostly because it's redundant. "The figure of" already indicates a possessive, so you definitely wouldn't need 1981 (or 1981's, in this case) to be possessive, too.

A similar issue is mentioned in GMATNinjaTwo's post on page 2 of this thread: https://gmatclub.com/forum/because-of-t ... 53061.html
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2017, 01:20
In the question below

is he comparing year or the no of female grads?
Sometimes, they twist what they are trying to compare, I am not able to figure it out.

Any other similar comparison examples like this?

Last edited by abhimahna on 02 Jul 2017, 02:01, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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Viserion99 wrote:
In the question below

is he comparing year or the no of female grads?
Sometimes, they twist what they are trying to compare, I am not able to figure it out.

Any other similar comparison examples like this?


Hi Viserion99 ,

The author is comparing the no. of female grads.

For more information, please look at the above explanations.

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2017, 09:33
Hi - for B ..if i was strip out the fluff and modify the number to make it easier

--- there were 100 students, twice as many as 1981 === i can see why this is wrong

--- there were 100 students, twice as many as IN 1981 === i can see why this is wrong

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2017, 01:36
ColumbiaDream wrote:
According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, 113 female science and engineering graduate students, almost 42% of the graduate students in those fields, twice as much as 1981.

(A) twice as much as 1981

(B) twice as many as 1981

(C) double the figure for 1981

(D) double what it was in 1981

(E) a number double that of 1981’s


OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


In the original sentence, “much” incorrectly references the quantity of female graduate students. Students are countable, so “many” is the correct term. Additionally, “as 1981” incorrectly completes the comparison, illogically comparing the number of people (the “198,113 female science and engineering graduate students”) to a year (“1981”).

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) “As 1981” incorrectly completes the comparison, illogically comparing the number of people (the “198,113 female science and engineering graduate students”) to a year (“1981”).

(C) CORRECT. “Double the figure” places the emphasis on the number of female graduate students, and correctly completes the comparison between the number of people in one year (198,133 in 2003) and the number of people in another year (the figure for 1981).

(D) “What it was” is wordy, awkward, and unclear. The singular pronoun "it" has no clear antecedent.

(E) “Double that of 1981’s” is wordy, awkward, and unclear. The singular pronoun "that" has no clear antecedent. The possessive "1981's" is not followed by a noun to possess.
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2017, 14:58
hazelnut abhimahna

I go this question right, but I thought the 'figure' in the last part of the question stem was referring to the percentage of female grad students, not the number.

1. Is that interpretation wrong
2. is C still the correct answer even with my interpretation?

Thx!

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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HappyQuakka wrote:
hazelnut abhimahna

I go this question right, but I thought the 'figure' in the last part of the question stem was referring to the percentage of female grad students, not the number.

1. Is that interpretation wrong
2. is C still the correct answer even with my interpretation?

Thx!


Hi HappyQuakka ,

Actually NO. The figure is referring to the count rather than the %.

It is actually wrong to say double the % for another year.

As per the meaning of the sentence, we are comparing the females in one year with females in another. We are not comparing the % of graduates in one year with % of graduates in another year.

You might have got C as the right answer with POE because all others are wrong. (This is my assumption.)

Does that make sense?
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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198, [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 23:26
abhimahna Thank you for the clarification, it makes sense now. Def something I will have to watch out for on the exam!
(and yes, I did get C through POE)

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Re: According to the National Science Foundation, in 2003 there were 198,   [#permalink] 16 Oct 2017, 23:26

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