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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso

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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso  [#permalink]

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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 688

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

(A) that make their company seem large
(B) to make their companies seem larger
(C) thus making their companies seem larger
(D) so that the companies seem larger
(E) of making their company seem large

https://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/12/business/12sbiz.html

To build a successful company, entrepreneurs need to play a variety of roles — visionary, sales representative and morale builder, to name a few. But, in some cases, especially in the early years, they may need to play another, less obvious one: illusionist. That means finding resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, to make themselves seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be. Of course, no matter how adept their sleight-of-hand, it will not work unless they are delivering the goods.

New Entrepreneurs

(A) Sentence Structure (that); Noun-Pronoun and Noun-Noun Agreement (company); Comparison (large than)

(B) CORRECT

(C) Sentence Structure (thus);

(D) Sentence Structure (so that);

(E) Noun-Noun Agreement (company); Comparison (large than)

First glance

The opening word in each choice changes substantially (that, to, thus, so, of). That particular mix of words indicates possible Sentence Structure, Meaning, or Modifier issues.

Issues

(1) Sentence Structure: that; thus; so that

These differences pop out at the first glance. Check the earlier sentence structure to see what leads into these words.

The earlier sentence core is as follows: New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways … (that; to; thus; so that; of). The entrepreneurs are purposely taking action, so they are finding ways to do something or of doing something. Answers (B) and (E) are okay, but eliminate choices (A), (C), and (D).

(2) Noun-Pronoun and Noun-Noun Agreement: company

The pronoun they appears in the last line of the sentence. Logically, they should refer to companies, but the original sentence uses the singular company. Eliminate choices (A) and (E) for faulty noun-pronoun agreement.

The original sentence also talks about a class of businessperson in general: new entrepreneurs. These businesspeople all share certain problems that are specific to being a part of this category. In general, then, this sentence is talking about many different entrepreneurs who are starting many different companies.

The language make their company seem, then, is illogical. This implies that all of these entrepreneurs are starting just one company together—but, logically, the different entrepreneurs, plural, should be starting many companies, plural. Eliminate choices (A) and (E) for faulty noun-noun agreement.

(3) Comparison: large

The original sentence indicates that these entrepreneurs want to make their compan(ies) seem large and more firmly established than … they are.

The sentence is trying to say that these entrepreneurs want to do two things: make the companies seem larger than they are and make the companies seem more firmly established than they are. The original sentence, however, says seem large … than, not larger than. Eliminate choices (A) and (E) for a faulty comparison structure.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (B) makes a proper comparison (seem larger … than) and has proper noun-noun agreement (entrepreneurs … find ways … to make their companies). The overall sentence structure also conveys intent: Entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make something happen.

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Originally posted by AbdurRakib on 15 Jun 2016, 04:19.
Last edited by hazelnut on 18 Jun 2018, 06:04, edited 7 times in total.
corrected the original Q
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New post 21 Jun 2016, 22:29
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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

Cutting out the examples - "like renting temporary office space or using answering services"
The sentence becomes:

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
They should refer to plural companies and not company

B) to make their companies seem larger
Resourceful ways to do X -> Shows intent and is correct

C) thus making their companies seem larger
May need -> Signify a possibility and "thus" provides a strong reason that by finding resourceful ways -> The companies become larger and established. The interpretation is not consistent

D) so that the companies seem larger
"So" provides a reason and we can use "so" when the reason is established. The usage of "may" makes it a possibility.


E) of making their company seem large
They should refer to plural companies and not company
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Re: Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2016, 10:11
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Warning: Really long post.

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large

Problems with option D:

X so that Y: Usage of this idiom implies:
1) Y is subordinate to X
2)Y is adverbial, i.e., it is an explainer for the clause X. It answers the question why X?
Why do the new entrepreneurs need to find resourceful ways? So that the companies seem larger and more established.

While this makes perfect sense logically, this is not the intended meaning. It is not clear who makes the companies seem larger and more established. The intended meaning is to bring out the intent : the ability of new age entrepreneurs to control/influence the outcome.

Analogous question:OG #171

In 1527 King Henry VII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn.

A) so as to marry
Doesn't make it clear who is to marry Anne Boleyn? Is it King Henry VII? Queen Catherine? Anyone else in the world ? GMATis uncomfortable with this level of logical ambiguity.
D) so that he could marry
Aha! So...he himself wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. No wonder he tried to annul the marriage.

To resolve between A) and D) we have to use the same logic.

Too subtle? Unfortunately this is the only way to resolve this split correctly, as some of you intuitively figured out.

Key takeway:
The to-infinitive states purpose with the subject involved more directly,whereas "so X that Y" has more indirect implications.
In broader terms, grammar alone is insufficient to get through SC: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/ ... -questions
Here is how you can solve this question using meaning:

Converting this question into an analogous easier to digest sentence to spot, extract and replace:

A)We need to find ways THAT beat GMAT.
B)We need to find ways TO beat the GMAT.
C)We need to ways THUS beating the GMAT
D)We need to find the way SO THAT GMAT is beaten.
E)We need to find ways OF beating the GMAT.

Only E) and B) are correct, because OF and TO are the correct preposition that go with WAYS, as confirmed by the official explanation.
The basis of this decision is meaning: We are concerned with the ability to control the outcome of the GMAT. This is why demonstrative THAT in A is wrong, the adverbials THUS in C) and SO THAT in D) are all wrong.

My 2 cents:

If you see this as the only split to resolve between the two options(one that uses so X that Y & the other uses X to Y) then the questions is experimental and you dont have to worry about it, as Ron and Mike both agree that GMAT does't test only this split. (I can post citations if someone requests them.)

On the other hand this questions does have another split. Comparing B) and D) vertically(since we have already eliminated all other options based on criteria already discussed above) quickly lands us an easy decision point.

B) to make their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger

Did you catch the subtle scope shift? There is significant loss in intended meaning.

Why at all should new age entrepreneurs be worried about all companies? They are desperate to search for innovative means so as to ensure that their companies see the light of day!

Other splits not discussed (Disclaimer :read only if really really interested):

How to resolve between "of" and "to" without using other splits:Chronology!

Again meaning gives a interesting insight that helps me arrive at the right answer without searching for other splits.
B) to make their companies seem larger
Implies correct chronology: the infinitive "may need to" is futuristic: When the statement has been made the companies have not yet been made to appear larger or well established. First we find ways, then implement it and ultimately reap the benefits.
E) of making their company seem large
Chronology of the gerund "making":Since a gerund is a noun, it exists objectively, i.e., it already exists(either starting at the same time or before the time of the main clause.
This implies, that the companies have already or are currently being made to appear well established. This is grossly incorrect, as the time of occurrence of main sentence(present), new age entrepreneurs have not found ways yet.
This is not evident in first read, but read it a couple of times and you can recognize why this is enough to solve the question.

P.S.:Usage of Like is completely justified since the author of the sentence is speculating on hypothetical examples ("may need to..."), not literal ones.

Please give kudos if you liked it, took me a while to type this out.
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New post 15 Jun 2016, 05:21
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Hi AbdurRakib, is this also an OG 17 question?

Would have thought that such as (rather than like) would have been a better choice (not that it matters, since it is in the non-underlined portion).
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New post 15 Jun 2016, 07:28
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Yes,it's an OG 2017 Question

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New post 15 Jun 2016, 08:37
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established that they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem large
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large


In the non-underlined part 'they' is plural and refers to companies. A and E are out.

Intention of entrepreneurs is to make their companies seem 'large'. 'Larger' is not required. C and D are out

B is the right answer
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Re: Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 04:51
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A) that make their company seem large-New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways that make their company seem large is incorrect
B) to make their companies seem large-New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways -to make their companies seem large (to make;for a purpose) correct
C) thus making their companies seem larger- (resourceful ways is not leading to any result,incorrect)
D) so that the companies seem larger- If you use larger,you would need "than" in the sentence which is not an option as there is no comparison and also it is not parallel to more firmly established.
E) of making their company seem large-incorrect
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New post 19 Jun 2016, 11:58
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Cut the jargons and simplify as follows:

need to find resourceful ways - THAT
need to find resourceful ways - TO
need to find resourceful ways - THUS
need to find resourceful ways - SO
need to find resourceful ways - OF
.
Meaning-wise and idiomatically B is correct on the basis of the above though the most ideal sentence would use "larger" since it is followed by "more firmly" which is a comparative form,
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New post 19 Jun 2016, 23:07
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established that they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem large
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large


OG 2017 New Question


The question is not correctly copied from OG17. Please correct the question.

Original sentence: "more firmly established that they may actually be" - It is "than", not "that"
Option B: It is "larger", not "large"
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New post 20 Jun 2016, 19:19
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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find
resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering
services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established
than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large

I have a very specific query with regards to Option B. "To make THEIR companies seem larger and more firmly established than THEY may actually be"

In the above statement, don't THEIR and THEY both need to refer to the same noun? Either entrepreneurs or Companies.

It seems, however, that THEIR is referring to entrepreneurs while THEY is referring to companies.
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New post 21 Jun 2016, 09:16
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

A) that make their company seem large
B) to make their companies seem larger
C) thus making their companies seem larger
D) so that the companies seem larger
E) of making their company seem large


OG 2017 New Question



Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services,to make their companies seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be.

New Entrepreneurs==>Their companies==>They

Larger and more firmly established than............. = Correct Comparison.

to find ........ to make = Maintains parallelism

Hence Answer must be (B)
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New post 22 Jun 2016, 12:36
Please if someone can throw light on the usage of 'they' and 'their' in option B (the correct answer) Can they and their refer to different entities?

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New post 23 Jun 2016, 20:30
Keats wrote:
Please if someone can throw light on the usage of 'they' and 'their' in option B (the correct answer) Can they and their refer to different entities?

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their companies refers to the company owners, they refers to the companies. So yes.

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New post 23 Jun 2016, 22:50
MBAPrepCoach wrote:
Keats wrote:
Please if someone can throw light on the usage of 'they' and 'their' in option B (the correct answer) Can they and their refer to different entities?

Thank You

their companies refers to the company owners, they refers to the companies. So yes.

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If that is the case then how come 'they' and 'their' refer to two different things in the same sentence?
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New post 24 Jun 2016, 00:01
The subject proceeding their is entrepreneurs, the subject proceeding they is companies. As long as there's a clear antecedent for each pronoun, it's okay.

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New post 25 Jun 2016, 09:53
Find ways to do something is idiomatically and grammatically correct. B is definitely the correct answer choice.
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New post 19 Jul 2016, 10:16
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A few learnings from the problem

1) Non-underlined part - This is the first example of its kind in which the correct answer uses 'like' to introduce examples.

2) Even if there is a clear case of introducing option c) thus, d)so that - to give meaning to sentence i.e. Why new entrepreneurs are doing this ? The Idiomatic usage takes over and makes the causal usage irrelevant

3) In a single sentence, their refers to entrepreneurs and they refers to companies. Not that pronoun ambiguity is an absolute rule, GMAC allows these kind of deviations

4) Infinitive +to construction - New....may need to find ways (leaving Non essentials) to make....

Good question

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New post 03 Aug 2016, 22:37
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Sure.

The problem that you may have is because of a common trap that GMAT employs: "the middleman." In this case it is "like renting temporary office space or using answering services." Now this is verbose, really annoying,and undermines the underlined relations with context. In fact, you can rewrite the sentence without this part to prevent your judgement from getting clouded, and the trunk of the sentence becomes:

New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways that make their company seem large and more firmly established than they may actually be.

Now it is easy to identify more relationships as you've reduced the distance between them and cleaned out the garbage.

First, in option A, "their" referents are "new entrepreneurs". New entrepreneurs are certainly concerned with everyone who has a company, rather than a total of a company, therefore, company should be changed to companies.

Furthermore, "They" must refer to "companies". Pronoun and noun concord mandates and confirms the above change to plural. Singular "company" cannot be right!

The only rule for pronoun ambiguity that you need to worry about on the GMAT is the logical kind.

For more information on understanding this, check out this well written link:

https://e-gmat.com/blog/gmat-verbal/english-grammar-concepts/pronouns/address-pronoun-ambiguity

The rule is: Pronoun should have only ONE logical antecedent.

As in this sentence, with the correct option there is no logical ambiguity. I hope this is evident after removing the middleman. "They may actually be" , in the logical context of the sentence can refer only to "companies". Try replacing the pronoun with the noun that you think is the antecedent and you may get grossly incorrect sentence.

Corrected answer reads:
New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make their companies seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be.

New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make the new entrepreneurs' companies seem larger and more firmly established than the new entrepreneurs may actually be.

Nonsensical meaning: you can see why this not a contender at all.

New entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways to make the new entrepreneurs' companies seem larger and more firmly established than the companies may actually be.

Strongly correlates with intended meaning: This is the only possible correct sentence!

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New post 07 Feb 2017, 23:18
Hi Expert,


I already read all explanation including Pronz's, and after reading the explanations, I was convinced with the right choice. However, I have following doubts.

1. I saw the snakes lying behind the buildings. They were playing there. They were built before 10 years. --wrong

Above sentence is absolutely wrong. However, it clearly states the meaning: first "they" refers to snakes, and second "they" refers to building

A pronoun can have only one antecedent. Is it allowed for a pronoun in different forms(one possessive and one subjective form ) to refer different antecedents?

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, to make their companies seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be.

In the above sentence, "their" refers to entrepreneurs, and they refer to the companies. Please explain.


2. Like is used to compare, not to present examples. "Renting temporary office space" or "using answering services" are the examples of the "resourceful ways". Why is the usage of like correct here?

She is going to buy the clothes like shirt, t-shirt.--wrong

she is going to buy the clothes such as shirt,t-shirt-- right (examples of clothes)

Like Sam, I play in the garden --right (comparison)
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New post 09 Feb 2017, 08:19
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AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,


I already read all explanation including Pronz's, and after reading the explanations, I was convinced with the right choice. However, I have following doubts.

1. I saw the snakes lying behind the buildings. They were playing there. They were built before 10 years. --wrong

Above sentence is absolutely wrong. However, it clearly states the meaning: first "they" refers to snakes, and second "they" refers to building

A pronoun can have only one antecedent. Is it allowed for a pronoun in different forms(one possessive and one subjective form ) to refer different antecedents?

Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find resourceful ways, like renting temporary office space or using answering services, to make their companies seem larger and more firmly established than they may actually be.

In the above sentence, "their" refers to entrepreneurs, and they refer to the companies. Please explain.


2. Like is used to compare, not to present examples. "Renting temporary office space" or "using answering services" are the examples of the "resourceful ways". Why is the usage of like correct here?

She is going to buy the clothes like shirt, t-shirt.--wrong

she is going to buy the clothes such as shirt,t-shirt-- right (examples of clothes)

Like Sam, I play in the garden --right (comparison)


Keats wrote:
MBAPrepCoach wrote:
The subject proceeding their is entrepreneurs, the subject proceeding they is companies. As long as there's a clear antecedent for each pronoun, it's okay.

Farrell Dyan Hehn, MBA
Admissions Consultant & Verbal Tutor MBAPrepCoach.com


Sorry, but I've not seen this happening on any official question. It would be great if you can put up a official question where this rule is followed. I still feel that this is something new!

sayantanc2k Any views on pronoun ambiguity? Your views on the same is highly appreciated.


1. There is a rule mentioned in some good GMAT guides that all "they" / "them" / "their" in a sentence must refer to the same plural antecedent. However it appears that GMAT has recently become lenient on this issue.

2. GMAT also seems to have become lenient on the use of "like" to introduce examples.
Re: Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso &nbs [#permalink] 09 Feb 2017, 08:19

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Especially in the early years, new entrepreneurs may need to find reso

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