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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and

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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2010, 23:23
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Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
If you know the historian's position you have the answer . OA after the discussion
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 02:14
imo D
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 02:28
nusmavrik wrote:
Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and techniques that are fundamental to modern calculus. Leibniz developed closely analogous concepts and techniques. It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent. Researchers have, however, recently discovered notes of Leibniz’ that discuss one of Newton’s books on mathematics. Several scholars have argued that since the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques, and since the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques, it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false. A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however. Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

In the historian’s reasoning, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.
B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.
C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.
D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.
E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
If you know the historian's position you have the answer . OA after the discussion

First of all I liked the way you fooled people by using the spoiler but did not reveal the answer :D

You got a good sense of humour

Anyway, going back to the question now.

We break the argument we will see there is an initial statement that both Newton and Leibniz came up with their findings independently. Refer 2nd line ("It has traditionally been thought that these discoveries were independent")

And then historian presents evidence that Leibniz mentioned something about newton work blah blah but all this was mentioned before Leibniz started his work and hence Leibniz copied Newton's work -- This is an intermediate conclusion.

And after this Historian again says "A more cautious conclusion than this is called for, however."

And then he presents evidence which goes against the intermediate conclusion.

Historian is ultimately saying that Leibniz came up with his findings independently.

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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 05:33
D it is!!
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 11:49
I would go for C.

The Historian is of the view that Leibniz's findings may not be completely independent, where he says that 'it is virtually certain that the traditional view is false', the traditional view being that both's findings were completely independent. So this is Historian's Intermediate conclusion.

Next, he presents a 'more cautious' or rather a diplomatic conclusion in the last statement that is widely accepted, but not true (according to him), which thus, provides evidence to oppose the intermediate conclusion i.e his opinion.

Nice one! Please provide OA with explanation.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 12:17
I think its "C"
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2010, 12:52
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I think it's either C or D, but I can't make out.

The name of the person is Gottfriend Leibniz, in case anyone wanted to know. Maybe that's why we got fried on this question. :D (Terrible, I know, but oh well)
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 01:31
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Yes the OA is D. GMAT is playing hard !

Historian Position : A more cautious conclusion than this is called for. this means that historian has differed from the previous position and hence is calling for a CAUTIOUS conclusion.

Previous Position : Newton's and Leibnitz's discoveries were independent. (Traditional view)

A. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is evidence that has been used to support an opposing position.

Problem : The first bold part is the evidence in support of the Researcher’s position. Historians don't defend Researcher’s position.

B. The first provides evidence in support of the overall position that the historian defends; the second is that position.

Problem : The first bold part is the evidence in support of the Researcher’s position. Historians don't defend Researcher’s position. The second is an evidence NOT the position.

C. The first provides evidence in support of an intermediate conclusion that is drawn to provide support for the overall position that the historian defends; the second provides evidence against that intermediate conclusion.

Problem : The first bold part is the evidence in support of the Researcher's position which is NOT defended by the historian. There is no intermediate conclusion.

D. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is evidence offered in support of the historian’s own position.

Answer. The first bold part is the evidence in support of the Researcher's conclusion which is criticized by the historian . The second bold part is evidence in support of the historian’s position

E. The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion that the historian criticizes; the second is further information that substantiates that evidence.

Problem : The first bold part is the evidence in support of the Researcher’s position. The second bold part is the evidence itself NOT the "information that substantiates that evidence."
That was very lengthy !
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Last edited by nusmavrik on 05 Sep 2010, 05:56, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 01:56
Good question.....U have the heading hard one and that made me all the more cautious ....I think that is the reason I went for the correct answer ...
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 06:20
I went for E!
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 09:33
clearly D.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2010, 13:38
Definitely an interesting question. This was one of the 700 level ones I am assuming? It was easy to miss the intricacies. Good job. +1!
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2010, 11:18
Really nice one
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2010, 03:43
Traditional view: Discoveries by Newton and Leibniz were independent.

Scholar's view: Traditional view is false.
Premises in support of scholar's view:
1) the book includes a presentation of Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques
2) the notes were written before Leibniz’ own development of calculus concepts and techniques

Historian's view: A more cautious conclusion than this (Scholar's conclusion) is called for, however.
Premise in support of Historian's view:
Leibniz’ notes are limited to early sections of Newton’s book, sections that precede the ones in which Newton’s calculus concepts and techniques are presented.

Hence D.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2010, 02:46
wow great question !!

I was stuck between c and D and went for C

What is the source?
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2010, 08:28
wow very challenging
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2010, 18:45
I almost misread the title as Hard ON
Either ways....after 3 minutes+ got it as C
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2010, 18:28
Awesome question. It has to be D. Got confused on what was the Historian's stand. Took me six minutes to figure out :D.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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22 May 2011, 15:43
I guess it should be C...
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and [#permalink]

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23 May 2011, 01:46
well the intermediate conclusion does not really support the main position of the argument.Options A to C are clearly POE'ed.

Option D is clear as there is a criticism done by the author more so he provides an evidence too to support his claim.
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Re: Historian: Newton developed mathematical concepts and   [#permalink] 23 May 2011, 01:46

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