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# In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of

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In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2012, 13:17
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Question 1
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based on 1722 sessions

88% (02:21) correct 12% (01:52) wrong

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In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist, multinational comparison of women’s electoral participation ever to use election data and survey data together. His study analyzed women’s patterns of voting, political candidacy, and political activism in four European countries during the first half of the twentieth century. Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote) and were slightly more conservative.

Duverger’s work set an early standard for the sensitive analysis of women’s electoral activities. Moreover, to Duverger’s credit, he placed his findings in the context of many of the historical processes that had shaped these activities. However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings. In addition, Duverger’s discussion of his findings was hampered by his failure to consider certain specific factors important to women’s electoral participation at the time he collected his data: the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men. Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
87. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) evaluate a research study
(B) summarize the history of a research area
(C) report new research findings
(D) reinterpret old research findings
(E) reconcile conflicting research findings

88. According to the passage, Duverger's study was unique in 1955 in that it

(A) included both election data and survey data
(B) gathered data from sources never before used in political studies
(C) included an analysis of historical processes
(D) examined the influence on voting behavior of the relationships between women and men
(E) analyzed not only voting and political candidacy but also other political activities

89. Which of the following characteristics of a country is most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?

(A) A large population
(B) A predominantly Protestant population
(C) A predominantly urban population
(D) A one-party government
(E) Location in the heart of Europe

90. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are

(A) limited because they focus on only four countries
(B) inaccurate in their description of the four countries in the early 1950s
(C) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today
(D) flawed because they are based on unsound data
(E) biased by Duverger’s political beliefs

9l. The passage implies that, in comparing four European countries, Duverger found that the voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women

(A) were most politically active
(B) ran for office most often
(C) held the most conservative political views
(D) had the most egalitarian relations with men
(E) had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time

92. The author implies that some behavioralist research involving the multinational study of women's political participation that followed Duverger's study did which of the following?

(A) Ignored Duverger's approach
(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger's study
(C) Focused on political activism
(D) Focused on the influences of political regimes
(E) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men

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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2012, 22:32
“However, since these contexts have changed
over time, Duverger’s approach has proved [u]more
durable than his actual findings. ”
pay attention to the phrase"more than",which means the actual findings is not that durable.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2012, 08:41
were that women voted somewhat less frequently
than men (the difference narrowing the longer
women had the vote) and were.....

So the above statement explains that the country where the difference in voting rate between men and women were less in that country women had less time to vote.....
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2012, 11:52
Did in 11.40 secs.
got 3 wrong (87, 90, 91)

Selected E for 87, but one more look assured me that A is the ans.
Understood Ques 90, but not 91.

can some1 explain again?
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2012, 12:10
ravstime,

Refer to this line in the first para " Duverger’s research findings
were that women voted somewhat less frequently
than men (the difference narrowing the longer
) "
clearly suggesting E
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2012, 11:45
Regarding 90 Qn, can any 1 explain why can'nt answer be d - "flawed because they are based on unsound data ". Because the D findings did not include certain factors( like the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men ) and so data is unsound. I also agree that the findings are outdated.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2012, 21:06
What is the OE for 92?

92. The author implies that some behavioralist research
involving the multinational study of women's political
participation that followed Ouverger's study did which
of the following?

I couldn't find any mention of any research that was done following Ouverger's study. The whole passage was devoted to his work.

Is the below the excerpt from which the answer is derived? Any experts can comment on this.

Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2012, 13:20
2
1
Sure it is
foreshadowed - --- Be a warning or indication of (a future event).

it implies tat Duverger’s study is a vvarning for (of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation)

earlier it says ...
Given this failure

this implies that both have committed the same mistake .....

B

(A) Ignored Ouverger's approach ----------------foreshadowed ///
(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in Ouverger's study
(C) Focused on political activism ...{women’s political participation. NOT equal to political activism }
(D) Focused on the influences of political regimes ...(not equal to limitations )
(E) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men--- (not mentioned ) B

mourinhogmat1 wrote:
What is the OE for 92?

92. The author implies that some behavioralist research
involving the multinational study of women's political
participation that followed Ouverger's study did which
of the following?

I couldn't find any mention of any research that was done following Ouverger's study. The whole passage was devoted to his work.

Is the below the excerpt from which the answer is derived? Any experts can comment on this.

Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2013, 00:07
2
87. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) the author evaluated the findings of a scholar... Correct!
(B) Heck no!
(C) this is too passive... The author did evaluation more than just reporting... False....
(D) the author did not reinterpret anything. False...
(E) the passage is about the assessment of a set of findings from one scholar... False.

88. According to the passage, Duverger's study was
unique in 1955 in that it

"In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The
Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist,
multinational comparison of women’s electoral
participation ever to use election data and survey
data together"

(A) included both election data and survey data

89. Which of the following characteristics of a country is
most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as
described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?

Three things he failed to consider: political regime, economic factors, ramifications in relationship between men and women...

(D) A one-party government - Political regime.. Correct!

90. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are

The author did not say that the study of four countries is limited or led to in accuracy. Hence, A and B are incorrect.

(C) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today

C is correct. He says the approach is more durable than the findings. Durability means enduring through time.

(D) flawed because they are based on unsound data

Why is D wrong? The data considered by the scholar was found by the author to be first with its combo of survey data and election data. That's positive. But it just failed to consider other factors. The data used is not necessarily unsound. It was just insufficient.

(E) biased by Duverger’s political beliefs

E was not mentioned anywhere.

9l. The passage implies that, in comparing four European
countries, Ouverger found that the voting rates of
women and men were most different in the country in
which women

I got this wrong.

92. The author implies that some behavioralist research
involving the multinational study of women's political
participation that followed Ouverger's study did which
of the following?

Foreshadow implies it was like a model for its successors...
Hence, A is wrong.

Since, it was foreshadowed by Duverger then it would not be based on data it failed to consider. Hence, D and E are out.

C is not mentioned anywhere.

(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in
Ouverger's study
B is correct.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2013, 11:52
countonhearts wrote:
Need the answer for question 91, can someone help me..
I answered : AADCCB.. Time I took 12 minutes... pathetic.. need to speed up

" Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote) and were slightly more conservative. "

The opposite of this wud be:-
voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women
(E) had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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11 Aug 2013, 10:03
roopika2990 wrote:
I chose D for q90 .. why is it wrong? ... The data is unsound since it is not durable ...

Read the 4th line, Second Para
"However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings."
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2015, 00:04
#90 D "unsound data" is like there is some problems/flaws when collecting data. If data is not good, the results won't be ok, just like B, the same reason like you analyse option B. Your reason for D is thinking the 3 factors in Line 21-27. Pay attention to this sentence. We can short it to "D's discussion was hampered by 3 factors". A discussion in research papers is to interpret/analyse the results and discuss the limitations that the writer has been considered. Here the author, not the writer, presented 3 more factors that the author think "Discussion" would be better, if the writer add these 3 factors when discuss his findings. So, discussion part has no relation to the data part.

First time to response. I hope I make it clear.

mbaiseasy wrote:
87. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) the author evaluated the findings of a scholar... Correct!
(B) Heck no!
(C) this is too passive... The author did evaluation more than just reporting... False....
(D) the author did not reinterpret anything. False...
(E) the passage is about the assessment of a set of findings from one scholar... False.

88. According to the passage, Duverger's study was
unique in 1955 in that it

"In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The
Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist,
multinational comparison of women’s electoral
participation ever to use election data and survey
data together"

(A) included both election data and survey data

89. Which of the following characteristics of a country is
most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as
described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?

Three things he failed to consider: political regime, economic factors, ramifications in relationship between men and women...

(D) A one-party government - Political regime.. Correct!

90. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are

The author did not say that the study of four countries is limited or led to in accuracy. Hence, A and B are incorrect.

(C) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today

C is correct. He says the approach is more durable than the findings. Durability means enduring through time.

(D) flawed because they are based on unsound data

Why is D wrong? The data considered by the scholar was found by the author to be first with its combo of survey data and election data. That's positive. But it just failed to consider other factors. The data used is not necessarily unsound. It was just insufficient.

(E) biased by Duverger’s political beliefs

E was not mentioned anywhere.

9l. The passage implies that, in comparing four European
countries, Ouverger found that the voting rates of
women and men were most different in the country in
which women

I got this wrong.

92. The author implies that some behavioralist research
involving the multinational study of women's political
participation that followed Ouverger's study did which
of the following?

Foreshadow implies it was like a model for its successors...
Hence, A is wrong.

Since, it was foreshadowed by Duverger then it would not be based on data it failed to consider. Hence, D and E are out.

C is not mentioned anywhere.

(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in
Ouverger's study
B is correct.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2016, 22:17
I'm quite uncomfortable with this sentence "the difference narrowing the longer
Does this mean the difference of men and woman voting rates narrows the time that women have for voting?
Why shouldn't the sentence be "the difference narrower, the longer
Can anyone shine some light on it, please?
BTW, I'm not a native speaker T^T.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2017, 17:43
Can you please explain why OA for Q91 is E and not C ?
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2017, 05:34
1
Can you please explain why OA for Q91 is E and not C ?

6:43 All correct

Let me try
If you read "Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote)"

The text in bracket is the difference in voting rates of men and women were less in those countries where women have possessed the right of vote for the longest time.

Questions asks "voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women" = gap was highest in the country where women have possessed the right of vote for the shortest time

Hope it is not confusing
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2017, 18:06
Can you please explain why OA for Q91 is E and not C ?

mynamegoeson did wonderfully here, but it's a good question, so here's another crack at it.

The answer to this question lies in the last sentence of the first paragraph: "Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote)".

In other words, women voted less frequently than men, but the more time that had passed since women obtained the right to vote, the smaller the difference between the voting rate of men and the voting rate of women was in one of those countries. Thus, "the voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time" (E).

The author makes no connection between levels of women's political activism and the difference in voting rates of women and men, so (A) can be eliminated.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2017, 03:39
2
arvind910619 wrote:
All correct except last question took 6 minutes .
Can anyone explain answer to the last question ?

Hi arvind910619 ,

Understanding the following sentence makes it simple to answer the last question.

It says "Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.".

It means what Duverger did is similar to what they did and Duverger was blamed for the work that "Hey Duverger, you are the actual culprit Man". Thus Duverger overshadowed their limitations.

This implies they had faults similar to what Mr Duverger had. Hence, B is correct.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2017, 16:30
3
betterscore wrote:
In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist, multinational comparison of women’s electoral participation ever to use election data and survey data together. His study analyzed women’s patterns of voting, political candidacy, and political activism in four European countries during the first half of the twentieth century. Duverger’s research findings were that women voted somewhat less frequently than men (the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote) and were slightly more conservative.

Duverger’s work set an early standard for the sensitive analysis of women’s electoral activities. Moreover, to Duverger’s credit, he placed his findings in the context of many of the historical processes that had shaped these activities. However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings. In addition, Duverger’s discussion of his findings was hampered by his failure to consider certain specific factors important to women’s electoral participation at the time he collected his data: the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men. Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.
The author implies that some behavioralist research involving the multinational study of women's political participation that followed Duverger's study did which of the following?

(A) Ignored Duverger's approach
(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger's study
(C) Focused on political activism
(D) Focused on the influences of political regimes
(E) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men

Passage: Duverger

Question: Infer Behavioralist

The Simple Story

MD published a certain study that was the first to use both election data and survey data together. He looked at how women participated in various aspects of the political system and showed that there were some differences compared to how men voted.

The author calls MD’s work an early standard for analyzing women’s electoral behavior; in other words, the author thinks MD did do valuable work. However, the context in which MD worked has changed over time, so the author claims that his approach is more durable than his findings. In other words, MD’s scientific process was sound, but the actual research findings no longer apply to today’s women. The author also finds fault with MD for failing to consider certain factors important to women and concludes that MD’s overall behavioralist approach is limited in various ways. In other words, the author has mixed feelings about MD’s work: some positive and some negative.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1. MD: W politics. 1st study use election + survey data. Some M/W diff.

P2. Early standard, some +
BUT times changed and MD failed to consider some stuff

Note: you might abbreviate failed to consider as FTC. This concept is common enough in RC passages that you may find yourself re-using this abbreviation in future.

Step 1: Identify the Question

The word implies in the question stem indicates that this is an Inference question. What does the passage imply about some other behavioralist research (not Duverger’s) that followed what Duverger had done?

Step 2: Find the Support

Most of the passage is about what Duverger did, but the end of the second paragraph extends to a broader group of researchers:

Given this failure, Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.”

If you don’t remember what this failure refers to, read the prior sentence to remind yourself:

Duverger’s discussion of his findings was hampered by his failure to consider certain specific factors important to women’s electoral participation at the time he collected his data: the influence of political regimes, the effects of economic factors, and the ramifications of political and social relations between women and men.”

Duverger failed to consider certain factors and, according to the author, his work foreshadowed a general limitation of this type of research approach. Apparently, others also did not consider certain factors and this caused a general limitation in the validity or applicability of the research.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage implies that other behavioralists followed Duverger’s approach, not that they ignored it.

(B) CORRECT. The passage does imply that later researchers repeated some of the same faults.

(C) The passage does not indicate on what topic(s) the other researchers focused.

(D) The passage does not indicate on what topic(s) the other researchers focused.

(E) The passage does not indicate on what topic(s) the other researchers focused.
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2017, 06:36
Some nice questions here...loved it....twists and turns ..
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2018, 16:29
87. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) evaluate a research study -

------------------------------------

88. According to the passage, Duverger's study was unique in 1955 in that it
Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of Women, the first behavioralist, multinational comparison of women’s electoral participation ever to use election data and survey data together.

(A) included both election data and survey data
----------------------------------

89. Which of the following characteristics of a country is most clearly an example of a factor that Duverger, as described in the passage, failed to consider in his study?

the influence of political regimes

(D) A one-party government
------------------------------------
90. The author implies that Duverger’s actual findings are

However, since these contexts have changed over time, Duverger’s approach has proved more durable than his actual findings.

(C) out-of-date in that they are inapplicable in the four countries today
-------------------------------------

9l. The passage implies that, in comparing four European countries, Duverger found that the voting rates of women and men were most different in the country in which women

the difference narrowing the longer women had the vote

(E) had possessed the right to vote for the shortest time

-----------------------------------------
92. The author implies that some behavioralist research involving the multinational study of women's political participation that followed Duverger's study did which of the following?

CDE are in D's theory must not be the ans. b/w A and B - cause of following lines i am incline towards B

Duverger’s study foreshadowed the enduring limitations of the behavioralist approach to the multinational study of women’s political participation.

(A) Ignored Duverger's approach
(B) Suffered from faults similar to those in Duverger's study
(C) Focused on political activism
(D) Focused on the influences of political regimes
(E) Focused on the political and social relations between women and men
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Re: In 1955 Maurice Duverger published The Political Role of   [#permalink] 08 Oct 2018, 16:29

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