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In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick

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In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 12 Mar 2019, 12:16
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In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick, elaborating on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,accurately modeled the double-helix DNA.

(A) elaborating on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(B) elaborating on other scientists’ theories failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(C) elaborating on other scientists’ theories which have failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(D) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which fail to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(E) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,

Please explain which verb-ing form / verb-ed form will be used in the above answer?

Also explain the reasoning behind. Thanks in advance!

Please explain the rules for present participle in case a noun phrase is preceding?

Originally posted by yuktipoddar on 04 Oct 2018, 18:20.
Last edited by generis on 12 Mar 2019, 12:16, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic, edited the question and added the OA.
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 18:41
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Hey yuktipoddar,

This is a really good example of prioritizing your decision points. This doesn't have to be a case of present versus past participles. It can be a case of tenses and complete versus incomplete sentences.

In terms of tenses, you know a few things: Watson and Crick modeled DNA - that means they did this in the past, since you have that -ed ending on modeled. That means that the scientists who came before needed to do their models before Watson and Crick did theirs. And since doing a model is something that ends, you know that process was done by the time Watson and Crick started. That means that you need "had failed" to correctly deal with that timeline. That eliminates everything except A and E.

Take a look at what happens if you have -ed in there (as it is in E): "In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick, elaborated on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety, accurately modeled the double-helix DNA." That first part (up to "entirety") would be a complete sentence if that comma wasn't there. You need that "-ing" ending in there to make it clear that you aren't trying to make a compound sentence (because if you were trying to make a compound sentence you'd need an "and" after that comma or you'd need to change "modeled" to "modeling")
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 20:05
"Which" begins a non essential modifier and there should be "," before it. Is that right?

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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 23:18
i m confused with A and E.
My pick was A. Please need help here
Thanks
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 11:35
guptakashish02 wrote:
i m confused with A and E.
My pick was A. Please need help here
Thanks

Verb-ed Modifiers = Modifies preceding noun or noun phrase

Hence answer must be (E)
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 14:05
I am still confused as to why option A is incorrect and E is. Could someone please break down why option A is incorrect?
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 22:38
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csaluja wrote:
I am still confused as to why option A is incorrect and E is. Could someone please break down why option A is incorrect?

Please go through the following links :

https://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ed-modi ... 25611.html

https://e-gmat.com/blogs/verb-ed-modifi ... modifiers/
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2018, 23:26
Looking at options we can see split b/w elaborating / elaborated

So here word we need to choose should act as Modifier to Watson and Crick

Ing is used for extra or more info or Result of preceding clause.
Result is not case here , also elaborating here does not get with Watson and crick here directly as iNg must make sense with subject which is not the case here

So we need to use elaborated here
b/w D and E Scientific theories are talking about past theories , we have modeled for Watson and Crick so we need to use had for scientific theories here

So E is correct answer
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 01:29
I don't understand why there is a coma after Watson and Crick.. The sentence doesn't entirely make sense to me. Please explain.. Thanks in advance :)
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 12:49
AishwaryaV12 wrote:
I don't understand why there is a coma after Watson and Crick.. The sentence doesn't entirely make sense to me. Please explain.. Thanks in advance :)



You need a comma as " elaborated on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety, " is modifying the watson & cack.
otherwise you may have 2verbs ..for a subject ...which indeed u can change by adding "and " in between.
And the verb "accurately modeled"(ie adverb+verb) is the verb in action.

Hope it helps
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2018, 22:22
Please to correct my understanding.

E. means that the idea of cardboard representation of the nucleotide subunits are based upon other scientists' theories

A. would make it seem like W&C are elaborating on the scientists' theories

is that why E is correct?
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2018, 01:03
The difference between A and E is very suttle. If this question were without ",+ING" then would the modification be correct?

Many of us might think that it will be correct since now it is modifying preceding noun.

Honestly. Going with the meaning, I do not see any difference between the two. If using -ed , we should use it without a "comma" that is as a verb to say W&C elaborated and modelled correctly.

If the sentence is to explain how they modelled it taking different factors into consideration , then the use of ING or "comma + ING" should be correct. I don't think it is right to reject an answer choice because of a comma splice, unless it is impacting the intended meaning, which in this case stays intact.

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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2018, 13:17
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Very subtle question. To decide between A and E:

WC accurately modeled the double-helix DNA.

Now, we are at a seperation point. If the act of modeling were elaborating the failed theorems, -ing would be correct. but from the meaning this is not the case. First, they did something (elaborated on the failed theorems), then by doing it (elaborating) they were able to accurately model the DNA.

Therefore, we need to modify WC, not the act of modeling the DNA. -ing modifies the clause. -ed modifies the preceding noun. Answer E.
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 10:40
generis can you explain why "c" in not the correct choice?
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 20:09
I understand the difference between verb-ed and the verb-ing but is this question a proper gmat question?? Don't we need a comma before 'which'?
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2019, 20:36
yuktipoddar wrote:
In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick, elaborating on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,accurately modeled the double-helix DNA.

(A) elaborating on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(B) elaborating on other scientists’ theories failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(C) elaborating on other scientists’ theories which have failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(D) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which fail to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,
(E) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,

Please explain which verb-ing form / verb-ed form will be used in the above answer?

Also explain the reasoning behind. Thanks in advance!

Please explain the rules for present participle in case a noun phrase is preceding?


sometimes things like which should have a comma or not, matters only when we dont want to show that the information which we are providing is not an essential one.
said that we didn't need a comma here.

which pronoun is correctly referring back to the theories.

My doubt is pertaining to the past perfect tense which is used here...

(D) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which fail to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,

(E) elaborated on other scientists’ theories which had failed to explain the nucleotide structures and pairings in their entirety,

so there is a timeline,

first the scientists elaborated on the past theories, after that, they modeled a new helix.
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2019, 20:47
Hello,
I didn't understand why E is the answer, and not A. In my humble opinion, A correctly modifies the nouns "Watson and Crick." Then, why is it incorrect? E should not be placed after a comma. Moreover, it will lead to two past tenses separated by commas i.e. "elaborated" and "modeled" which I think would make for an awkward construction.

I'd be grateful if someone could help me out with this.
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 03:27
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja
I am confused how choice E even makes sense?....They elaborated X,accurately modelled Y...cannot be the correct form..Choice A is much better in sense...

Please shed your thoughts
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 03:55
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applebear wrote:
Hello,
I didn't understand why E is the answer, and not A. In my humble opinion, A correctly modifies the nouns "Watson and Crick." Then, why is it incorrect? E should not be placed after a comma. Moreover, it will lead to two past tenses separated by commas i.e. "elaborated" and "modeled" which I think would make for an awkward construction.

I'd be grateful if someone could help me out with this.


applebear A -ing verb preceded by a comma must modify a preceding clause, not a noun/noun phrase. A clause contains a working verb. Watson and Crick is not a clause. Also, -ing modifiers preceded by a comma either add additional information to the preceding action or show a result. "Elaborated" works because -ed modifiers can modify nouns and noun phrases. Two past tenses is not a problem here because "elaborated" is working as a verb modifier whereas "modelled" is the core verb.
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2019, 04:34
anothermillenial , got it, thank you :)
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Re: In a cardboard representation of nucleotide subunits, Watson and Crick   [#permalink] 12 Mar 2019, 04:34

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