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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist

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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2015, 23:59
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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 11:06
IMO 'B'

Hope I have chosen the right option.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2016, 23:03
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In the premise, the author has stated that since American children do not take calisthenics, they are not physically fit. So, he assumes for all European children taking calisthenics is mandatory. "A" states the very same.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2018, 18:55
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'In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics.'- mentioned in question

'School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness'- means the same thing as above,then how it can be an assumption. Assumption is something which is not stated in the question.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2018, 06:11
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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.
Taxpayer resource? Out of scope

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.
Correct.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.
Argument is about the betterment of the American children as a whole and not about "all" children.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.
This would weaken the argument.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.
Teachers' capability is not the concern of the argument.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2018, 19:23
I got this question wrong - i cancelled B because it felt a very strong option "indispensable".
Conclusion: NA children can be made physically fit ONLY IF they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.
Question - Here we need to choose B - strongly worded option because conclusion uses ONLY IF - strong language?
Please clarify.
Thanks
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2018, 21:20
(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources - Out of scope

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness - Correct

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit - Out of scope

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children - This takes away the importance of calisthenics program and hence weakens the argument - [color=#ed1c24]Not correct[/color]

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program - Out of scope
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2018, 00:04
manishtank1988 wrote:
I got this question wrong - i cancelled B because it felt a very strong option "indispensable".
Conclusion: NA children can be made physically fit ONLY IF they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.
Question - Here we need to choose B - strongly worded option because conclusion uses ONLY IF - strong language?
Please clarify.
Thanks

Hi Manish !!

In this particular case, the question asks about the underlying assumption. We do not use strong words in case of inferences.

According to me assumptions are evidences based on which conclusions are made, thus, most of the times they are strong. I might be wrong in providing the reasoning. If I am please someone correct me.

You can also refer to this link...

https://gmatclub.com/forum/critical-rea ... 91280.html

Kudos !!

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In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2018, 03:25
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SonalSinha803 wrote:
manishtank1988 wrote:
I got this question wrong - i cancelled B because it felt a very strong option "indispensable".
Conclusion: NA children can be made physically fit ONLY IF they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.
Question - Here we need to choose B - strongly worded option because conclusion uses ONLY IF - strong language?
Please clarify.
Thanks

Hi Manish !!

In this particular case, the question asks about the underlying assumption. We do not use strong words in case of inferences.

According to me assumptions are evidences based on which conclusions are made, thus, most of the times they are strong. I might be wrong in providing the reasoning. If I am please someone correct me.

You can also refer to this link...

https://gmatclub.com/forum/critical-rea ... 91280.html

Kudos !!

Sent from my Lenovo K53a48 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hi Sonal,


Just my 2 cents- I did a video by Ron on CR-Strengthen & Assumption (you may find it on Manhattan Prep's website) that says Assumption answer choices are mostly generic/moderate. In fact, Weaken/Strengthen answer choices are strong statements and in general strong choices for Assumption questions should be avoided.

Although, in the question discussed here, it is more for the causality than for any other reason for the correct answer choice to be B.

The argument talks about cause (participation in calisthenics) and effect (physically fit students) relationship and this argument will break down if the cause is removed. Therefore, B.

Please correct me if you find my analysis flawed, happy to discuss.


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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2018, 20:53
Why is E not the answer and how is it out of scope?

In order for the conclusion "NA children to be physically fit, they must participate in a daily calisthenics program" to be true, isn't is assumed that there will teachers who are capable of successfully designing such a program?

I don't understand how this is out of scope. Anyone care to explain?
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2018, 21:09
Could not reach the assumption in this question
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2018, 09:31
My view on B

Cause and Effect Not mentioned in Argument. It onlu says Student attend the In Europe Student attend the Prog and They are more fit than American Students. Based on this author says American Schools also start C Pro. It is possible that Some other factor is responsible for Fitness in Europe hence if C. Prog implemented in American School it will not have intended effect. Hence in order to Conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis, author must assume Cause and Effect link between C. Prog and Fitness.

For D

There are other options such as help of expert, training teachers for designing a successful calisthenics program. Hence it does not break the Argument.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 01:17
gmatexam439 wrote:
In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.
Taxpayer resource? Out of scope

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.
Correct.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.
Argument is about the betterment of the American children as a whole and not about "all" children.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.
This would weaken the argument.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.
Teachers' capability is not the concern of the argument.


gmatexam439 how D is weakening the statement ?
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 01:53
teaserbae wrote:
gmatexam439 wrote:
In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.
Taxpayer resource? Out of scope

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.
Correct.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.
Argument is about the betterment of the American children as a whole and not about "all" children.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.
This would weaken the argument.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.
Teachers' capability is not the concern of the argument.


gmatexam439 how D is weakening the statement ?



Authot's argument : Europe has C in school programs > European child physically better
NA does not have such SChool programs > NA child physically weak.
conclusion : Install C in NA schools > NA child can get physically better ...
The author assumes that C in schools is the cause of physic in European children.. cause - C in schools , effect - physically better
He also assumes that there arent any other possible causes which could help EU child get physically better...


why B??
B says that the C programm in schools is mandatory . Negate it- C program is not mandatory ( voluntary) , ie children can attend the program if THEY WANT TO... This tells us that the EU child himself is eager to learn C and wants to get physically strong.. How does this weaken argument?? Author says that the C in program has helped EU child get physically stong .. and then concludes that ONLY C in schools in NA can physically make NA child strong... negating B tells us that the two samples ( NA and EU child) are not comparative ... The EU child himself wats to get strong ...but this may not be the case in NA ...even if we install C in schools in NA , the child may still not improve ... By saying ONLY C will help kills his argument.

why not D ??
D says EU child enjoys PHY more than NA child....so this is directly giving us an alternative cause as to why EU child is stronger than NA child ...because if he enjoys more he is likely to excercise more ...Here the two samples cannot be compared now...

gmatexam439 i hope you dont mind me resolving his doubt....
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 21:10
Can anyone please explain this question using e-GMAT's pre-thinking concept?

I came up with the falsification question: "Under what circumstances, North American children can made physically fit not just by participating in school calisthenics on a daily basis"?

Possible answers: 1. NA children can perform exercise outside of school
2. Teachers can come up with a different, more efficient schedule for exercise.

Can anyone please help me understand this? Any help from egmat would be great.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 22:12
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abyshek wrote:
Can anyone please explain this question using e-GMAT's pre-thinking concept?

I came up with the falsification question: "Under what circumstances, North American children can made physically fit not just by participating in school calisthenics on a daily basis"?

Possible answers: 1. NA children can perform exercise outside of school
2. Teachers can come up with a different, more efficient schedule for exercise.

Can anyone please help me understand this? Any help from egmat would be great.


In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calisthenics. North American schools rarely offer a daily calisthenics program. Tests prove that North American children are weaker, slower, and shorter-winded than European children. We must conclude that North American children can be made physically fit only if they participate in school calisthenics on a daily basis.

Step 1) understand the argument:
- in E schoolchildren devote time to C during each school day
- NA children are weak, bla bla bla
- NA schools do not offer C( even though it's given "rarely"... We'll consider "no program"..doesn't really affect the argument)
-conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Which of the following is an assumption required by the argument above?
Question- ASSUMPTION

Prethinking-

conlusion: ONLY C in school program in NA daily > NA children physically fit.

Falsification:
1)under what circumstance will NA children not get physically fit even if we put up C in schools on daily basis.?
2) under what circumstances will NA children get physically fit even if no C is put up

GIVEN THAT : EC devote time to C daily
EC fit than NAC
NA does not have C

Thought process:
Understand author's logic ( we do this step after falsification condition if you remember the videos)
The author first states the conditions in E. He says EC devote time to C in schools on daily basis. Then he presents a result that EC are physically fit than NAC.
Now before concluding he must have Thot that the program is making the EC stronger .
See he is actually linking two pieces together. A: EC devote time . B: EC stronger than NA.
He thinks that A lead to B.
Now the two situations can actually coexist without causal relationship. There can just be a coincidence. Even B could've lead to A. That is if EC are physically fit then that is why they attend calisthenics.
What if calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness??? Then how can author conclude that C will lead to NA fitness??

Where you went adrift is you just focused on the falsification condition and tried to come up with your answers and did not look into author's reasoning..
If you look at the videos carefully you will see that when we put up the falsification condition we say
What if bla bla bla , GIVEN THAT.... (The given that is the main logic where you have to attack)..you have to disprove author's logic he presents with the question. )

Falsification scenario: the calisthenics did not lead to EC fitness , something else did.. so author cannot make a link to conclude.
Assumption 1): calisthenics lead to EC fitness and nothing else did

attack 2) what if there is some other way to increase NAC fitness?? Maybe gym? Any reason will do.
Assumption 2) : nothing else can can make /increase NAC fitness

( Now you try to solve each answer choice with the process in your head. Third process is ANS choice analysis. But you do it so that you'll understand how the ans is relevant..you won't even need to negate the AC)

(A) Physical fitness is a compelling national priority worthy of taxpayer resources.

(B) School calisthenics programs are an indispensable factor in European student fitness.

(C) All children can be made equally physically fit.

(D) European schoolchildren enjoy physical activities more than do American children.

(E) American physical education teachers are capable of designing a successful calisthenics program.


If you have any doubts, please ask ( but also present your analysis)

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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 00:01
Narrowed it down to B and E.
In pre thinking I thought that American schools should be able to implement a calisthenics program. Then only we can think about improving the physical fitness. E states this.
B looked way to strong. Even if it is indispensable , how is that important to improving fitness in American schools.?Yes it is a factor but indispensable or not , why is that important.?
Thats why Chose E.
Can someone explain how my approach was wrong?
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 00:56
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Micky1005 wrote:
Narrowed it down to B and E.
In pre thinking I thought that American schools should be able to implement a calisthenics program. Then only we can think about improving the physical fitness. E states this.
B looked way to strong. Even if it is indispensable , how is that important to improving fitness in American schools.?Yes it is a factor but indispensable or not , why is that important.?
Thats why Chose E.
Can someone explain how my approach was wrong?


Micky1005 I was confused with the same but chose B because of following -

For E, anybody can design the program. It doesn't necessarily has to be the teachers doing that. If we negate this statement, it does weaken the argument but does not shatter it completely.

If we negate B on the other hand, it does shatter the conclusion. If calisthenics is not integrated completely with European Students development, then there is no point for American students to follow that daily.
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 03:17
rahul6019 wrote:
Micky1005 wrote:
Narrowed it down to B and E.
In pre thinking I thought that American schools should be able to implement a calisthenics program. Then only we can think about improving the physical fitness. E states this.
B looked way to strong. Even if it is indispensable , how is that important to improving fitness in American schools.?Yes it is a factor but indispensable or not , why is that important.?
Thats why Chose E.
Can someone explain how my approach was wrong?


Micky1005 I was confused with the same but chose B because of following -

For E, anybody can design the program. It doesn't necessarily has to be the teachers doing that. If we negate this statement, it does weaken the argument but does not shatter it completely.

If we negate B on the other hand, it does shatter the conclusion. If calisthenics is not integrated completely with European Students development, then there is no point for American students to follow that daily.



Hi "rahul6019"

Thanks for the prompt reply.

Yes If we negate E, argument doesn't shatter completely. But if we negate B- " is not an indispensable factor" , the argument still doesn't collapse. It is not an indispensable factor, but it still could be a factor. Right?
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Re: In Europe, schoolchildren devote time during each school day to calist  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 06:15
Micky1005 wrote:
rahul6019 wrote:
Micky1005 wrote:
Narrowed it down to B and E.
In pre thinking I thought that American schools should be able to implement a calisthenics program. Then only we can think about improving the physical fitness. E states this.
B looked way to strong. Even if it is indispensable , how is that important to improving fitness in American schools.?Yes it is a factor but indispensable or not , why is that important.?
Thats why Chose E.
Can someone explain how my approach was wrong?


Micky1005 I was confused with the same but chose B because of following -

For E, anybody can design the program. It doesn't necessarily has to be the teachers doing that. If we negate this statement, it does weaken the argument but does not shatter it completely.

If we negate B on the other hand, it does shatter the conclusion. If calisthenics is not integrated completely with European Students development, then there is no point for American students to follow that daily.



Hi "rahul6019"

Thanks for the prompt reply.

Yes If we negate E, argument doesn't shatter completely. But if we negate B- " is not an indispensable factor" , the argument still doesn't collapse. It is not an indispensable factor, but it still could be a factor. Right?



Hi Micky1005, this is "Must have" vs "Should have" question type. If calisthenics is a should have factor and not a must have, American students can still attain fitness without it and this breaks the argument. But if it is a must have, then there is no way to bypass it. Option B states the same i.e. calisthenics is a factor that cannot be avoided or to attain Y, X has to be present. If you negate it, it becomes calisthenics is not necessarily required to attain physical fitness and that breaks the whole argument.
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