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# Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao

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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 13:18
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1
Hi All,
I have a very basic doubt regarding the antecedent of pronoun "their ". We donot have any clear antecedent subject for their. I mean what we have is "the release of African honeybees", can African honeybees work as antecedent of their ?

I know its a very basic question but please respond.

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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2017, 10:09
1
shalabhg27 wrote:
Hi All,
I have a very basic doubt regarding the antecedent of pronoun "their ". We donot have any clear antecedent subject for their. I mean what we have is "the release of African honeybees", can African honeybees work as antecedent of their ?

I know its a very basic question but please respond.

Dear shalabhg27,

I'm happy to respond.

Here's the OA version, (A):
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendants, popularly known as killer bees, had migrated as far north as Southern Texas.

The antecedent of "their" is "African honeybees." It doesn't matter at all that the antecedent was the object of a preposition.

Does all this make sense?
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 16:38
1
sandipchowdhury wrote:
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendents, popular known as killer bees had migrated as far north as Southern Texas.

A. Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
B. In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
C. In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
D. It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when
E. It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then

"Less than 35 years" is just a modifier introducing the situation.

The sequence is:

* 35 years ago, some bees were released
* Over the next 35 years, the bees move north
* And now those bees are in Texas

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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 01:30
1
smanujahrc wrote:
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendants, popularly known as killer bees, had migrated as far north as southern Texas.

A) Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

C) In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

D) It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when

E) It took less than the 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then

In the correct choice, Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,, I believe the clause should start with in as in option B. Without the in, the opening modifier doesn't seem to appropriately modify their descendents
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 03:12
1
Can somebody please explain why "had migrated" is used here and , what is the sequence of events. According to MGMAT "had" is used only when you want to denote an action or event occurred prior to some past event.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 04:14
onkargm wrote:
Can somebody please explain why "had migrated" is used here and , what is the sequence of events. According to MGMAT "had" is used only when you want to denote an action or event occurred prior to some past event.

Hi onkargm ,

I think you misread something here.

There are two uses of 'had'.

1. Used to denote an earlier action out of two actions in the past.
2. Simple past usage.

Here, in this question, the sentence is talking about the past event and its the simple past usage and not the one you are thinking.

It is saying: Their descendants had migrated as far north as southern Texas. --> Simple Past usage.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2017, 12:34
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendents, popularly known as killer bees, had migrated as far north as Southern Texas.

(A) Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, -Correct.
(B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, -"releasing" is wrongly used here
(C) In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, -"perfect tense" is not required
(D) It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when -Not a complete sentence.
(E) It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then -Incorrect joining of the clauses.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 01:58
GMATNinja egmat VeritasPrepKarishma

Is the opening phrase which includes - the release of - a modifier?
Is release treated as a noun or verb?
What is the earlier event that precedes -had migrated - in OA ?

I have clear verbs - took and were released - in (E) but even then we discarded it.Can you share the PoE?
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 02:12
1
GMATNinja egmat VeritasPrepKarishma

Is the opening phrase which includes - the release of - a modifier?
Is release treated as a noun or verb?
What is the earlier event that precedes -had migrated - in OA ?

I have clear verbs - took and were released - in (E) but even then we discarded it.Can you share the PoE?

Note the use of "the" before release. You cannot use an article before a verb. Release is a noun here.

The verb "had migrated" is in past perfect but here is the point - it is not underlined so we don't have to worry about it. Perhaps the sentences before or after it use simple past and here past perfect gives the context - for example, five years later, they were found in Louisiana too.

Mind you, past perfect often has a later event (not earlier as you mentioned) in simple past though it is not necessary. Check here: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2015/0 ... questions/
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Aug 2018, 05:46
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The problem with D is the use of the conjunction 'when'. We don't use 'when' to denote a 35-year span. When as a conjunction is used to pinpoint a specific point of time. If we ascribe 'when' to the entire period, then we are in effect saying that the bees had migrated at the beginning of 35 years, had completed the migration yet again in the middle of the course, and then finally had migrated at the end of the specified 35-year stint.
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Originally posted by daagh on 16 Aug 2018, 05:31.
Last edited by daagh on 16 Aug 2018, 05:46, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2018, 17:58
sandipchowdhury wrote:
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendents, popularly known as killer bees, had migrated as far north as Southern Texas.

(A) Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
(B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
(C) In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
(D) It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when
(E) It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then

My summary after reading through multiple posts and multiple forums:

This question uses the past perfect tense without the use of another action. Past perfect tense refers to an action which happened after the release of the bees and within the next 35 years. By the end of 35 years, it was already done

Choice B: Choice B uses 'releasing African..'. Since the phrase uses 'releasing', the doer of the action should follow the phrase, which as per sentence is 'their descendants' which is non-sensical.

Choice C: This choice uses 'had been released' to reflect the release as the earlier of 2 events, and the usage is correct. But the non-underlined portion contains past perfect to represent a later event, and hence there is an issue in the sequencing.
Also, this choice uses 'the 35 years'. When you use 'the', then you are pretty specific. Without an end time marker, the 35 years' refers to 35 years from the past till as of today, due to which the sentence will then require the present perfect tense.

Choice D: When is used to indicate simultaneous actions. As per this sentence, the descendants' migration took place with the release of the honeybees, which destroys the sequencing of the event. Also, the sentence is incomplete.
The sentence in original form is It took less than 35 years from X, when Y. Now, the question in mind is What took less than 35 years? You still don't know, and the sentence should tell you.

Choice E: Uses 'the 35 years', which is wrong. Uses 'were released' for an earlier action, which is also wrong.

Additional tip: This sentence uses 'less' instead of 'fewer'. This is because year is treated as a continuous quantity here, which is generally true.

Hope it helps! Let me know that using Kudos!!
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Mar 2020, 20:31
this test "had done" and time preposition

"in" is used to say some thing happen in a period or after a period
I live in us in 2000
I will lease in 2 hours.

to used "had done" we need a point of time, not a period, so, choice A "after..." show a point of time in the past which is fit with "had done" which need a point of time in the past to show an action happening before this point of time

Originally posted by thangvietnam on 29 Aug 2018, 02:08.
Last edited by thangvietnam on 17 Mar 2020, 20:31, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2018, 06:48
1
Can a pronoun point to a noun in a prepositional phrase?
For option (A), the main subject noun is "the release". I struck off (A) as the correct answer because I thought there is only a possible antecedent, which is "the release", but it does not match up with "their".

Your help would be greatly appreciated!
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2018, 07:19
1
Yes,it can If you understand the meaning of the sentence, 'their' has only one logical antecedent i.e 'honeybees'. Pronoun ambiguity should be last thing that you should consider to rule out any choice.

Thanks
Please press kudos if my response helped you in any way

bottlebattle wrote:
Can a pronoun point to a noun in a prepositional phrase?
For option (A), the main subject noun is "the release". I struck off (A) as the correct answer because I thought there is only a possible antecedent, which is "the release", but it does not match up with "their".

Your help would be greatly appreciated!
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2019, 13:19
Hi! Why is the past perfect correct in this SC?
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2019, 18:16
we need to differentiate between a point of time and a length of time.
for 3 days, I learned english. this is a period of time
3 days after graduating, I learned english. this is a point of time.

a point of time is modified normally by a phrase.

here, we need a point of time in the past so that Had migrated is meaningful
less than 35 year... is a point of time. this is good
in less than 35 year... is a length of time. this can not fit with had migrated
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 21:03
Hi egmat !

1) First of all, I could not understand the difference between Less than and In less than split in the question. The first one sounded weird, that's why I ended up choosing Answer B.

2) Because of the usage of "had" in the underlined portion of the sentence, it appears that migration happened before the release of African honeybees. The point is, I'm unable to visualize the events on a timeline.

3) Why exactly is the usage of since in the answer choices incorrect? - since releasing African honeybees - seems to be at a certain point in time [ since a specific event ] .

None of the answers here seem to satisfy me.

Thankyou!
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 01:27
sandipchowdhury wrote:
Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, their descendents, popularly known as killer bees, had migrated as far north as Southern Texas.

(A) Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

(B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

(C) In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,

(D) It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when

(E) It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then

I refer the elimination method to find the correct answer as below:
(A) Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
Among all, this is the best choice

(B) In less than 35 years since releasing African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
There is pronoun error in this construction. "their descendents" does not have meaningful pronoun antecedent.

(C) In less than the 35 years since African honeybees had been released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil,
There is vert-tense error in this construction. The Past perfect tense clause "African honeybees had been released" has to have another sequential event (in past simple or present perfect tense) placed after this event for proper verb sequencing.

(D) It took less than 35 years from the release of African honeybees outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, when
This construction changes the intended meaning of the original sentence.

(E) It took less than 35 years after the time that African honeybees were released outside Sao Paulo, Brazil, and then[/quote]
This construction changes the intended meaning of the original sentence.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 01:33
578vishnu wrote:
Hi egmat !

1) First of all, I could not understand the difference between Less than and In less than split in the question. The first one sounded weird, that's why I ended up choosing Answer B.

2) Because of the usage of "had" in the underlined portion of the sentence, it appears that migration happened before the release of African honeybees. The point is, I'm unable to visualize the events on a timeline.

3) Why exactly is the usage of since in the answer choices incorrect? - since releasing African honeybees - seems to be at a certain point in time [ since a specific event ] .

None of the answers here seem to satisfy me.

Thankyou!

In option B, there is pronoun error in this construction. "their descendants" does not have meaningful pronoun antecedent.
In option C, There is vert-tense error in this construction. The Past perfect tense clause "African honeybees had been released" has to have another sequential event (in past simple or present perfect tense) that occurred after this event for proper verb sequencing.
In option D & E, this construction changes the intended meaning of the original sentence.
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Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 22:28
Hi Experts!

1) First of all, I could not understand the difference between Less than and In less than split in the question. The first one sounded weird, that's why I ended up choosing Answer B.

2) Because of the usage of "had" in the underlined portion of the sentence, it appears that migration happened before the release of African honeybees. The point is, I'm unable to visualize the events on a timeline.

3) Why exactly is the usage of since in the answer choices incorrect? - since releasing African honeybees - seems to be at a certain point in time [ since a specific event ] .

None of the answers here seem to satisfy me.

Thankyou!
Re: Less than 35 years after the release of African honeybees outside Sao   [#permalink] 18 Jul 2019, 22:28

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