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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to

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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2009, 19:13
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A
B
C
D
E

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 123

Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease

(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again

(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again

(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again

(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again

First Glance

A long underline with multiple commas points to potential Modifier, Meaning, and Parallelism issues.

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New post 31 May 2011, 13:40
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Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease
Correct.
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again.
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again.
moderate alcohol consumption - caused them to begin to grow again. Changes the meaning because the report, not the consumption caused the growth.
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again
"red wine" incorrectly refers to consumption.
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again.
reduced risk started them growing again.

Ans: "A"
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New post 16 Dec 2013, 20:00
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but thev began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.


I came to correct choice A , by meaning analysis compared to other choice .
Just one query- about the role of " particularly of red wine"

The construction is parallel

Is this a list ? - If is a list then why comma came before and ? [ I think it is not a list - red wine doesn't talk about moderate consumption]
Is this a modifier ? - Then what is the use of and after comma ? What will be the error if I write

linked moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly of red wine, [construction kept same - no parallelism error] .

Please help .

Regards
Sreshtha.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 01:19
1
kiranjith wrote:
In choice A why isn't ",and" in ", and particularly of red wine, with ...." not followed by a Independent clause?Isn't that mandatory?is "and" really necessary?


Consider the sentence,

The report linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly (consumption) of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

We are talking about a list - consumption of alcohol, consumption of red wine and so 'and' is separating the two entities in the list. The removal of that extra consumption is called ellipsis, and as long as the sentence is clear, you can omit repeated or obvious words.

Usually ellipsis comes to play during comparisons and while introducing examples (as shown above)
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New post 17 May 2016, 06:52
sukanyar wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Second, verb-ing or present participle modifiers can be used to modify verbs.
She went home crying. How did she go home? crying. "How" question leads to modifier.

I get confused in differentiating "present participle" and "gerunds".

She went home crying

seems equivalent to

She went (home) crying

So, it looks like "crying" is the object of the verb "went". When I looked up on the net (for example http://www.grammaring.com/the-differenc ... participle), it says that if it is object of verb, then it is "Gerund". :roll:


Hi,
crying cannot be the object, BECAUSE an object is supposed to be the recipient of action...
Yes, home is the recipient - went WHERE? to HOME...
BUT crying is not the recipient..

Generally what I have read and observed is -
if you remove the gerund, the sentence does not stand on its own because it is a noun..
If you remove the participle , the sentence can stand and the reason must be that it is non essential- acts as an adjective so extra info..


here She went home crying...
remove crying... She went home.. perfectly fine as a sentence.....

lets see where crying can act as a gerund..
Crying babies are difficult to handle OR
i do not like CRYING babies...... here CRYING babies is the direct object of like..

Hope it helps
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 08:15
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


chetan2u wrote:
sukanyar wrote:
Hi chetan2u, thanks for your response. What you are saying makes complete sense.

I had one more doubt. sayantanc2k has mentioned that "crying" is modifying the verb "went". But rather than asking the question: How did she go home? Can we not ask the question: Who was crying? She. So, "crying" is a participle modifying "she" (and not modifying verb "went").


Hi sukanyar,
I will differ on that.
Participal phrases by definition are verbals that act as adjective, so it will always modify a NOUN or PRONOUN..
and yes, I too believe 'crying' is modifying SHE


Ofcourse. Chetan and Sukanya, I too agree with both of you. Definitely a present participle modifier may ALSO act as a noun modifier and hence can be considered to be modifying "she". Nonetheless it can act as a verb modifier as well, as I mentioned in my previous post.

Following is an excerpt from Manhattan SC guide, which may be useful to understand the dual usage better:

"Some verb modifiers may apply to both the verb and the verbs subject. In these cases, you must make sure that the subject makes sense with the modifier.

WHISTLING "Beat It.", I lifted the weight. "

And yes.. "crying" is definitely NOT the object of the verb "went"; "crying" is not a gerund, but a present participle. Moreover the verb "to go" is an intransitive verb and cannot take a direct object.

Nonetheless in " ...began growing", the gerund "growing" is the object of the verb "began".

"They began growing" and "she went crying" do not have equivalent structure.

They began growing: Subject - verb - object ( gerund)
She went crying: Subject - verb - modifier (present participle - could be considered verb modifier OR noun modifier).

If you still differ with me, I would be happy to discuss further to understand whether I have any wrong understanding of the concept.
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New post 18 May 2016, 10:59
I am learning a lot from this discussion. Thanks and hope to learn more on this thread.

I am now thinking that it is this way. When we have the sentence: She went home crying, this is basically a short form of the sentence: She was crying, when she went home.

So, "crying" has nothing to do with "went" at all. "crying" is just modifying "she" and hence, is a participle.

Basically, we can say:
She went home by bus (How did she go home? By bus)
She went home walking (How did she go home? By walking)

But when we say:
She went home crying (Now we cannot ask the question: How did she go home? She can go home by bus, or by walking..but her "crying" has no correlation with going home. "crying" is just modifying "she").
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New post 21 May 2016, 05:01
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle
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New post 21 May 2016, 05:17
chetan2u wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

Thank you Chetan and Sukanya for a healthy and fruitful discussion. This will surely be beneficial for all of us. :)

On British Council website I found some material that states that "Participle clauses are a form of adverbial clause". Please find the link below:

https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... le-clauses

What is your view on this?

One of the examples is " Shouting loudly, Peter walked home", which seems very similar to the one we are discussing about.



Hi sayan,

I just went through the link..
It does mention participal phrase but gives examples where it clearly is adjectivial phrase..
Shouting loudly, Peter walked home...
clearly 'Shouting loudly' is modifying Peter..

I tried further search on Participal phrase..
word 'adjective' also POPS up along with 'Participal phrase' everytime...
In every link, it is mentioned that PP is adjective..

so difficult to say anything on the link sent by you..
Although the example given by them show the opposite, it mentions PP as adverbial...
BTW wikipedia is another one which talks of them as also adverbial phrase

But yes the majority or I would say all other than the 2 above and may be 1 odd more talk of participle as adjective..

Even the meaning of participle as per dictionaries is adjective..
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/participle


Hi Chetan,

In order to get to a concrete end, I pulled out my old Wren & Martin grammar book, my bible for English grammar . I found that you are absolutely right :D. This is an excerpt from the book:

"CHAPTER 29
THE PARTICIPLE
260. Read this sentence:-
Hearing the noise, the boy woke up.
The word hearing qualifies the noun boy as an Adjective does.
It is formed from the Verb hear, and governs an object.
The word hearing, therefore, partakes of the nature of both a Verb and an Adjective, and
is called a Participle. It may be called a Verbal Adjective.
Def. - A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb
and of an Adjective.
[Or] A participle is a word which is partly a Verb and partly an adjective.
94
[Note. - The phrase 'Hearing the noise', which is introduced by a Principle, is called a
Participle Phrase. According to its use here, it is an Adjective Phrase.]
261. Study the following examples of Participles:
1. We met a girl carrying a basket of flowers.
2. Loudly knocking at the gate, he demanded admission.
3. The child, thinking all was safe, attempted to cross the road.
4. He rushed into the field, and foremost fighting fell "

Example 2 and 3 above are similar to the one we have been discussing.
Thank you for the discussion.
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New post 28 Jul 2016, 23:31
abhibad wrote:
I thought in A, the subject "the report" needs a verb, like after the report....was published. Is that an incorrect expectation?

Hi Abhijit, after can actually be used both as a preposition and as a conjunction.

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report.
- after used as a preposition (after is followed by a noun phrase the 1991 report)

Sales of wines began to grow again after the 1991 report was published.
- after used as a conjunction (after is followed by a clause the 1991 report was published)
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New post 16 Sep 2016, 02:57
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...
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New post 16 Sep 2016, 04:47
iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
GMATPill wrote:

This is a good example of the GMAT guys throwing in answer choices in the passive voice (C), (D), and (E).

Passive is not necessarily wrong--just keep an eye out for it as it is usually NOT PREFERRED.

(C): "which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease"

(D): "with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report"

(E): "a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption"

Notice (A) is phrased "they began to grow after the [report] that linked [A] with [b]" is clearer and stronger in the active voice.
(B) is also stronger in active voice "the 1991 report that linked [A] with [B]".

Also in (B), "a moderate alcohol consumption" can simply be "moderate alcohol consumption."


Hi !
great explanation ! i have a doubt in the construction of option A - "they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease. " why is there ,and before particularly ? what would happen if we were to eliminate ,and ?

Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !
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New post 16 Sep 2016, 05:45
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19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...
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New post 17 Sep 2016, 07:45
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iMyself wrote:
19941010 wrote:
iMyself wrote:
Here is the correct sentence:
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
here, Comma (,)+'and' is used to make parallelism between 'of alcohol' and 'of red wine'
Hope it clears.
Thanks...


thanks for the explanation. but, i'm still not quite sure . i thought that ,and was used only in 2 situations-
1. X,Y,AND Z - parallel
2. IC ,AND IC - separate independent clause

can you please clarify why not a simple (without comma) and was used to draw parallel b/n alcohol and red wine ?
thanks a lot !

I'm not an expert. I also ask question in this forum so as to get response from expert.
As far i know, comma (,)+'and' is used for 3 reasons.like below:
1) to make list (where at list 3 things of list)
2) 'comma+ coordinated conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet)+subject' to make independent clause.
3) to make parallelism
also, the use of only 'and' (not comma+and) is used to make parallelism though they treats as 2 different ideas.
if i make any mistake please help expert.
Thanks...


Regarding comma + "and" combination, remembering the following two rules would be enough in my opinion:

1. In a list comma before "and" is optional.
I like the colors red, blue and green.... correct
I like the colors red, blue, and green.... correct

2. When joining two independent clauses comma + "and" is mandatory. When joining two verbs "and" WITHOUT comma is mandatory.

I play and sing... correct
I play, and sing... wrong
I play and I sing... wrong
I play, and I sing... correct
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 09:43
Please help me to identify clauses and subject verb in the question stem.
Please review below:
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?
linked- verb?

Please confirm
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New post 15 Apr 2017, 16:22
warrioroflight wrote:
Please help me to identify clauses and subject verb in the question stem.
Please review below:
Sales- Subject
of wines- prepositional phrase
declined- verb
in the late 1980s- prepositional phrase
Sales......1980s- this is IC
IC, but IC- after but we need an independent clause

After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?
began- Is this verb here?
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?
linked- verb?

Please confirm


After but- 'they' refers to sales- they is subject?... yes - it is the subject of the second IC.
began- Is this verb here?.... yes - it is the verb of the second IC.
to grow- is not a verb
again...1991 report - prepositional phrase
that- Subject?.... yes - it is the subject of the relative clause "that linked moderate consumption ... reduced risk of heart disease."
linked- verb?... yes - it is the verb of the above-mentioned relative clause.
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New post 15 Apr 2017, 22:50
Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.

A)they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease- Correct
B)after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again - Modifier " moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, ..." is incorrect - "(particularly) red wine" is not an example of "alcohol consumption". note that it's an example of alcohol itself, but not an example of alcohol consumption.
C)in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again-
moderate alcohol consumption did not grow in the 1991 report
D)with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again- Modifier in particular red wine does not modify anything . Red wine is not a type of alcohol consumption but is an alcohol
E)a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again - in particular red wine isn't parallel to anything . If we remove the modifier a reduced ... report, we get a nonsensical sentence

Answer A
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New post 12 Oct 2017, 08:01
I don't understand why 'and' is present in option A.
I think without the 'and' the sentence would be correct, that's why I eliminated it.
What am I missing here?
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New post 12 Oct 2017, 14:01
DIII wrote:
I don't understand why 'and' is present in option A.
I think without the 'and' the sentence would be correct, that's why I eliminated it.
What am I missing here?




Hello DIII,


I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)


The reason we see and in the correct answer choice is that there is a list in the sentence. The parallel elements in the list are of alcohol and (particularly) of red wine.

Please note that particular;y is just a modifier associated with the core parallel element of red wine. Such modifiers of the core parallel elements do not affect the parallelism. As long as the core parallel elements are grammatically and logically correct, they make a perfect list.

Since every list has a connector, this one has too - and.


Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Feb 2018, 07:04
Hello GMATNinja,

Can I safely select A just on the basis of parallelism? -- Sales ..... but they ....
No other option is parallel. All the options start with a prepositional phrase except A, in which but is followed by a pronoun.

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Originally posted by gmatexam439 on 06 Feb 2018, 09:51.
Last edited by gmatexam439 on 11 Feb 2018, 07:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Sales of wines declines in the late 1980s, but they began to   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2018, 09:51

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