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Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity

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Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Aug 2018, 06:31
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 736
Page: 695

Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

(A) at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers

(B) that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

(C) that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced

(D) some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced

(E) some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

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Originally posted by macjas on 22 Jun 2012, 02:28.
Last edited by hazelnut on 06 Aug 2018, 06:31, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2012, 21:12
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In answer choice (A) there is a problem with modification. (A) is implying that our ancestors greatly reduced their own numbers (this is incorrect because it was the event that greatly reduced ancestors). When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase (one that starts with a gerund and serves as an adjective clause), the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence.

In non-grammarese: 'ancestors' is the subject of the independent clause, 'at some time...' and because of the comma after event, we have the incorrect meaning. It was not the ancestors but an event that 'reduced their numbers.'

Therefore, we want to make sure that it is clear that 'event' is 'greatly reducing the numbers.' One way to fix that is by using the relative pronoun 'that.' In (B), we have 'an event that greatly reduced their numbers' that does a good job of correcting the error in (A).

Therefore (B) is the answer.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2012, 23:14
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COMMA + VERBing should refer to the SUBJECT of the preceding clause. In A, reducing seems to refer to our ancestors, implying that OUR ANCESTORS were greatly reducing their numbers. The intended meaning here is that an EVENT greatly reduced their numbers. Eliminate A.

So that (in C) and so as (in E) imply PURPOSE. The result is a strange meaning: that our ancestors suffered for the PURPOSE of reducing their numbers. Not the intended meaning. Eliminate C and E.

In D, which seems to refer to an event, implying that our ancestors' numbers were reduced FROM an event -- a nonsensical meaning. Eliminate D.

The correct answer is B.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2012, 06:58
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A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers ------ A hyphen is not the tool to connect two ICs.
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers -------- ‘that ’ is the right connector ---correct choice.
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced ------- altered notion; it looks as if the ancestors suffered a calamity in order to reduce their numbers.
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced -------- conjugation of two ICs with hyphenation is wrong.
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly, ------ same as in D

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2012, 10:27
ChrisLele wrote:
In answer choice (A) there is a problem with modification. (A) is implying that our ancestors greatly reduced their own numbers (this is incorrect because it was the event that greatly reduced ancestors). When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase (one that starts with a gerund and serves as an adjective clause), the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence.

In non-grammarese: 'ancestors' is the subject of the independent clause, 'at some time...' and because of the comma after event, we have the incorrect meaning. It was not the ancestors but an event that 'reduced their numbers.'

Therefore, we want to make sure that it is clear that 'event' is 'greatly reducing the numbers.' One way to fix that is by using the relative pronoun 'that.' In (B), we have 'an event that greatly reduced their numbers' that does a good job of correcting the error in (A).

Therefore (B) is the answer.


Use of 'that' in 'that greatly reduced their numbers" sounds good as you explained but how's the use of 'that' in "that at some time in the past.." justified. Please explain.
If "that at some time in the past.." were parallel to "that the genetic homogeneity..", shouldn't the sentence rather look like:
Some people believe that X and that Y.
The sentence as it looks to me actually is like this:
Some people believe something population bottleneck - definition of population bottleneck.

I rejected option B because 'that' in 'that at some time in the past...' sounded awkward and I got the question wrong :(
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2013, 05:40
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ChrisLele wrote:
In answer choice (A) there is a problem with modification. (A) is implying that our ancestors greatly reduced their own numbers (this is incorrect because it was the event that greatly reduced ancestors). When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase (one that starts with a gerund and serves as an adjective clause), the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence.

In non-grammarese: 'ancestors' is the subject of the independent clause, 'at some time...' and because of the comma after event, we have the incorrect meaning. It was not the ancestors but an event that 'reduced their numbers.'

Therefore, we want to make sure that it is clear that 'event' is 'greatly reducing the numbers.' One way to fix that is by using the relative pronoun 'that.' In (B), we have 'an event that greatly reduced their numbers' that does a good job of correcting the error in (A).

Therefore (B) is the answer.


Hi,
I am bit confused about your explanation, I thought that a participle phrase (gerund) will modify the entire independent clause - in this case the fact that "our ancestors suffered an event"
Example (Taken from MGMAT just to make sure I don't introduce something estrange):
Crime has recently decreased in our neighborhood, leading to a rise in property values

I may be missing something in your explanation, so it will be great if you can expand a bit more on it.

I originally had chosen A, not thinking about the required parallelism: Anthropologist believed that x - that y. I didn't think it made sense to make those two clauses parallel because of the lack of 'and', and thus I figured that the clause after the dash ('=') was just emphasizing the definition of a 'population bottleneck'.

I hope this thread is not to old.

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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2013, 23:29
This question can be solved by identifying two easy splits:
- Believe X - Believe X: the two X's should be parallel - "That the genetic..." should be parallel with " that at some time..."
Eliminate A, D & E
- "at some time" vs. "some time": we require a definite period of time, at some time answers the question "when? at some time"; A would have been correct if we had "sometime" instead of "some time"
Eliminate C

Answer: B
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2014, 11:03
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Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

(A) at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
(B) that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
(C) that some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced,
(D) some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
(E) some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

Meaning: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck". Population bottleneck – an event that occurred sometime back in the past which greatly reduced their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

Option A) “greatly reducing their numbers” – Verb-ing modifier comma separated, so presenting (modifying) more information about the preceding clause “at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event” which is incorrect as the event reduced their numbers.

Option C) so that presents reason which is incorrect.

Option D) “from which” is incorrect. The correct sentence would be “some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers”.

Option E) “so as” provides an intent.

My confusion is “that” in Option B)
that should replace “population bottleneck”
So the sentence becomes “population bottleneck at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers” – doesn’t look correct to me.

I know after the hyphen “-” the modifier comes which provides more information about the preceding noun.

Can you please clarify about the usage of hyphen?
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New post Updated on: 28 Apr 2014, 00:06
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kinjiGC wrote:
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"—at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

(A) at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers
(B) that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers
(C) that some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced,
(D) some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced
(E) some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly,

Meaning: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck". Population bottleneck – an event that occurred sometime back in the past which greatly reduced their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

Option A) “greatly reducing their numbers” – Verb-ing modifier comma separated, so presenting (modifying) more information about the preceding clause “at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event” which is incorrect as the event reduced their numbers.

Option C) so that presents reason which is incorrect.

Option D) “from which” is incorrect. The correct sentence would be “some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers”.

Option E) “so as” provides an intent.

My confusion is “that” in Option B)
that should replace “population bottleneck”
So the sentence becomes “population bottleneck at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers” – doesn’t look correct to me.

I know after the hyphen “-” the modifier comes which provides more information about the preceding noun.

Can you please clarify about the usage of hyphen?


Dear Kinjal,

Thank you for your query. :)

The punctuation mark referred to by you is technically called a “dash”. Yes, it has a slightly less fancy name than the “hyphen”. :)

Moving on, the dash can be used in multiple ways. In the sentence at hand, it has been used to elaborate on what the author has mentioned before the dash. If you observe, the portion after the dash not only expands on the “bottleneck” bit but also on how the genetic homogeneity is the result of the mentioned bottleneck. Accordingly, if I were to draw a parallel structure it would be something on the following lines:

Mariana believes that altruism exists even in today’s day and age — that people can help others without any selfish motives is not an idea that is too unrealistic to exist in a society that thrives on rewarding individualism.

In the example sentence above, the portion after the dash reiterates the point stated earlier while elaborating a bit more on the same. Not only does it tell you more about the concept of altruism, as perceived by the author, but also about the whole statement made earlier. This is very similar to how the dash has been used in the correct choice of the question referred to by you in your post.

Of course, the above question does not limit the universe of the uses of this punctuation mark. You can also use the dash in various other forms, but the idea remains the same: to separate parts of the sentence while adding information. To enhance your understanding, you could refer to some other OG questions in your research - OG 13: Q#98 & Q#132.

Hope that helps! :)

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Originally posted by egmat on 24 Apr 2014, 21:41.
Last edited by egmat on 28 Apr 2014, 00:06, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2014, 22:50
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I have some follow up questions about the following sentence:

Mariana believes that altruism exists even in today’s day and age — that people can help others without any selfish motives is not an idea that is too unrealistic to exist in a society that thrives on rewarding individualism.

1) The sentence after the hyphen modifies "altruism" but also the author adds more information. So "altruism" need not be close to the hyphen as possible. One of the rule which comes to my mind was usage of Noun+Noun modifier. It is very versatile in the application because it can modify any part of the sentence and also modify the whole preceding phrase. Can you please confirm if same is the case with hyphen usage.
2) The reason why I am asking you is because, in OG 13 Question # 138 - Correct Option
"Although heirloom tomatoes, grown from seeds saved during the previous year, appear less appetizing than most of their round and red supermarket cousinsthey are often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises—heirlooms are more flavorful and thus in increasing demand."
The noun is closest to the hyphen.
OG 13 Question # 98 - Correct Option.
"Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written 40 plays; his workstranslated into more than 30 languages—are produced more often than those of any other contemporary German dramatist.
The noun is closest to the hyphen.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2014, 08:28
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I have some follow up questions about the following sentence:

Mariana believes that altruism exists even in today’s day and age — that people can help others without any selfish motives is not an idea that is too unrealistic to exist in a society that thrives on rewarding individualism.

1) The sentence after the hyphen modifies "altruism" but also the author adds more information. So "altruism" need not be close to the hyphen as possible. One of the rule which comes to my mind was usage of Noun+Noun modifier. It is very versatile in the application because it can modify any part of the sentence and also modify the whole preceding phrase. Can you please confirm if same is the case with hyphen usage.
2) The reason why I am asking you is because, in OG 13 Question # 138 - Correct Option
"Although heirloom tomatoes, grown from seeds saved during the previous year, appear less appetizing than most of their round and red supermarket cousinsthey are often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises—heirlooms are more flavorful and thus in increasing demand."
The noun is closest to the hyphen.
OG 13 Question # 98 - Correct Option.
"Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written 40 plays; his workstranslated into more than 30 languages—are produced more often than those of any other contemporary German dramatist.
The noun is closest to the hyphen.[/quote]

Dear Kinjal,

Since you have cited your analysis for the mentioned two official questions to raise a query about the example sentence, let me address your analysis first:

Your analysis:
in OG 13 Question # 138 - Correct Option
"Although heirloom tomatoes, grown from seeds saved during the previous year, appear less appetizing than most of their round and red supermarket cousins—they are often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises—heirlooms are more flavorful and thus in increasing demand."
The noun is closest to the hyphen.

My comments:
Per your analysis, the portion between the two dashes — they are often green and striped, or have plenty of bumps and bruises— modifies red supermarket cousins. My question is does this modification make logical sense? If we take this modification in to consideration, we are effectively saying that the comparatively appealing, red supermarket cousins are:
1. green and striped
2. and have plenty of bumps and bruises

Please reconsider the structure of the sentence, keeping in mind the logical meaning that the author wants to convey. I am sure you’ll be able to see the role dash plays in this sentence and the example sentence then. :)

Your analysis:
OG 13 Question # 98 - Correct Option.
"Ranked as one of the most important of Europe's young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written 40 plays; his works—translated into more than 30 languages—are produced more often than those of any other contemporary German dramatist.
The noun is closest to the hyphen.

My comments:

In the above sentence, the purpose of the author is indeed to modify “his works” and this is the precise reason that the author has inserted the modifier here. There is nothing else before the dash here (taking in to account only the portion after the semi-colon). So, the point about the noun being closest to the dash is not relevant in this case.

In all, as pointed to you in my earlier post, the idea behind using the dash is the same: separating parts of a sentence while adding more information. :)

Hope the above discussion helps!

Regards,

Neeti.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 23:11
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"---at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

(A)at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers

(B)that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

(C)that some time in the past our ancestors suffered an even so that their numbers were greatly reduced,

(D)some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced

(E)some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an even so as to reduce their numbers greatly



i have 2 doubts in this question
1)that greatly reduced their numbers and thus our genetic variation.
how is this parallel ?? that.... numbers is an IC, clause while the 2nd part is a phrase.
please help.

2)OG says that at some time or adverb sometime is needed and some time in option c is incorrect.

can u please explain why is it so ??
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New post 16 Jul 2014, 08:18
SidKaria wrote:
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"---at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

(A)at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers

(B)that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers

(C)that some time in the past our ancestors suffered an even so that their numbers were greatly reduced,

(D)some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced

(E)some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an even so as to reduce their numbers greatly



i have 2 doubts in this question
1)that greatly reduced their numbers and thus our genetic variation.
how is this parallel ?? that.... numbers is an IC, clause while the 2nd part is a phrase.
please help.

2)OG says that at some time or adverb sometime is needed and some time in option c is incorrect.

can u please explain why is it so ??


Hi Sid,

Thanks for your posting your doubt here. :-)

This is the structure of Choice B: ...at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced
a. their numbers and
b. thus our genetic variation

The noun entities "their numbers" and "our genetic variation" are grammatically parallel to each other. Now, "thus" is an adverb, a modifier, that presents the effect of an action. It's placement before the second entity DOS NOT violate the grammatical parallelism in any way. Hence, the parallelism is all correct in Choice B.

Now, "sometime" is not the same as "some time". The former means "at some point in time" while the other means "a little time". Let's take two very simple examples here:

1. Sometimes, i visit the public library.
2. Please give me some time to finish this question.

That's the reason why "some time" is incorrect in Choice C.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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New post 08 Jan 2015, 14:52
I agree with in all points, that's a great explanation. But regarding D, I think, that both D and B have the same meaning -> from which and that actually have the same meaning, and both sentences explain that an Event reduced the numbers of ..... D is just wordier than B, it also lacks THAT and AT before some time.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2015, 06:49
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BrainLab wrote:
D is just wordier than B, it also lacks THAT and AT before some time.

D has a parallelism issue. Notice that the sentence ends with a phrase after and: thus our genetic variation.

Hence, there should be a phrase before the and. However, in D, there is a clause before and: their numbers were greatly reduced.

In contrast, B says: ...an event that greatly reduced X and Y.
x: their numbers
Y: thus our genetic variation

X and Y are both phrases.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 02:31
egmat
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

I still dont get why A is not correct ?
"ing" plays 2 role first is describing the action with subject and second it can be an effect of a cause mentioned earlier in the clause.
here why cant "greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation" be an effect of " ancestors suffering from event "
It can mean " ancestors suffered from event and thus suffering from that event led to reducing their....blabla " clear cause and effect.
if "ing" can play second role clearly why one has to check for the first role "ing" plays( i.e. describing with subject) ??
If option A is incorrect it has to be some other reason.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 08:58
deepak268 wrote:
egmat
Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity evident in the world's people is the result of a "population bottleneck"-at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation.

I still dont get why A is not correct ?
"ing" plays 2 role first is describing the action with subject and second it can be an effect of a cause mentioned earlier in the clause.
here why cant "greatly reducing their numbers and thus our genetic variation" be an effect of " ancestors suffering from event "
It can mean " ancestors suffered from event and thus suffering from that event led to reducing their....blabla " clear cause and effect.
if "ing" can play second role clearly why one has to check for the first role "ing" plays( i.e. describing with subject) ??
If option A is incorrect it has to be some other reason.
thanks


Without "that", the latter clause ( " at some time....greatly reduced their numbers") does not have much meaningful bearing to the first clause as the author intended. It is required to establish that the scientists believe even the latter clause and hence "that" is required to be repeated.
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New post 09 May 2016, 12:02
ccooley : I was wondering if you could help me with the following doubts?
1) I am having a hard time understanding how A break the parallelism and why is 'that' required to maintain it. I am referring to OG explanation here.
2) How would you define grammatically what role is dash playing here? I researched use of dash as per grammar rules but didnt find any other example similar to this question.
Thanks
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 10 May 2016, 09:43
1
NoHalfMeasures wrote:
ccooley : I was wondering if you could help me with the following doubts?
1) I am having a hard time understanding how A break the parallelism and why is 'that' required to maintain it. I am referring to OG explanation here.
2) How would you define grammatically what role is dash playing here? I researched use of dash as per grammar rules but didnt find any other example similar to this question.
Thanks


1. The author requires to convey that the fact that "at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers..." is believed by "some anthropologists". Without "that", the sense would be as though the author is expressing his own belief , not the anthropologists' belief.

2. Dash is versatile in use and can play the role of a comma, semicolon or a colon. Dash here plays the role of a colon(:) - the colon can be used to provide further explanation for what comes before it. The dash, as a replacement of a colon, plays the same role here.
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Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2016, 13:21
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debbiem wrote:
daagh wrote:
A at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event, greatly reducing their numbers ------ A hyphen is not the tool to connect two ICs.
B that at some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event that greatly reduced their numbers -------- ‘that ’ is the right connector ---correct choice.
C that sometime in the past our ancestors suffered an event so that their numbers were greatly reduced ------- altered notion; it looks as if the ancestors suffered a calamity in order to reduce their numbers.
D some time in the past our ancestors suffered an event from which their numbers were greatly reduced -------- conjugation of two ICs with hyphenation is wrong.
E some time in the past, that our ancestors suffered an event so as to reduce their numbers greatly, ------ same as in D



Dear Sir,

Is the main reason of choosing b/w B and D is that D has hypen in between and not a semi colon..?
Had there been a semicolon would both B and D be equally correct..?


A hyphen (dash) can be used in place of semicolon - hyphen is a versatile punctuation and can replace comma, semicolon or colon. Hence punctuation is NOT the reason that D is wrong. Following is a reason why A, D, and E (choices without "that") are wrong:

some-anthropologists-believe-that-the-genetic-homogeneity-134793-20.html#p1681019

Moreover "event from which" is not correct usage.
Re: Some anthropologists believe that the genetic homogeneity &nbs [#permalink] 21 Jun 2016, 13:21

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