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# The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar

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The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 04:29
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 696
Page: 686

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

(A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
(B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
(C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
(D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
(E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 07:34
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

B it is !!
to strengthen is parallel with to improve
also cooperates is singular verb referring to singular noun foundation.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 08:32
AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

Works and Cooperates must be parallel and carry singular verb. Only option B is right.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2016, 08:40
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

(B) is correct , reasons highlighted below -

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to productive resources such as land and credit.

The foundation works
to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to productive resources such as land and credit.

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to productive resources such as land and credit.

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to productive resources such as land and credit.

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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2016, 07:32
AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

Works and Cooperates must be parallel and carry singular verb. Only option B is right.

I dont understand why E is incorrect, can Foundation, whatever it means, cooperate with the government itself?
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2016, 08:46
AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

It is a nice question.

First Problem, what to make parallel?
strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and [u]cooperating with governments
or
works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and [u]cooperating with governments

Case1:
strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and [u]cooperate with governments

This is parallel
Something like , works to strengthen and works to cooperate.

But there is rule:
OPEN MARKERS should have common pronouns or prepositions in their parallel elements, in order to avoid ambiguity.

Which above case misses.

Now , having discarded case1, guess no one will have problem with case 2
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2016, 15:15
shashanksagar wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

Works and Cooperates must be parallel and carry singular verb. Only option B is right.

I dont understand why E is incorrect, can Foundation, whatever it means, cooperate with the government itself?

Foundation is an organization ( such as Charity Organization),and an organization can cooperate with government. E is wrong because "and" is supposed to join two elements, here two verbs, "works" and another one ("cooperates"). However there is nothing after "and" that could serve the purpose of an element that is joined by the conjunction "and".

Moreover "access for resources" is idiomatically incorrect.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 23:43
sayantanc2k wrote:

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

Foundation is an organization ( such as Charity Organization),and an organization can cooperate with government. E is wrong because "and" is supposed to join two elements, here two verbs, "works" and another one ("cooperates"). However there is nothing after "and" that could serve the purpose of an element that is joined by the conjunction "and".

Moreover "access for resources" is idiomatically incorrect.

sayantanc2k
Can we say that sentence E is a fragment? We expect a verb after the "and" part, where as there isn't any?

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2016, 13:44
Keats wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

Foundation is an organization ( such as Charity Organization),and an organization can cooperate with government. E is wrong because "and" is supposed to join two elements, here two verbs, "works" and another one ("cooperates"). However there is nothing after "and" that could serve the purpose of an element that is joined by the conjunction "and".

Moreover "access for resources" is idiomatically incorrect.

sayantanc2k
Can we say that sentence E is a fragment? We expect a verb after the "and" part, where as there isn't any?

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

Yes, that is one way of eliminating the option. Another way may be:

The conjunction "and" needs to join two items. If we consider "works" the first item, then we need a verb. If we consider "to strengthen" the first item, then we need an infinitive. Instead of either of these two, we see a prepositional phrase ( in cooperation with), which has no element to be matched with.

So the problem can be viewed as a parallelism issue as well.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2016, 13:47
sayantanc2k wrote:

Yes, that is one way of eliminating the option. Another way may be:

The conjunction "and" needs to join two items. If we consider "works" the first item, then we need a verb. If we consider "to strengthen" the first item, then we need an infinitive. Instead of either of these two, we see a prepositional phrase ( in cooperation with), which has no element to be matched with.

So the problem can be viewed as a parallelism issue as well.

Exactly, makes sense sayantanc2k
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2016, 16:24
hi
experts..
teamgmatify chetan4u magoosh egmat daagh
kindly share your views on difference between option B & E... access for farmers TO... and ... access for farmers FOR
just difference between TO & FOR usage ...
thnks
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2016, 08:15
Someone please explain why C is incorrect..
I found "to strengthen and (to) cooperate" parallel here.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2016, 14:43
How are we supposed to tell where the parallel structure begins? Apparently the parallel structure begins from 'works', so 'works' and 'cooperates'. However the parallel structure could might as well have began from 'to strengthen' ---- the only reason i think 'cooperate' cannot be parallel to 'strengthen' is that 'cooperate' is NOT preceded by a 'to'.

Experts please confirm whether my reasoning above is right. Thank you for your insights.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 09:03
TheLordCommander wrote:
How are we supposed to tell where the parallel structure begins? Apparently the parallel structure begins from 'works', so 'works' and 'cooperates'. However the parallel structure could might as well have began from 'to strengthen' ---- the only reason i think 'cooperate' cannot be parallel to 'strengthen' is that 'cooperate' is NOT preceded by a 'to'.

Experts please confirm whether my reasoning above is right. Thank you for your insights.

sayantanc2k could you please share your thoughts on the above? thank you.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 15:21
Celestial09, the correct idiom is that we provide "access to" resources, so we can cut A&E.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 15:32
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TheLordCommander, there's not simple answer to your question. As folks above have mentioned, it can be helpful to have extra markers, such as matched prepositions, to make the parallel items clear, but we won't always have that. Even when those markers do appear, they can shift from one choice to another, forcing us to determine the intended meaning and use that to choose answer.

So yes, there's no reason why the parallel items can't be "strengthen" and "cooperate," at least in theory. How do we know which way to go?

1) The choices that do this are wrong for other reasons. C is a mess of stacked modifiers. D gives us this structure: "The foundation works to strengthen and cooperate and improve." That would need to be a list! In fact, that double "and" is a clue that the second and third items in this list (cooperate and improve) are meant to be a pair, separate from the first.

2) The items need to be logically parallel. When we say that the foundation works to strengthen markets, we mean that strengthening markets is a goal. If we make "cooperate" parallel with "strengthen," we are saying that cooperation with governments is also a goal--something that the foundation is trying to do. It makes more sense to see cooperation as a means to an end. The foundation cooperates in order to improve access.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 01:27
DmitryFarber wrote:
TheLordCommander, there's not simple answer to your question. As folks above have mentioned, it can be helpful to have extra markers, such as matched prepositions, to make the parallel items clear, but we won't always have that. Even when those markers do appear, they can shift from one choice to another, forcing us to determine the intended meaning and use that to choose answer.

So yes, there's no reason why the parallel items can't be "strengthen" and "cooperate," at least in theory. How do we know which way to go?

1) The choices that do this are wrong for other reasons. C is a mess of stacked modifiers. D gives us this structure: "The foundation works to strengthen and cooperate and improve." That would need to be a list! In fact, that double "and" is a clue that the second and third items in this list (cooperate and improve) are meant to be a pair, separate from the first.

2) The items need to be logically parallel. When we say that the foundation works to strengthen markets, we mean that strengthening markets is a goal. If we make "cooperate" parallel with "strengthen," we are saying that cooperation with governments is also a goal--something that the foundation is trying to do. It makes more sense to see cooperation as a means to an end. The foundation cooperates in order to improve access.

Dmitry, thank you for your great response, looks like meaning is also an issue in this question. Just a follow up query - why are stacked modifers incorrect? 'Harry went to the store to get paint for descorations in Anne's house' - Is this example incorrect? Let me know your thoughts please.
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 17:52
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Stacked modifiers aren't inherently wrong, but they can get confusing very fast. Often we'll see a choice between answers with a bewildering series of modifiers and one or more answers that clarify things by reducing the number of modifiers (for instance, by using a verb or a possessive to avoid using one more prepositional phrase).
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 20:36
AbdurRakib wrote:
The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

OG 2017 New Question

flowerchild wrote:
Someone please explain why C is incorrect..
I found "to strengthen and (to) cooperate" parallel here.

Hi flowerchild,
The issues with option C are - Subject verb agreement - Foundation is singular , it requires a singular verb .
C is wordy - to improve is required to show purpose

Hope this helps!!
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Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2016, 06:12
Thank you Sayantan
Regards,
Abhishek SInha

sayantanc2k wrote:
Keats wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

A) cooperating with governments, improving access for farmers for
B) cooperates with governments to improve access for farmers to
C) cooperate with governments for improvements of access for farmers to
D) cooperate with governments and improve accessibility for farmers for their
E) in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for

Foundation is an organization ( such as Charity Organization),and an organization can cooperate with government. E is wrong because "and" is supposed to join two elements, here two verbs, "works" and another one ("cooperates"). However there is nothing after "and" that could serve the purpose of an element that is joined by the conjunction "and".

Moreover "access for resources" is idiomatically incorrect.

sayantanc2k
Can we say that sentence E is a fragment? We expect a verb after the "and" part, where as there isn't any?

The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural markets and in cooperation with governments to improve access for farmers for productive resources such as land and credit.

Yes, that is one way of eliminating the option. Another way may be:

The conjunction "and" needs to join two items. If we consider "works" the first item, then we need a verb. If we consider "to strengthen" the first item, then we need an infinitive. Instead of either of these two, we see a prepositional phrase ( in cooperation with), which has no element to be matched with.

So the problem can be viewed as a parallelism issue as well.
Re: The foundation works to strengthen local and regional agricultural mar   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2016, 06:12

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