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There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a

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There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Mar 2018, 15:19
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Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a substance as a pheromone. While most agree on a basic definition of pheromones as chemicals released by one individual of a species which, when detected by another individual of the same species, elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response, some researchers also specify that the response to pheromones must be unconscious. In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants—chemicals that are consciously detected as odors—can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant. Evidence that pheromone responses may not involve conscious odor perception comes from the finding that in many species, pheromones are processed by the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory) system, which uses a special structure in the nose, the vomeronasal organ (VNO), to receive chemical signals. The neural connections between the VNO and the brain are separate from those of the main olfactory system, whose processing of odorants triggers sensations of smell. But while the VNO does process many animal pheromone signals, not all animal pheromones work through the VNO. Conversely, not all chemical signals transmitted via the VNO qualify as pheromones. For example, garter snakes detect a chemical signal from earthworms—one of their favorite foods—via the VNO, and they use this signal to track their prey.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that in classifying pheromones as a type of odorant, the researchers referred to the highlighted text posit that

(A) pheromones are perceived consciously
(B) most pheromones are processed by the VNO
(C) most chemical signals processed by the VNO are pheromones
(D) Pheromone perception does not occur exclusively between members of the same species.
(E) pheromones do not always elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response




2. According to the passage, the fact that pheromones are processed by the VNO in many animal species has been taken as evidence of which of the following?

(A) The accessory and main olfactory systems are not separate
(B) Odorants and pheromones are not distinct types of chemicals.
(C) Odorants and pheromones both elicit a specific behavioral response.
(D) Pheromones do not trigger conscious sensations of smell.
(E) Pheromones aid animals in tracking prey.




3. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory systern process chemicals.
(B) summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception
(C) present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone
(D) propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research
(E) argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant




Originally posted by seofah on 05 Dec 2008, 04:14.
Last edited by hazelnut on 25 Mar 2018, 15:19, edited 2 times in total.
fixed typo in passage
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Re: There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2013, 20:43
21
2
7. It can be inferred from the passage thatin classifying pheromones as a type of
odorant, the researchers referred to posit that

VNO is evidence used to counter that pheromones are perceived consciously. Hence, the researchers who believe that pheromones are odorant will not posit pheromones as processed through the VNO. Hence, B and C are out.

Answer: A (odorant are perceived consciously. Hence, pheromones must posses that characteristic as well)

The passage mentions about pheromones between the same specie but mentions nothing about members of diff specie. Since it wasn't mention then we cannot conclude that the researchers would think this. maybe but we have no proof. Don't go beyond the passage. Hence, D is out.

Another trick in RC is that something mentioned in the passage for example the statement in E will be linked to a different portion in the passage. The author mentioned that most believe that pheromones should elicit response. Then he mentions some posit that pheromones are odorant and another some posit that response should be unconscious. But stay true to what was linked to the researchers who believe pheromones are odorant. That's all we know they think is true. The other beliefs are attributed to a different set of people. This is a trap. Hence E is out.


A. pheromones are perceived consciously
B. most pheromones are processed by the VNO
C. most chemical signals processed by the VNO are pheromones
D. Pheromone perception does not occur exclusively between members of the same species.
E. pheromones do not always elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response


8. According to the passage, the fact that pheromones are processed by the VNO
in many animal species has been taken as evidence of which of the following?

this is a type of question wherein we don't need to attack each choice. All you have to do is know what you learned from the passage before you go dive into the choices. We know that the VNO is an evidence against the claim that pheromones are odorant by showing that this system is separate from the system used for the sensation of smell. With this in mind, then go to look for that in the choices.

A is wrong. This is about proving or disproving something about pheromones.
B is wrong. VNO proves that they are distinct from each other.
C is wrong. VNO evidence is not about response or eliciting behavior, it's about the sensation of smell using a different organ.
D is the answer. It is obvious. bingo!
E is a trap. The VNO used to track prey refers to a non-pheromone. Read last sentence.



A. The accessory and main olfac-Tory systems are not separate
B. Odorants and pheromones are not distinct types of chemicals.
C. Odorants and pheromones both elicit a specific behavioral response.
D. Pheromones do not trigger conscious sensations of smell.
E. Pheromones aid animals in tracking prey.


9.The primary purpose of the passage is to

the master topic is Pheromone. Different beliefs of groups of people and evidences that show certain beliefs are not probably true and some arguments... Anything not about pheromones is obviously wrong. Hence, A and B are out.

D is out. The author was not able to pinpoint one sure definition.
E is out. The author seems to not lean to this theory.

Answer: c



A. compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory systern
process chemicals.
B. summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception
C. present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone
D. propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research
E. argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant[/quote]

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New post 16 Jul 2010, 23:45
1
B
D
C
easy
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New post 17 Jul 2010, 04:18
mine are
7.D
8.B
9.C
I will explain it my answers are correct
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New post 25 Jul 2010, 16:08
The passages states that. originally phermones were defined as unconscious reactions.. but as research is blurry they want to try and present pheromones to be an odor that is percieved consciously
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Re: There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2011, 11:27
1
The official answer is ADE.
Why 1-A is correct? The question refers to that part
In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants— chemicals that are consciously detected
as odors---can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant

So according to these researchers, pheromenes are perceived consiously.

Why 3-E is correct (very tricky, I first got it wrong):
The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. compare and contrast the ways in which the vomeronasal organ and the main olfactory systern
process chemicals. << too specific for the main purpose
B. summarize the debate over the role the vomeronasal organ plays in odor perception << too narrow for the main purpose AND the main topic is pheromones, not VNO
C. present some of the issues involved in the debate over what constitutes a pheromone << nice shell game, GMAT! Actually, it is stated in the beginning of the text that pheromens are a type of chemicals. That is it. The rest of the passage is how pheremones are processed and reacted by bodies.
D. propose a new definition of pheromones based on recent research << no new definitions are discussed
E. argue that pheromones should be classified as a type of odorant << not the best answer, but the only one left and it is the correct answer
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New post 27 Mar 2012, 16:34
3
i got
A
D
C

seems the case of controversial OAs
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New post 22 Nov 2012, 09:29
Question 7

A
B - Most Wrong
C - Most Chemical Signals Wrong
D - contradicts passage
E - do not always - wrong

At this point I checked question again which indirectly says we have to support researchers who want to classify P's as odorant - Hence A
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New post 26 Feb 2014, 16:15
For question 7, pheromones are perceived conciously. its true because the last example suggests snakes can use pheromones to detect prey.
But that would then contradict its thesis that "pheromones are detected by another individual of the same species". I seriously think B is still the best answer. GMAC is being asshole again.
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New post 02 Mar 2014, 21:52
hard and typical of gmat
I get a,d,c.

we need many passages of this kind to practice. where to find? in fact , no prep companies can offer this kind of passage for practice
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New post 02 Mar 2014, 21:59
vietmoi999 wrote:
hard and typical of gmat
I get a,d,c.

we need many passages of this kind to practice. where to find? in fact , no prep companies can offer this kind of passage for practice


There aren't many GMAT prep books, but I think you could seriously consider GRE prep books for comprehension. Although there are different areas of focus, but the techniques and practices are the same. And by doing so, you can gain a lot more confidence, try reading articles too, cause 80% of the passages are modifications of journals, magazines or so.
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New post 22 Oct 2014, 06:47
@ ORIGINAL POSTER... Please change the Correct Answer For the Third Question to C... You have Given the OA as E.. But the OA is C for the 'Primary Passage Question'.

This is an Official GMATPREP Question.. You can see the screen. GMAT marked the Answer as C
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New post 22 Jan 2015, 12:30
Thanks Vinraj
Even i got the same question on my Prep 2. Oa has been modified
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New post 22 May 2015, 07:41
Good question OP. Got all the answers right. With note taking, my total time to answer the 3 questions was 5m 08s.
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New post 17 Jul 2016, 19:26
passage 2'17-total 4'50

A
D
C

no questions.
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New post 24 Jan 2017, 12:53
ganand wrote:
Hi, Question no. 7 in GMAT prep is as follows: " It can be inferred from the passage that in classifying pheromones as a type of odorant, the researchers referred to in the highlighted text posit that " We can highlight of make bold the "some researchers" part in the passage. "some researchers" appears in the following line of the passage: In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants—chemicals that are consciously detected as odors---can be blurry, and some researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant Thank you.


Thank you for pointing out - highlighted.
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New post 26 Jan 2017, 23:00
Please Mark the source for the questions. There are many of us who don't want to attempt questions from the GMAT PREP exams.
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Re: There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2017, 06:13
Nice one...got two correct ..7 min Appx..
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New post 10 Jul 2017, 16:11
Anyone else think it is very sloppy to write "some researchers" and talk about some researchers then write it again and say "some researchers" talking about a different group?

Clear writing would say other researchers. A lot of the confusion in the passage is drawn from this poorly written statement. If I was marking this person's AWA essay I would fail them for bad writing.


Imagine I wrote some NBAers think the NBA should call the rules such as travelling. In addition, the distinction between travelling and a legal play is minute and some NBAers think legal plays are travelling.


There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a substance as a pheromone. While most agree on a basic definition of pheromones as chemicals released by one individual of a species which, when detected by another individual of the same species, elicit a specific behavioral or physiological response, some researchers also specify that the response to pheromones must be unconscious. In addition, the distinction between pheromones and odorants—chemicals that are consciously detected as odors—can be blurry, some researcherswhile a different group of researchers classify pheromones as a type of odorant. Evidence that pheromone responses may not involve conscious odor perception comes from the finding that in many species, pheromones are processed by the vomeronasal (or accessory olfactory) system, which uses a special structure in the nose, the vomeronasal organ (VNO), to receive chemical signals. The neural connections between the VNO and the brain are separate from those of the main olfactory system, whose processing of odorants triggers sensations of smell. But while the VNO does process many animal pheromone signals, not all animal pheromones work through the VNO. Conversely, not all chemical signals transmitted via the VNO quality as pheromones. For example, garter snakes detect a chemical signal from earthworms—one of their favorite foods—via the VNO, and they use this signal to track
their prey.
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New post 19 Aug 2017, 17:33
no wonder i cant get through the third question as E
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Re: There is no consensus among researchers regarding what qualifies a &nbs [#permalink] 19 Aug 2017, 17:33

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