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Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation

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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2018, 18:33
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AsadAbu wrote:
if yes, that means: to take charge of computer security planning is the 4th item of the series like to revamp, to institute, to create. So, this is something like to revamp, to institute, to create, and to take .........! if this the case, why ,and is NOT used before the final item to take charge of computer security planning?
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If that were the case, we would have an and before the (new) final item. However, that is a question of meaning, and the meaning is not that the nation needs to do four separate things. And if you're wondering why that is not the meaning, we should really take another look at how we approach SC questions. More specifically, if we cannot take a call on something, we shouldn't just pick one possibility and go with it. For example:

1. He wants to join the army to serve his country.

2. He wants to join the army and to serve his country.

Here we can go on and on about whether we expect the meaning to be (1) that serving his country is logically related to his joining the army or (2) that he wants to do two separate things (serve his country in ways not necessarily limited to joining the army). I'd still go for the first one, as it just makes much more sense to introduce the reason for his intention. That is, army and serve go together really well, and I feel that it is unlikely that the sentence wants to introduce two possibly unrelated desires of the subject (and is not very good at establishing the relationship). However, although I do understand that a case can be made for (2) (as in any question that comes down to a meaning call), we should not support (2) just for the sake of playing devil's advocate.

The point here is that (2) is not among the five options! Instead, we have something (for example) similar to this:

3. He wants to join the army for serving his country.

Here is (1) again:

1. He wants to join the army to serve his country.

In such a situation (when one of the two options is clearly wrong), we should not get into whether variations of the correct option could exist. Whoever wrote that question picked one meaning and is not testing us on that meaning. That's enough for us to say that we're done with this question :-)
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 01:03
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I'm having a hard time following all of your concerns, but I can assure you of a few things:

1) "The National Academy of Sciences" is the main subject and "has urged" is the main verb phrase. There should be no doubt about that at all. We have an initial modifier, then the main noun (NAS) and its verb.

2) Infinitives are verbs!

3) There are basically two ways to use the verb "urge." We can use it with a simple object, such as "I urge caution in this situation." However, this is the less common usage. The most common way to use "urge" is with an object and an infinitive: "I urge you to read this book." In this usage, the infinitive shows the action you want someone else to take. This is standard usage, and it applies to many verbs that involve an attempt to incite others to action (or inaction): "I beg you to help me." "I warned him not to send that email." "She told me to rewrite the proposal."

4) The meaning is that the NAS wants the nation to do the three things in the list. The third thing is to create an organization to take charge of security planning. Again, it's perfectly normal to use infinitives in this way. For instance, I can say "I have been meaning to ask my mother to take my dog to have her nails trimmed." There is nothing wrong with that sentence, except that my mother wouldn't want to deal with my crazy dog!
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 03:41
DmitryFarber wrote:
I'm having a hard time following all of your concerns, but I can assure you of a few things:

1) "The National Academy of Sciences" is the main subject and "has urged" is the main verb phrase. There should be no doubt about that at all. We have an initial modifier, then the main noun (NAS) and its verb.

2) Infinitives are verbs!

3) There are basically two ways to use the verb "urge." We can use it with a simple object, such as "I urge caution in this situation." However, this is the less common usage. The most common way to use "urge" is with an object and an infinitive: "I urge you to read this book." In this usage, the infinitive shows the action you want someone else to take. This is standard usage, and it applies to many verbs that involve an attempt to incite others to action (or inaction): "I beg you to help me." "I warned him not to send that email." "She told me to rewrite the proposal."

4) The meaning is that the NAS wants the nation to do the three things in the list. The third thing is to create an organization to take charge of security planning. Again, it's perfectly normal to use infinitives in this way. For instance, I can say "I have been meaning to ask my mother to take my dog to have her nails trimmed." There is nothing wrong with that sentence, except that my mother wouldn't want to deal with my crazy dog!


Thanks you DmitryFarber for your valuable response.
I need to have a bit clarification about the green part. Could you explain a bit on this green part? Do you want to mean that "asking my mother to take my dog" doesn't express any particular meaning? Do you wanna mean that the meaning of "ask my mother to take my dog" may indicates 2 things like below?
1/ my mother is going to take my dog to have her nails trimmed.
and
2/ "to take my dog" is the purpose of asking my mother.

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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 09:56
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The green part was a joke. I was saying that in real life, my mother would prefer not to go on this errand with my dog!

As for the numbered options, #2 doesn't work. When we say "Ask X to Y," the infinitive does not express our purpose. If it did, that would mean that I was ASKING MY MOTHER in order to achieve the goal of TAKING THE DOG myself. That doesn't make sense. "Ask X to Y" means that we are making a request of X. We want them to do Y. "I urge the nations to create an organization" means that I want the NATIONS to create an organization. I'm not somehow urging them so that I can do it.

With other kinds of verbs, your interpretation makes sense. "I lift weights to get stronger," it is my purpose to get stronger, and lifting weights is my means of accomplishing that goal. Words like ask/urge/tell/encourage are different. We follow them with another person/entity and an infinitive, and the meaning is that we want that person/entity to perform the action indicated by the infinitive.
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2018, 08:08
MartyMurray wrote:

The reason that "and" is before "create" seems to be that "to take charge" modifies either "to create" or "organization."

The truth is that the wording is not optimal. "create an organization to take charge" does not clearly convey any particular meaning. Is the organization going to take charge or is "to take charge" the purpose of creating an organization.

I think something along the lines of "create an organization that will take charge" would more clearly express the meaning.


I'm sorry to late response. Thanks MartyMurray for your nice explanation.
I'm really happy getting expected explanation from you, because I'm not totally happy with the use of to before "take charge of computer security planning".. I thought the same thing like you-using that (with some future indication e.g., will) before " take charge of computer security planning" may convey the actual meaning!
Thanks with kudos__
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Nov 2018, 09:36
AjiteshArun wrote:
If that were the case, we would have an and before the (new) final item. However, that is a question of meaning, and the meaning is not that the nation needs to do four separate things. And if you're wondering why that is not the meaning, we should really take another look at how we approach SC questions.


Thank you so much my honorable expert AjiteshArun for your insight on my post.
For the highlighted part---> yes. I understood the meaning. I, actually, wrote all the stuffs just to dismiss the use of to before "take charge of computer security planning", because this does not express the actual meaning of the sentence, i guess.

Okay, Could you explain a bit about the following quotation, please? Actually, I'm lost to get the meaning in the following quotation!
AjiteshArun wrote:
In such a situation (when one of the two options is clearly wrong), we should not get into whether variations of the correct option could exist. Whoever wrote that question picked one meaning and is not testing us on that meaning. That's enough for us to say that we're done with this question :-)

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Originally posted by AsadAbu on 06 Nov 2018, 08:22.
Last edited by AsadAbu on 06 Nov 2018, 09:36, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2018, 09:07
DmitryFarber wrote:
I'm having a hard time following all of your concerns, but I can assure you of a few things:

Thank you so much DmitryFarber for giving me your precious time though you're in a hard time :( situation.

DmitryFarber wrote:
2) Infinitives are verbs!

:? :-o
Sir, I got a message (forget the source) from RonPurewal in which there is written "infinitive" can't be verb.
Your message confused :? me a bit. So, for that reason I googled in the web. I got some messages from google web where there is also written that "infinitive" is not a verb! Here is the following link where it says that 'infinitive (to+verb) can't be a verb.

https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CH ... O2vN3Froy0


DmitryFarber wrote:
3) "I urge you to read this book." In this usage, the infinitive shows the action you want someone else to take.

Are you talking about "Causative Verb"?
Okay, if there is anything in parallelism like
.............. blah blah to eat and drink blah blah -----> it perfectly makes parallelism because both (eat and drink) are verb.
but, what if there is something like below...
.............. blah blah(there is no to before 'eat') eat and to drink blah blah -----> does it make parallelism?
If infinitive is a verb then the last parallelism should make parallelism, isn't it sir?
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 18:23
AsadAbu wrote:
Okay, Could you explain a bit about the following quotation, please? Actually, I'm lost to get the meaning in the following quotation!
AjiteshArun wrote:
In such a situation (when one of the two options is clearly wrong), we should not get into whether variations of the correct option could exist. Whoever wrote that question picked one meaning and is not testing us on that meaning. That's enough for us to say that we're done with this question
What I meant by that is when a second "meaning" is not there in the five options, we should not worry about what the first and only "meaning" is :-)

AsadAbu wrote:
DmitryFarber wrote:
2) Infinitives are verbs!
Sir, I got a message (forget the source) from RonPurewal in which there is written "infinitive" can't be verb.
Your message confused :? me a bit. So, for that reason I googled in the web. I got some messages from google web where there is also written that "infinitive" is not a verb! Here is the following link where it says that 'infinitive (to+verb) can't be a verb.

https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1C1CH ... O2vN3Froy0
An infinitive is a non-finite (basic) verb form, although I don't know whether this is relevant for the GMAT.
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Re: Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the Nation &nbs [#permalink] 07 Nov 2018, 18:23

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