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A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric

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A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person's signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Which of the following can be logically concluded from the passage above?


(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.

(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.

(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures.

(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.

(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.



Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition
Practice Question
Question No.: CR07618
Page: 122
Difficulty: Low

Originally posted by thingZero on 25 Jan 2006, 17:48.
Last edited by Bunuel on 06 Jan 2019, 04:39, edited 6 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2012, 17:37
1
I have picked the answer C for this question:

From the passage, there are 3 things that the software looks to identify an authentic signature:
1. Form of the signature
2. Pen Pressure
3. Signing Speed

Since the question stem is a MUST BE TRUE question, we can always look back at the passage to clarify our answer choice. I didn't even both prephrasing because there are too many possibilities - in this case I jumped straight into the answer choices.

A. Nowhere in the passage do we talk about the software being impractical for use.

The structure of the argument is:
1. Describes how the software identifies signature
2. Explains how forgers can't duplicate all characteristics to gain access

So, it is clear that this answer choice incorrect.

B. Where do we mention installation of software in most banks? Yea, I thought so...definitely incorrect.

C. This answer choice is correct because it describes how forgers cannot obtain access simply by copying "The form of the signature." In order to get access, you need all 3 components: form, speed and pen pressure.

D. Nowhere do we mention the time it took to develop this software. Incorrect.

E. Although this answer may look correct, there are a few things to mention here:

1. The first 3 words "In many cases," sounds to me like most of the time, authorized users are denied access. This wording is quite strong and I cannot find it anywhere in the passage where users are denied access "in many cases."

2. From the passage, can we even prove that users are ever denied access? There is nothing suggesting that they are ever denied access - this software could be perfect.

Therefore, answer choice E may or may not be true. So, this answer is incorrect.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2016, 22:50
hello
why E is not correct
i thought option C is very bold
it states any hacker cannot hack means no one ,dont gmat prefers general answers than too strong extremities
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2016, 23:27
oishik2910 wrote:
hello
why E is not correct
i thought option C is very bold
it states any hacker cannot hack means no one ,dont gmat prefers general answers than too strong extremities


"identifies a person’s signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed." is the key line to answer this question.

We are told that this technique makes use of others things as well while analyzing the signature.

So, if one forges the signature and doesn't know the speed/pressure, it would almost be impossible for that person to dig into the system.

So, C clearly states this idea that only forging signature is not going to help.

E is wrong because it is actually weakening the premise by stating that the technique used by software is not helpful as it has not taken into account the point mentioned in E.

Remember on GMAT, a premise is always a source of truth that cannot be denied.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2016, 10:13
thingZero wrote:
A computer equipped with signature recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person’s signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
Which of the following can be logically concluded from the passage above?
(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.
(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.
(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures.
(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.


Type- Inference
Boil it down - Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures. - Correct - This is a restatement of the premise
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2017, 00:06
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Argument Construction

Situation Forgers cannot duplicate all the characteristics that signature-recognition software analyzes, including the form of a signature, pen pressure, and signing speed. Computers
equipped with this software restrict access to those whose signatures are on file.

Reasoning What conclusion can be reached about computers equipped with this software? The passage states that the software detects more characteristics in a signature than the most accomplished forger can possibly reproduce. Thus, skill at forging signatures is not enough to allow someone to gain access to a computer equipped with the software.

A No information about the speed of the analysis is given, so no such conclusion can be drawn.

B Although the software would likely be of benefit to banks, we cannot conclude that it will be installed in most banks because the passage doesn't rule out, e.g., that the software may be too costly or that there may be proprietary constraints.

C Correct. This statement properly identifies a conclusion that can be drawn from the passage.

D Although it seems reasonable to think that the software took a long time to develop, nothing in the passage justifies the claim that it took years.

E Nothing in the passage rules out the possibility that the software functions so well that authorized users will never be denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 20:46
When we are talking about identifying a conclusion with the info provided. IMO installing software (option B) in banks seems most relevant. Can anyone help explain the rationale why the option "C" is correct?
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 21:33
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AnubhavK wrote:
When we are talking about identifying a conclusion with the info provided. IMO installing software (option B) in banks seems most relevant. Can anyone help explain the rationale why the option "C" is correct?


Hi AnubhavK ,
Option B seems like a real world inference, but on the GMAT , Inference means a statement that has to be true based on the facts given.


A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person’s signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Type - Inference

(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use. - Out of scope - While one might think that because the signature recognition software is complex, processing might take some time, but stating that the time taken will make it impractical is a stretch
(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks. - Out of scope - this need not be true
(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures. - Correct - Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect. - Incorrect - although this might seem a reasonable real world inference, we can't be sure
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software. - Out of scope
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 03:53
GMATNinjaTwo generis GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

In an inference question, usually we avoid EXTREME words
in answer choices since we are looking for a MUST BE TRUE statement.
Argument says: Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
which means 51 - 91 % of adapt forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Option C says:
Nobodycan gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures

How could I infer C from above reasoning?

Can you provide more concrete reasoning to reject (E)
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2018, 23:11
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adkikani wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo generis GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

In an inference question, usually we avoid EXTREME words
in answer choices since we are looking for a MUST BE TRUE statement.
Argument says: Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
which means 51 - 91 % of adapt forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Option C says:
Nobodycan gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures

How could I infer C from above reasoning?

Can you provide more concrete reasoning to reject (E)


"most" is for the degree of skill of forgers.

Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes. - means even the best forgers cannot duplicate all characteristics. So just the skill of forging is not enough to get into the system.

Quote:
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.

The argument doesn't tell this at all. It just talks about forgers not being able to get in. Whether the system is just too sensitive is something we don't know.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2018, 21:41
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adkikani wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo generis GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

In an inference question, usually we avoid EXTREME words
in answer choices since we are looking for a MUST BE TRUE statement.
Argument says: Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
which means 51 - 91 % of adapt forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Option C says:
Nobodycan gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures

How could I infer C from above reasoning?

Can you provide more concrete reasoning to reject (E)

First of all, you don't want to avoid "extreme" language in inference questions. Rather, you need to be careful when analyzing choices with strong language. An answer choice with strong language, as we'll see here, can be perfectly fine if supported by the information in the passage.

Quote:
Argument says: Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.
which means 51 - 91 % of adapt forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

You've interpreted this sentence as, "MOST adept forgers cannot duplicate...". That is not quite what the passage says. The passage says that "EVEN the most-skilled forgers cannot duplicate...". If that's not clear, consider this example:

  • "Most talented surgeons make a lot of money." - This is similar to your interpretation above. We are talking about most OF the talented surgeons.
  • "Even the most talented surgeons cannot do their jobs without the help of machines." - This is closer to what is said in the passage. The group in question is NOT "talented surgeons"; instead, we are only talking about the most-talented surgeons (a specific subset of the group of talented surgeons--the best of the best).

There are no forgers who are MORE adept than the MOST-adept forgers. So if the MOST-adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics, then no amount of forgery skill will allow you to duplicate those characteristics.

I hope that helps!
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2018, 23:58
from GMAT itself we have learnt about that 'Nobody' is too extreme. So here, Gmat is making trap by digging chasm in its own rule. Though not a single answer is perfectly right but for every answers we have the reason to eliminate. Really I am bit in a quandary.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2018, 20:29
thingZero wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition
Practice Question
Question No.: 19
Page: 122
Difficulty:


A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person's signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Which of the following can be logically concluded from the passage above?

(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.
(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.
(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures.
(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.



(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.

(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.

(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures.

(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.

(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.

(C) is the only choice that covers the argument.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2018, 03:42
Even though OA is C. I am kind of in an opinion that C is a bit extreme. The last sentence says MOST forgers can not replicate the signature. -> There are some exceptions right!. So, Some people can access through their forgery skills itself.
@abhimanha , GMATNinja Can you please tell me whether my reasoning is right or am missing something.
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New post 19 Apr 2018, 09:46
Nightmare007 wrote:
Even though OA is C. I am kind of in an opinion that C is a bit extreme. The last sentence says MOST forgers can not replicate the signature. -> There are some exceptions right!. So, Some people can access through their forgery skills itself.
@abhimanha , GMATNinja Can you please tell me whether my reasoning is right or am missing something.

soumya170293 wrote:
from GMAT itself we have learnt about that 'Nobody' is too extreme. So here, Gmat is making trap by digging chasm in its own rule. Though not a single answer is perfectly right but for every answers we have the reason to eliminate. Really I am bit in a quandary.


Nightmare007 and soumya170293, I believe your questions were specifically addressed in this post.

"Even the most adept forgers..." is not the same as "Most adept forgers..." Also, there is no reason why we cannot have "extreme" language in a correct answer choice.
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2018, 18:07
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Nightmare007 and soumya170293, I believe your questions were specifically addressed in this post.

"Even the most adept forgers..." is not the same as "Most adept forgers..." Also, there is no reason why we cannot have "extreme" language in a correct answer choice.


so you are saying that the most is an extension attached to adept not forgers?

Thank you
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New post 22 Apr 2018, 07:08
Nightmare007 wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
Nightmare007 and soumya170293, I believe your questions were specifically addressed in this post.

"Even the most adept forgers..." is not the same as "Most adept forgers..." Also, there is no reason why we cannot have "extreme" language in a correct answer choice.


so you are saying that the most is an extension attached to adept not forgers?

Thank you

Yes, exactly!

Consider the group of all adept forgers... out of that group, the top X% could be considered the most-adept forgers.

For example, many talented athletes play soccer. But only the most talented players (small subset of that group) play in professional soccer leagues.
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New post 30 May 2018, 22:26
thingZero wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition
Practice Question
Question No.: 19
Page: 122
Difficulty:


A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restricts access to a computer to those people whose signatures are on file, identifies a person's signature by analyzing not only the form of the signature but also such characteristics as pen pressure and signing speed. Even the most adept forgers cannot duplicate all of the characteristics the program analyzes.

Which of the following can be logically concluded from the passage above?

(A) The time it takes to record and analyze a signature makes the software impractical for everyday use.
(B) Computers equipped with the software will soon be installed in most banks.
(C) Nobody can gain access to a computer equipped with the software solely by virtue of skill at forging signatures.
(D) Signature-recognition software has taken many years to develop and perfect.
(E) In many cases even authorized users are denied legitimate access to computers equipped with the software.



Hi jennpt - I selected (C) but I was not confident about usage of "nobody" in (C) - pls guide me!!
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New post 31 May 2018, 11:35
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Hi CAMANISHPARMAR

It's good to be suspicious of extreme language like "nobody". However, we have some extreme evidence that will allow us to choose it:
The paragraph says "even the most adept forgers" cannot master all of the things the software is analyzing and thus fool the software. Luckily this is a really broad statement that includes all the best forgers in the world, period.

(The text did not give us a group that might be incomplete. For example, "the winners of a forging contest" or "the top graduates from Signature Forgery University" ;) ... Those would be groups that might be missing a hidden talent, and there could be some kid sitting in Dubai or a lady in San Francisco who are just ridiculously good but no one knows about their talent. But the text gave us a broad statement that includes the best forgers in the world - and this would include people who aren't even famous.)

So if even the best forgers in the world can't fool the software with their forging, then no one can fool it - at least by forging.

C leaves the door open that there might be other ways to fool the software, which is another mark of a good answer: it limits itself to what we know about here, which is forging.

Hope this helps. Let me know.

Best, Jenn
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 05:26
jennpt wrote:
Hi CAMANISHPARMAR

It's good to be suspicious of extreme language like "nobody". However, we have some extreme evidence that will allow us to choose it:
The paragraph says "even the most adept forgers" cannot master all of the things the software is analyzing and thus fool the software. Luckily this is a really broad statement that includes all the best forgers in the world, period.

(The text did not give us a group that might be incomplete. For example, "the winners of a forging contest" or "the top graduates from Signature Forgery University" ;) ... Those would be groups that might be missing a hidden talent, and there could be some kid sitting in Dubai or a lady in San Francisco who are just ridiculously good but no one knows about their talent. But the text gave us a broad statement that includes the best forgers in the world - and this would include people who aren't even famous.)

So if even the best forgers in the world can't fool the software with their forging, then no one can fool it - at least by forging.

C leaves the door open that there might be other ways to fool the software, which is another mark of a good answer: it limits itself to what we know about here, which is forging.

Hope this helps. Let me know.

Best, Jenn


Thanks jennpt - I understood from your explanation that "we have some extreme evidence that will allow us to choose it"!! Thanks again!!
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Re: A computer equipped with signature-recognition software, which restric &nbs [#permalink] 01 Jun 2018, 05:26
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