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A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr

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A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2013, 22:48
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A recent generation of historians of science, far from portraying accepted scientific views as objectively accurate reflections of a natural world, explain the acceptance of such views in terms of the ideological biases of certain influential scientists or the institutional and rhetorical power such scientists wield. As an example of ideological bias, it has been argued that Pasteur rejected the theory of spontaneous generation not because of experimental evidence but because he rejected the materialist ideology implicit in that doctrine. These historians seem to find allies in certain philosophers of science who argue that scientific views are not imposed by reality but are free inventions of creative minds, and that scientific claims are never more than brave conjectures, always subject to inevitable future falsification. While these philosophers of science themselves would not be likely to have much truck with the recent historians, it is an easy step from their views to the extremism of the historians.

While this rejection of the traditional belief that scientific views are objective reflections of the world may be fashionable, it is deeply implausible. We now know, for example, that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen and that parents each contribute one-half of their children’s complement of genes. I do not believe any serious-minded and informed person can claim that these statements are not factual descriptions of the world or that they will inevitably be falsified.

However, science’s accumulation of lasting truths about the world is not by any means a straightforward matter. We certainly need to get beyond the naive view that the truth will automatically reveal itself to any scientist who looks in the right direction; most often, in fact, a whole series of prior discoveries is needed to tease reality’s truths from experiment and observation. And the philosophers of science mentioned above are quite right to argue that new scientific ideas often correct old ones by indicating errors and imprecision (as, say, Newton’s ideas did to Kepler’s). Nor would I deny that there are interesting questions to be answered about the social processes in which scientific activity is embedded. The persuasive processes by which particular scientific groups establish their experimental results as authoritative are themselves social activities and can be rewardingly studied as such. Indeed, much of the new work in the history of science has been extremely revealing about the institutional interactions and rhetorical devices that help determine whose results achieve prominence.

But one can accept all this without accepting the thesis that natural reality never plays any part at all in determining what scientists believe. What the new historians ought to be showing us is how those doctrines that do in fact fit reality work their way through the complex social processes of scientific activity to eventually receive general scientific acceptance.
8. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which one of the following characterizations of scientific truth?
(A) It is often implausible.
(B) It is subject to inevitable falsification.
(C) It is rarely obvious and transparent.
(D) It is rarely discovered by creative processes.
(E) It is less often established by experimentation than by the rhetorical power of scientists.



9. According to the passage, Kepler’s ideas provide an example of scientific ideas that were
(A) corrected by subsequent inquiries
(B) dependent on a series of prior observations
(C) originally thought to be imprecise and then later confirmed
(D) established primarily by the force of an individuals rhetorical power
(E) specifically taken up for the purpose of falsification by later scientists



10. In the third paragraph of the passage, the author is primarily concerned with
(A) presenting conflicting explanations for a phenomenon
(B) suggesting a field for possible future research
(C) qualifying a previously expressed point of view
(D) providing an answer to a theoretical question
(E) attacking the assumptions that underlie a set of beliefs



11. The use of the words “any serious-minded and informed person’ (lines 28-29) serves which one of the following functions in the context of the passage?
(A) to satirize chronologically earlier notions about the composition of water
(B) to reinforce a previously stated opinion about certain philosophers of science
(C) to suggest the author’s reservations about the “traditional belief” mentioned in line 22
(D) to anticipate objections from someone who would argue for an objectively accurate description of the world
(E) to discredit someone who would argue that certain scientific assertions do not factually describe reality



12. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely agree with which one of the following statements about the relationship between the views of “certain philosophers of science” (lines l2-13) and those of the recent historians?
(A) These two views are difficult to differentiate.
(B) These two views share some similarities.
(C) The views of the philosophers ought to be seen as the source of the historians’ views.
(D) Both views emphasize the rhetorical power of scientists.
(E) The historians explicitly acknowledge that their views are indebted to those of the philosophers.



13. Which one of the following best characterizes the author’s assessment of the opinions of the new historians of science, as these opinions are presented in the passage?
(A) They lack any credibility.
(B) They themselves can be rewardingly studied as social phenomena.
(C) They are least convincing when they concern the actions of scientific groups.
(D) Although they are gross overstatements, they lead to some valuable insights.
(E) Although they are now popular, they are likely to be refused soon.



14. In concluding the passage, the author does which one of the following?
(A) offers a prescription
(B) presents a paradox
(C) makes a prediction
(D) concedes an argument
(E) anticipates objections



15. The authors attitude toward the “thesis” mentioned in line 56 is revealed in which one of the following pairs of words?
(A) “biases” (line 5) and “rhetorical” (line 6)
(B) “wield” (line 7) and “falsification” (line 17)
(C) “conjectures” (line l6) and “truck with” (line 19)
(D) “extremism” (line 20) and “implausible” (line 24)
(E) “naive” (line 35) and “errors’ (line 42



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Originally posted by TheKingInTheNorth on 21 Aug 2013, 21:30.
Last edited by fameatop on 21 Aug 2013, 22:48, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2018, 23:31

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 09:20
Can you please explain why C is correct in the first question not the A?
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New post 20 Oct 2018, 10:10
In Question number 1 i need help .. thank you in advance
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A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2018, 10:46
2
Quote:
Can you please explain why C is correct in the first question not the A?


awasthiji, ykhanna

If you read the 1st sentence of para 2:
While this rejection of the traditional belief that scientific views are objective reflections of the world may be fashionable, it is deeply implausible.


This sentence means --> the the act of rejection is implausible (unreasonable / failing to convince). This sentence doesn't refer to scientific truth, it refers to act of rejection.

The first line of para 3: However, science’s accumulation of lasting truths about the world is not by any means a straightforward matter.

we can clearly interpret from above line that accumulation of truth is not straightforward -->this is exactly what the option C states:
(C) It is rarely obvious and transparent.(meaning not straightforward)

all other choices are not correct OR related to 'truth'.

i hope this clarifies.

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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2018, 13:51
Cinematiccuisine wrote:
Quote:
Can you please explain why C is correct in the first question not the A?


awasthiji, ykhanna

If you read the 1st sentence of para 2:
While this rejection of the traditional belief that scientific views are objective reflections of the world may be fashionable, it is deeply implausible.


This sentence means --> the the act of rejection is implausible (unreasonable / failing to convince). This sentence doesn't refer to scientific truth, it refers to act of rejection.

The first line of para 3: However, science’s accumulation of lasting truths about the world is not by any means a straightforward matter.

we can clearly interpret from above line that accumulation of truth is not straightforward -->this is exactly what the option C states:
(C) It is rarely obvious and transparent.(meaning not straightforward)

all other choices are not correct OR related to 'truth'.

i hope this clarifies.

---
give kudos even if you disagree



Hi !!


How is the last para a prescription ?
Prescription per me ---- a solution to some problem in the views of new historians.
Also is this not a 700+ passage ?
Im so confused with social science passages. Any pointers ?


Regards
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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2019, 18:46
ShankSouljaBoi wrote:
Cinematiccuisine wrote:
Quote:
Can you please explain why C is correct in the first question not the A?


awasthiji, ykhanna

If you read the 1st sentence of para 2:
While this rejection of the traditional belief that scientific views are objective reflections of the world may be fashionable, it is deeply implausible.


This sentence means --> the the act of rejection is implausible (unreasonable / failing to convince). This sentence doesn't refer to scientific truth, it refers to act of rejection.

The first line of para 3: However, science’s accumulation of lasting truths about the world is not by any means a straightforward matter.

we can clearly interpret from above line that accumulation of truth is not straightforward -->this is exactly what the option C states:
(C) It is rarely obvious and transparent.(meaning not straightforward)

all other choices are not correct OR related to 'truth'.

i hope this clarifies.

---
give kudos even if you disagree



Hi !!


How is the last para a prescription ?
Prescription per me ---- a solution to some problem in the views of new historians.
Also is this not a 700+ passage ?
Im so confused with social science passages. Any pointers ?


Regards


From what I understood from the last paragraph, the author is "prescribing" what new historian "ought" to be showing us...instead of focusing on the their "thesis" that was introduced in the passage. So it was a prescription because the word "ought" is used when correcting or criticizing someone's actions.
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New post 13 Feb 2019, 23:35
Can somebody help with the flow of the passage?
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New post 15 Feb 2019, 23:20
nrrb

Quote:
Passage summary:
Para 1: what RECENT historians are doing
They find suppot to their views from some philos
Though they both DONT share alot of views they share some

para 2: author disagrees with the above presented view

para 3: Though author agrees with some points made by philos the conclusion given by philos in the 1st para is not idea !!
author says "process" is important

para 4:makes a concluding statement and offers a suggestion to histruans !!!


Quote:
passage map: POV
support to POV
Author's POV( cchallenge)
Author's argumnet
Author's conclusion and suggestion
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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2019, 23:43
10. In the third paragraph of the passage, the author is primarily concerned with

The passage flow is:
POV-- support to POV-- cunter POV-- support to counter POV-- conclusion and suggestion

The claim made in the first para was :
"These historians seem to find allies in certain philosophers of science who argue that scientific views are not imposed by reality but are free inventions of creative minds, and that scientific claims are never more than brave conjectures, always subject to inevitable future falsification"

Now the author in third para agrees that at some later point the earlier discoveried are revised , he disagrees with the point that "free inventions of creative minds and that scientist claim are never more than brave"

He says that the discoveries are refined everytime and a new thesis is formed which is later refined again . BUT using words such as "never" and "alwasy subject to falsibfication" are a STRETCH. That is why author porvides a qualifying(limiting)POV towards the philosopher's claim !!

(A) presenting conflicting explanations for a phenomenon- author rather agrees with some points of philos but at the end limits them. HE does not presnet CONFLICTING POINTS HE QUALIFIES(LIMITS THEIR EXTENT)

(B) suggesting a field for possible future research
- total crap

(C) qualifying a previously expressed point of view

(D) providing an answer to a theoretical question
-no question asked

(E) attacking the assumptions that underlie a set of beliefs
- Tempting !!! but the philos do not assume anything; they just make plain claims abou the beleifes
also he never "Attacks" ..he is limiting the broad scope of the conclusions made by the historians and philos
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Re: A recent generation of historians of science, far from portr   [#permalink] 15 Feb 2019, 23:43
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