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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo

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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.


(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.


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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2019, 22:35
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.- incorrect, the relative pronoun 'where' is too far from 'site' to which it should refer

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle. - incorrect, the relative pronoun 'where' is too far from 'site' to which it should refer

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.- Correct

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.- incorrect, meaning change- Anasazi used the site as observatory is missing here

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.- incorrect, meaning change

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , EducationAisle , other experts - please enlighten

1. Can we use the reason stated in option a and b to eliminate them?
2. Can you please provide a POE for this question?


Yes, the where clauses used in (A) and (B) do not clearly modify the site. They are too far away to make sense.
In (D), Anasazi used the site as an observatory is missing.

In (E), use of 'the site'
... at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi once used the site as an observatory. - is incorrect
... at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi once used as an observatory. - would be fine
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.: IMO, CORRECT

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.: EMPHASIS OF SITE CHANGED FROM DISCOVERY TO USAGE.

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.: EMPHASIS OF SITE CHANGED FROM DISCOVERY TO IT'S SIGNIFICANCE.

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.: FORCED PARALLELISM.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory. : PLACE + THE SITE- REDUNDANT.
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.
(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.

The core theme of the passage is the discovery of ancient site. That it was used as a laboratory or some patterns were used to establish some things are incidental to the discovery as far as this topic is concerned. Hence, we must give the status of the verb to the discovery rather than for other things. Any modifier status such as the 'recently discovered' as in B, C,and E alter the original intent.
In D, the main verb is 'were employed rathr than has bben discocered"
A, by employing the verb 'has been discovered' for the subject of the site is the correct choice.
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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hazelnut wrote:
A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.


(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.


SC83561.01


Official Explanation

Logical predication; Rhetorical construction

The most reasonable interpretation of this sentence is that there is a recently discovered site that was used as an observatory by the Anasazi, who were ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico. At this observatory, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

The correct answer choice will clearly convey this idea. However, the sentence as worded does not do so. There is no clear indication of when the patterns of light and shadow were employed for the indicated purpose.

A. This choice is incorrect for the reason indicated above.

B. This choice suggests that the entire clause where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions . . . actually modifies New Mexico rather than observatory.

C. Correct. This choice eliminates the above flaws; it clearly and cleanly conveys the intended idea.

D. This choice does not clearly convey the idea that the Anasazi used the site as an observatory, nor that they employed patterns of light and shadow for the purpose indicated.

E. This choice does not clearly convey the idea that the Anasazi employed patterns of light and shadow for the purpose indicated. Furthermore, at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi . . . once used the site as an observatory unnecessarily inserts the site, which is redundant (with place) and renders the sentence grammatically incorrect.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2019, 06:29
VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry GMATNinja Hi could anyone please explain why the answer is C. Does'nt it say that at the recently discovered site they recently used patterns of shadow and light?
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2019, 06:44
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sharanjaymalkani wrote:
VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry GMATNinja Hi could anyone please explain why the answer is C. Does'nt it say that at the recently discovered site they recently used patterns of shadow and light?



That site is an old observatory. That means it was used for astronomical studies in the olden times by the Anasazi people.

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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2019, 08:36
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.- incorrect, the relative pronoun 'where' is too far from 'site' to which it should refer

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle. - incorrect, the relative pronoun 'where' is too far from 'site' to which it should refer

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.- Correct

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.- incorrect, meaning change- Anasazi used the site as observatory is missing here

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.- incorrect, meaning change

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , EducationAisle , other experts - please enlighten

1. Can we use the reason stated in option a and b to eliminate them?
2. Can you please provide a POE for this question?
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2019, 03:10
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sharanjaymalkani wrote:
VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry GMATNinja Hi could anyone please explain why the answer is C. Does'nt it say that at the recently discovered site they recently used patterns of shadow and light?


The meaning is quite clear in option (C).

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

We have a recently discovered a site. It was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi. At this site, patterns of light and shadows were employed to establish something for 19 years. (Since patterns were employed for 19 years, they cannot be employed recently)
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2019, 16:39
A is incorrect as A implies that the site was discovered where patterns of light were employed when in fact the Anasazi used patterns of light at the site.

B is incorrect because the modifier "where patterns of light" could either attach to "new mexico" or "Anasazi", forming some illogical meaning

C clearly communicates how the site was used and the discovery. Correct.

D illogically suggests that the sun and moon were located at the actual site

E has similar issues to D. Also "at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi...once used the place" does not make any sense whatsoever
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2019, 23:56
(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.


I think the intended meaning is that- Anasazi used the site as an observatory and they employed patterns of light and shadow.

To me the sentence at C sounds ambiguous. patterns of light and shadow were employed by Angazi is missing for me.

At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, patterns of light and shadow were employed by the government/ by the US Army/ by Mr, Trump?

AjiteshArun , VeritasKarishma generis - What am I missing here? Where am I wrong?
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Dec 2019, 17:47
So the original sentence - There is a site that was used as an observatory by the Anasazi once upon a time.
2) The Anasazi were ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.
3) This site was recently discovered, at this site patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.


Now going to the options


(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle. *where does not modify site, it is too far.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle. *Where incorrectly modifies New Mexico*


(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle. CORRECT

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico. * Meaning change* Also, I like to see sentence written in active voice.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory. *Misplaced Modifier*
Again, I like to see sentence written in active voice.

Originally posted by ARIEN3228 on 07 Dec 2019, 03:04.
Last edited by ARIEN3228 on 07 Dec 2019, 17:47, edited 1 time in total.
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2019, 14:20
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In C, I am still confused with the meaning. Does it mean that the "pattern of light and shadow were employed" before the discovery or after the discovery of the site? From the thread above I understand that A is wrong because where doesn't modify the site properly. Is it the only error in A?
GMATNinja it would be great to have your explanation.
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A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2019, 19:40
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Jeetroy wrote:
In C, I am still confused with the meaning. Does it mean that the "pattern of light and shadow were employed" before the discovery or after the discovery of the site? From the thread above I understand that A is wrong because where doesn't modify the site properly. Is it the only error in A?
GMATNinja it would be great to have your explanation.


Hey Jeetroy,

it does mean that the patterns were deployed AFTER the discovery.

It is a bit misleading, because the moment one reads the sentence the first time, one expects kind of that the the pueblo, before the discovery, used the patterns. If you stick to that idea, it is more difficult to eliminate the wrong Answer choices. As a matter of fact, I first clearly eliminated C, the correct one, for the same reason: I thought it distorted the meaning, wheras I was the one distorting the meaning ;)


Hope it helps, kudos appreciated :))
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2019, 23:13
akash7gupta11 wrote:
(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.


I think the intended meaning is that- Anasazi used the site as an observatory and they employed patterns of light and shadow.

To me the sentence at C sounds ambiguous. patterns of light and shadow were employed by Angazi is missing for me.

At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, patterns of light and shadow were employed by the government/ by the US Army/ by Mr, Trump?

AjiteshArun , VeritasKarishma generis - What am I missing here? Where am I wrong?


I don't see a problem with (C)

I employed patterns of light and shadow to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon.

employ can mean 'to use' too, not just 'to hire'.
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Dec 2019, 05:07
akash7gupta11 wrote:
(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

I think the intended meaning is that- Anasazi used the site as an observatory and they employed patterns of light and shadow.

Hi Akash, that is correct.

Quote:
At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, patterns of light and shadow were employed by the government/ by the US Army/ by Mr, Trump?

I suppose this interpretation cannot be entirely ruled out. However, if the intended meaning indeed was that Anasazi used this site earlier and now, the US Army is using it, then a past perfect would perhaps have been a better usage:

Patterns of light and shadow were employed by the US Army at a recently discovered site that had once been used as an observatory by the Anasazi.
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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2020, 10:12
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.

After a quick glance over the options, we can see that each one is organized differently than the rest. Whenever you see an entire sentence underlined on the GMAT, it's a clue that you should be looking at bigger issues, such as modifiers, organization, and meaning.

Since the modifier "ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico" is located directly next to its antecedent "Anasazi," we can skip focusing on that modifier. It was an easy one meant to distract you anyway! Instead, let's look at the overall organization of each sentence and see if we can find problems with meaning, other modifiers, and organization:

(A) A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, has been recently discovered where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

This is INCORRECT because the modifier "where patterns of light and shadow were employed" is not located anywhere near its antecedent "site." The closest thing to it that it might be referring back to is New Mexico, which would be wrong.

(B) A recently discovered site was once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, where patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

This is also INCORRECT because the modifier "where patterns of light and shadow were employed" is located right after New Mexico, which is NOT what it should be modifying - it should be closer to "site."

(C) At a recently discovered site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle.

This is CORRECT! There is no modifier problem here because the writer took out the word "where," changing the phrase from a modifier to a clause. If you took out the modifier "ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico," the sentence would stand as it is just fine!

(D) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a site that was recently discovered and was once used by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico.

This is INCORRECT because it changes the meaning of the original sentence! The phrase highlighted in red says that some other entity or group employed patterns of light and shadow, not the Anasazi. This isn't the meaning we're going for. It's also not ideal on the GMAT to use passive voice ("was recently discovered" / "was once used") whenever possible.

(E) Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi, ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico, once used the site as an observatory.

This is INCORRECT for the same reason as option D - the meaning is changed from the Anasazi employing patterns of light and shadow to some "other" person or group doing it. Also, if you read the sentence without the modifier "ancient pueblo dwellers of New Mexico," it doesn't sound great, either:

Patterns of light and shadow were employed to establish the precise limits of the positions of the Sun and Moon over a nineteen-year cycle at a recently discovered place that the Anasazi once used the site as an observatory.

There you have it - option C is our choice! It's the only one that uses modifiers correctly without changing the overall meaning.


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Re: A site once used as an observatory by the Anasazi, ancient pueblo   [#permalink] 16 Jan 2020, 10:12
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