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Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old

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Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a “built” boat—in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together—and that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage.

A. together—and that thus represents
B. together—and this has represented
C. together, and it represents
D. together that was representing
E. together to represent
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2010, 13:53
A.

Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of example of a “built” boat—in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together—and that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage.
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2012, 18:11
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(A) together--and that thus represents
not clear what that represents
(B) together--and this has represented
no clear what this represents
(C) together, and it represents
Correct Answer, it refers back to wood
(D) together that was representing
not clear where punctuation "--" ends, also past continuous tense makes this choice awkward
(E) together to represent
not clear where punctuation "--" ends
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built" boat--in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together--and that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage

green marked portion is just a modifier.So it makes a problem of parallelism so "that is the " and "that thus" seems to be parallel to me."that thus" that clearly refer to wooden hull which is thought as the major improvement here.

I have problem with C.Since the pronoun "it" has too many antecedents to refer to which makes it awkward.

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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 02:54
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sorry folks..I posted the wrong OA.

Have updated it now.

Read all the replies posted.
Still not clear why C is wrong :(
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 03:53
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in (C) it is referring to - "....a boat constructed out of planks fitted together...."

but the intended meaning is to give stress on the fact that :

"Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built" boat...."

The 5000 year old wooden hull actually represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology.

a boat constructed out of planks fitted together is mentioned just to tell the public that how the wooden hull looks as of today's world boat.
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2012, 04:19
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You can parse this sentence as comprising of a list of two elements:
Archaeologists .. have excavated a... wooden hull :
1. that is the earliest surviving .. .blah blah..
and
2. that represents major advance.. blah blah..

"And" should ring alarm bells to check for parallelism.. That is the earliest surviving --> is a clause and when you have two parallel clauses they MUST start with same word (ex. relative pronoun).. hence you can't use answer choice starting with "it"
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated [#permalink]

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maybeam wrote:
Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built" boat--in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together--and that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage.

(A) together--and that thus represents
(B) together--and this has represented
(C) together, and it represents
(D) together that was representing
(E) together to represent


plz explain the solution.




This problem is testing use of HYPHEN more than anything.

Most commonly, a hyphen/dash connects an independent clause with another, with a separate or interrupting thought plus a conjunction like or, but, yet, as, for, and after the second dash.

It works somewhat like parentheses or commas, but it is used where a stronger punctuation is needed. It can connect an independent clause with the 'interrupting' thought like so:

Case 1: Independent clause—thought—independent clause.
Case 2: Independent clause—thought.


Independent clause 1: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built" boat
Thought: --in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together--
Conjunction: and
Independent Clause 2: that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage

C, D, E out as we can very well identify its case one--note use of "and"
B is out as in the later half of sentence use of present perfect tense is not required.


Hence A.

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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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It's useful to post some sort of an explanation with your answers.

The long dash is used to indicate an example or an aside. Only the example or aside goes inside the dash, so that example either has to go all the way to the end of the sentence or we need to "close" the dash at some point by putting a second one in. In this case, the "in other words" text only applies to the "built boat" concept, so I want to "close" the dash when I'm done talking about it. So eliminate C, D, and E.

Then, between A and B, only A follows parallelism. "Archaeologists have excavated a hull that is X and that represents Y." Only A does that correctly.
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 07:56
My reasoning-
A - looks okay keep
B- "represented" - doesn't it represent to this day. At-least that's what the author is trying to say - Eliminate
C- "It" - can mean the discovery/ Egypt - Ambiguous - eliminate
D- "was" - why? - Eliminate
E- "to represent" means to say the purpose of construction is "to represent" - an advancement in technique- Eliminate
Thus - "A"
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2016, 10:01
maybeam wrote:
Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built" boat--in other words, a boat constructed out of planks fitted together--and that thus represents a major advance, in terms of boat-building technology, over the dugout logs and reed vessels of more ancient vintage.

(A) together--and that thus represents
(B) together--and this has represented
(C) together, and it represents
(D) together that was representing
(E) together to represent


plz explain the solution.


I used POE
(A) together--and that thus represents Although sounds awkward imo it maintains ||ism- "...that is the earliest...and that.." and preserves the intended meaning
(B) together--and this has represented
(C) together, and it represents. "it" cannot refer to the act of excavating a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that eventually led to a major advance in blah blah
(D) together that was representing This is clearly out
(E) together to represent There's no intent/purpose
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 06:47
Prachi1002 wrote:
Can you please explain what is wrong with C option

Hi Prachi, from a meaning clarity perspective, let’s ask the question: What represents a major advance?

The answer clearly is wooden hull. Now, notice the structure of the original sentence:

a 5,000-year-old wooden hull that is the earliest surviving example of a "built boat"…and that thus represents…

The repetition of that is a clear indication that whatever the first that refers to, the second that also refers to the same entity (wooden hull). Hence, the meaning is very clear and in fact, this is a classical example illustrating the merits of repetition of that.

In C, the sentence says: and it represents. At the very least, it is not really very clear what it refers to.

Also, notice that the original sentence takes a bit of a pause after example of a built boat. The reason the sentence takes this pause is because before proceeding further, the sentence wants to make clear what a built boat is: a boat constructed out of planks fitted together. This (in case you care) is called a parenthetical construct. The parenthetical construct in this sentence, starts with a dash and so, from a symmetry perspective, it should end with a dash as well. Only options A and B have the dash to make the end of this parenthetical construct.

This would be another factor that weighs against C.
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Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2017, 02:40
manhasnoname wrote:
shouldn't it be : that is X and that this is Y
instead of : that is X and that thus is Y.

To me "this" is correct than "thus". Experts please correct me. Thanks!


No, "thus" is alright.

Archaeologists have excavated a hull that is the example and that represents....
The pronoun "that" refers to "hull" - the demonstrative adjective "this" does not fit in in any way.

The word "thus" is used to depict that because the hull is the earliest example, it represents a major advance.

(Moreover "this" cannot be used without a noun after it - e.g. "this hull" - but such usage too would be wrong since the pronoun "that" already refers to "hull" - using ""this hull" would a repetition of the same.)
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2017, 18:24
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Archaeologists in Egypt have excavated a 5,000-year-old   [#permalink] 29 Apr 2017, 18:24
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