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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal

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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2010, 13:38
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Any one like to answer this ?
If you have any questions
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02 Jan 2010, 13:40
I can't seem to agree with OA and can't seem to find right answer. None of them seem to be right.
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02 Jan 2010, 13:58
IMO - B

I think - the question is testing parallelism and B seems to be best answer -

based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
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02 Jan 2010, 14:10
So, why not A ? Are cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....not in parallel ?

The second problem problem is with the usage of such crops like. The correct usage should be such crops as, as in answer B.

OA is B.

Trying to understand why A doesn't meet parallelism, more so when OA explains that cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....are the correct parallel forms for this sentence.

This is from the OG-12 (SC#28).
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04 Apr 2011, 12:16
cvinod wrote:
So, why not A ? Are cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....not in parallel ?

The second problem problem is with the usage of such crops like. The correct usage should be such crops as, as in answer B.

OA is B.

Trying to understand why A doesn't meet parallelism, more so when OA explains that cultivating, harvesting and exploiting ....are the correct parallel forms for this sentence.

This is from the OG-12 (SC#28).

Answer B is correct. A has the word "the" before the word "harvesting". This breaks parallelism.

"based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting"
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05 Apr 2011, 23:43
There are three actions here- cultivate, harvest and exploit
either it should be cultivating, harvesting and exploiting (verb forms)
or it should be cultivation of, harvesting of and exploitation of (noun form)
A uses cultivating and exploiting in verb form and harvesting in noun form (by putting an 'of' after it) Hence A is incorrect.
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06 Apr 2011, 02:32
cvinod wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and [color=#FF0000]they based it o[/color]n their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Any one like to answer this ?

By method of elimination i got B.
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01 Oct 2011, 22:43
The issue in A --when we have to give example then use such as not like or such ...like..
B is fine
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03 Oct 2011, 00:08
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If you really want to apply parallelism to this sentence, you'll need to know a slightly arcane rule about gerunds. Let's lay out some terms first. Gerunds are verbs transformed into nouns by the addition of -ing.

A simple gerund is one that could function as a verb, modifiers and all. In the following sentences, the simple gerund is in bold.
I love skiing.
Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
Skiing through avalanche territory is especially exciting.

Again, the bolded portions above are simple gerunds, because they could serve as verbs in a sentence such as I am skiing, or I am skiing through avalanche country.

A complex gerund is one that could not serve as a verb. I won't list here all the ways to create complex gerunds, but watch out in particular for articles and for of phrases. I'll give you a reference to some additional information below. In the meantime, here is an example of a complex gerund.
The opening of the new shopping mall drew fewer customers than the developers had hoped.
You couldn't say I am opening of...

OK, here's the slightly arcane rule. There are three sorts of nouns: (1) concrete nouns, (2) action nouns and complex gerunds, (3) simple gerunds. No list or other parallel structure can mix these. (It's easy to find perfectly good sentences that violate this rule, but not on the GMAT: this rule applies reliably to GMAT SC.)

Now let's apply that rule here:

Every list means parallelism. Let's see what is being compared in each answer choice, and ask whether the elements are structurally similar and logically comparable.

In A, the list is cultivating..., the harvesting of ..., and exploiting. Cultivating and exploiting are simple gerunds, but the harvesting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In B, the list is the cultivation..., the harvesting..., and the exploitation of.... Cultivation is not a gerund at all, but remember that action nouns can be parallel with complex gerunds. So fine.

In C, the list is the cultivation..., harvesting..., and the exploiting of . Harvesting is a simple gerund, while the exploiting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In D, the list is their cultivation..., the harvest..., and exploiting of. Similar problem with gerunds and other nouns. ELIMINATE.

In E, the list is their cultivating..., their harvest..., and they exploited. This is the most egregious error. They exploited is a clause, while cultivating and harvest are nouns. ELIMINATE.

That leaves B. If you want the more nuanced account of gerunds I mentioned above, go to 213-215 of the MGMAT SC Strategy Guide.
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Last edited by MichaelS on 12 Dec 2012, 01:04, edited 2 times in total.
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03 Oct 2011, 08:29
Thanks MichaelS for the fastidious explanation.

Cheers!
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03 Oct 2011, 11:01
Clear B...very nicely explained Michael
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2011, 02:56
-- like cannot introduce examples, hence wrong
hence, we are left with B and D.
Among the two B is the best for ||, and 'based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans' correctly modifies the noun society.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2013, 20:21
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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07 May 2015, 23:51
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal [#permalink]

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10 May 2015, 00:54
MichaelS wrote:
If you really want to apply parallelism to this sentence, you'll need to know a slightly arcane rule about gerunds. Let's lay out some terms first. Gerunds are verbs transformed into nouns by the addition of -ing.

A simple gerund is one that could function as a verb, modifiers and all. In the following sentences, the simple gerund is in bold.
I love skiing.
Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
Skiing through avalanche territory is especially exciting.

Again, the bolded portions above are simple gerunds, because they could serve as verbs in a sentence such as I am skiing, or I am skiing through avalanche country.

A complex gerund is one that could not serve as a verb. I won't list here all the ways to create complex gerunds, but watch out in particular for articles and for of phrases. I'll give you a reference to some additional information below. In the meantime, here is an example of a complex gerund.
The opening of the new shopping mall drew fewer customers than the developers had hoped.
You couldn't say I am opening of...

OK, here's the slightly arcane rule. There are three sorts of nouns: (1) concrete nouns, (2) action nouns and complex gerunds, (3) simple gerunds. No list or other parallel structure can mix these. (It's easy to find perfectly good sentences that violate this rule, but not on the GMAT: this rule applies reliably to GMAT SC.)

Now let's apply that rule here:

Every list means parallelism. Let's see what is being compared in each answer choice, and ask whether the elements are structurally similar and logically comparable.

In A, the list is cultivating..., the harvesting of ..., and exploiting. Cultivating and exploiting are simple gerunds, but the harvesting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In B, the list is the cultivation..., the harvesting..., and the exploitation of.... Cultivation is not a gerund at all, but remember that action nouns can be parallel with complex gerunds. So fine.

In C, the list is the cultivation..., harvesting..., and the exploiting of . Harvesting is a simple gerund, while the exploiting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In D, the list is their cultivation..., the harvest..., and exploiting of. Similar problem with gerunds and other nouns. ELIMINATE.

In E, the list is their cultivating..., their harvest..., and they exploited. This is the most egregious error. They exploited is a clause, while cultivating and harvest are nouns. ELIMINATE.

That leaves B. If you want the more nuanced account of gerunds I mentioned above, go to 213-215 of the MGMAT SC Strategy Guide.

parallelism is the favourite thing of gmat. it takes us a lot of time to figure out which meaning is paralel to which meaning. consideration of meaning is hard and is cornerstone of gmat sc. but mastering of consideration of meaning requires a good basic grammar knowledge .

pls, help me find the British girl living in Bradford visiting Halong bay Vietnam on 27 Jan 2014. I am not crazy. I am made crazy
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal   [#permalink] 10 May 2015, 00:54
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