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# Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi

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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 29 Mar 2018, 07:10
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting

(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of

(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting

(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Originally posted by hgp2k on 16 Sep 2009, 18:01.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 29 Mar 2018, 07:10, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2012, 08:45
12
6

Firstly, let me post the correct version of the question and the answer choices here:

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

a) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting

b) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

c) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of

d) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting

e) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

It seems that you are not able to figure out how “harvesting” is parallel to “cultivation” and “exploitation” in choice B while “cultivating, harvesting, and exploiting” look absolutely parallel in Choice A.

Notice the presence of the preposition “of” after “harvesting”. “Harvesting” is the noun form of the verb “harvest”. There is no noun form of “harvest” that ends in “-ion”. However, the verbs “cultivate” and “exploit” do have their noun forms ending with “-ion” – “cultivation” and “exploitation”. That makes all these three noun parallel to each other even if “harvesting” looks a little different from the rest.

Now, “cultivating” and “exploiting” cannot be parallel to “harvesting of” because the first two are gerunds – the “-ing” form of verbs that act as noun but denotes action. Whenever the sentence requires the noun form of any word, we must write the real noun form of that word and not the gerund form.

Choice B is the only choice where all the entities appear in one uniform manner – “cultivation of”, “harvesting of”, and “exploitation of” – all noun forms followed by “of”.

And again, choice A cannot be the correct answer because it uses “like” for examples. The correct idiom to present examples is “such as”, correctly used in Choice B.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 12 Dec 2012, 01:04
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If you really want to apply parallelism to this sentence, you'll need to know a slightly arcane rule about gerunds. Let's lay out some terms first. Gerunds are verbs transformed into nouns by the addition of -ing.

A simple gerund is one that could function as a verb, modifiers and all. In the following sentences, the simple gerund is in bold.
I love skiing.
Skiing is my favorite winter sport.
Skiing through avalanche territory is especially exciting.

Again, the bolded portions above are simple gerunds, because they could serve as verbs in a sentence such as I am skiing, or I am skiing through avalanche country.

A complex gerund is one that could not serve as a verb. I won't list here all the ways to create complex gerunds, but watch out in particular for articles and for of phrases. I'll give you a reference to some additional information below. In the meantime, here is an example of a complex gerund.
The opening of the new shopping mall drew fewer customers than the developers had hoped.
You couldn't say I am opening of...

OK, here's the slightly arcane rule. There are three sorts of nouns: (1) concrete nouns, (2) action nouns and complex gerunds, (3) simple gerunds. No list or other parallel structure can mix these. (It's easy to find perfectly good sentences that violate this rule, but not on the GMAT: this rule applies reliably to GMAT SC.)

Now let's apply that rule here:

Every list means parallelism. Let's see what is being compared in each answer choice, and ask whether the elements are structurally similar and logically comparable.

In A, the list is cultivating..., the harvesting of ..., and exploiting. Cultivating and exploiting are simple gerunds, but the harvesting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In B, the list is the cultivation..., the harvesting..., and the exploitation of.... Cultivation is not a gerund at all, but remember that action nouns can be parallel with complex gerunds. So fine.

In C, the list is the cultivation..., harvesting..., and the exploiting of . Harvesting is a simple gerund, while the exploiting of is a complex gerund. ELIMINATE.

In D, the list is their cultivation..., the harvest..., and exploiting of. Similar problem with gerunds and other nouns. ELIMINATE.

In E, the list is their cultivating..., their harvest..., and they exploited. This is the most egregious error. They exploited is a clause, while cultivating and harvest are nouns. ELIMINATE.

That leaves B. If you want the more nuanced account of gerunds I mentioned above, go to 213-215 of the MGMAT SC Strategy Guide.
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Originally posted by MichaelS on 03 Oct 2011, 00:08.
Last edited by MichaelS on 12 Dec 2012, 01:04, edited 2 times in total.
##### General Discussion
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Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2010, 12:32
2
"Such as" is always correct (in terms of giving examples), and "such like" is always and forever incorrect. Having said that, (A) uses the incorrect construct of "such crops LIKE", for which the usage is incorrect.
(B) fixes the problem of such as, but since there's a list of items given, you need to make sure that all items in this list are parallel to each other. This list contains cultivating of corn and beans, the harvesting of fish, and exploitation of other wild and domestic resources. All three of these items are parallel, since the writer has put them all in noun phrases (cultivating of, harvesting of, and exploitation of). So (B) looks very good so far.
(C) has several problems. Most of the time, if not all the time, the usage of "basing it" is almost always incorrect. It has to be "based on". Then the usage of the word "it" is questionable. What's "it" referring to? When you're providing a list of items, the phrase "such as" is preferred to the word "like". Last but not least, the three items in the list are not parallel in grammatical structure. (the cultivation of - a noun phrase; harvesting fish - a verb phrase)
(D) creates an extremely wordy sentence. The usage of "they based it on" should jump out at you. Who's "they" referring to? Who's "it" referring to? Again, the items in the list are not parallel as in (C) - with a mixture of noun phrases and verb phrase.
(E) repeats the "such like" error, which is always and forever wrong. Again, pronoun issue with "they" and "it".

The only answer that will be remotely possible is (B), which corrects all the mistakes mentioned.

mojorising800 wrote:
Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

Spoiler: :: OA
B

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2012, 23:16
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2012, 03:34
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subhajeet wrote:
saikarthikreddy wrote:
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting->wrong
the three phrases are not parallel
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of-->correct the three noun phrases are parallel ,please see the bold faced nouns(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of-->parallelism error
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting--> unnecessary use of the word they and also parallelism error
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited-->wrong use of the pronoun their and also parallelism error.

Hi saikarthikreddy, the cultivation and the harvesting are not in parallel. It should be cultivating & harvesting.
Correct me if I am wrong.

based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

"the harvesting of " - complex gerund
"cultivation" and "exploitation" - action noun

complex gerund and action noun can be parallel.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2013, 12:00
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition
Chapter: 9
Topic: Sentence Correction
Question: 28
Question: Page 662
Solution: Page 698

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.
(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2013, 12:58
1
hb wrote:
Source: The Official Guide for GMAT Review 12th Edition

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

The solution provide on page 698 states that answer choice B is correct. The answer choices contain fish and shellfish or fish and seafood. In answer choice B the content has been changed from fish and shellfish to fish and seafood. Can someone please explain that such a change of content is allowed and a regular occurrence. The reason i am asking is because i elimnated choices containing fish and seafood as the word "seafood" was not originally there and it changes the meaning of the sentence.

It's quite normal for the GMAT to flip things around in the answer choices. Your bigger concern here should be the structure of the underlined portion. I am not sure what types of studying materials you are using, but you should get definitely get your hands on a sentence correction guide (MGMAT SC Guide is popular here). The most apparent mistake that the initial answer A is making is that there isn't proper parallelism. Train yourself first to notice these quick structural differences first and THEN move on to meanings (where the flip things around).

Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources.

First, notice in the initial sentence that they are using ", and", which most of time means that there are going to be a list of two or more things parallel. This is a BIG indicator that they are probably going to be testing out parallelism.

(A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting
(B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of
the cultivation... the harvesting... the exploitation these are all in parallel form
Technically, when "the" added it is turned into a complex gerund form, turning "the -ing or the -ion" into a noun. BUT don't worry about the technical terms yet, just get the basic parallelism rules down from some study guide.... Learn to scan from these, you'll easily knock out answer choices
(C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of
(D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting
(E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2013, 10:36
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Bumping for review and further discussion*.

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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2017, 10:23
saw this on manhatten prep . i cant share a link yet .. this is by ron

also note that you can solve this problem via parallelism alone.
every single answer choice except (b) lacks proper parallel structure. since the problem contains a LIST of three things (one of the most obvious parallel structures), this is a nice gift.

a) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting

"THE harvesting" isn't parallel to "exploiting".

("such crops LIKE..." is also a flagrant error; it must be "such crops as...")

b) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of

perfect parallelism.

from right to left:
the exploitation of...
the harvesting of...
the cultivation of...

c) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of

"harvesting" isn't parallel to "THE exploiting".

(also, "...and basing" is not a properly constructed modifier)

d) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting

worst parallelism ever.
no two of "THEIR cultivation", "THE harvest", and "exploiting" are parallel.

e) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they explited

"they exploited" isn't parallel to the other two.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2017, 18:36
Hi Experts,

Could you please comment on the summary below? Below is my understanding; Correct/Wrong?

Concrete Noun || Action Noun - OK
Concrete Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
Concrete Noun || Simple Gerund - OK

Action Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
Action Noun || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

Complex Gerund || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

Simple Gerund || Simple Gerund - OK

Best
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2017, 03:03
1
1
TheRzS wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please comment on the summary below? Below is my understanding; Correct/Wrong?

1.Concrete Noun || Action Noun - OK
2.Concrete Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
3. Concrete Noun || Simple Gerund - OK

4. Action Noun || Complex Gerund - OK
5. Action Noun || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

6. Complex Gerund || Simple Gerund - NOT OK

7. Simple Gerund || Simple Gerund - OK

Best
RzS

Manhattan SC guide summarizes the rules regarding use of simple gerund and complex gerund:
In brief, there are three categories of nouns: (1) Concrete Nouns, (2) Action Nouns and Complex Gerunds, and (3) Simple Gerunds. Do not mix these categories.

Thus you may see that your following points are incorrect:
1, 2, 3,

The following are correct:
4, 5, 6, 7.
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2017, 18:59
Hi sayantanc2k

So with exception of Action Noun || Complex Gerund, we cannot mix the categories?
Hence Concrete Noun can only be || with Concrete noun?

Regards
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Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi  [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2017, 04:30
1
TheRzS wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k

So with exception of Action Noun || Complex Gerund, we cannot mix the categories?
Hence Concrete Noun can only be || with Concrete noun?

Regards
RzS

However, I definitely remember one example ( either from official guide or from Manhattan), in which one had to chose between concrete noun - action noun and concrete noun - gerund combination. In such case, concrete noun - action noun is a better choice. I shall revert to you if i get hold of that example.
Re: Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mohi &nbs [#permalink] 31 Jan 2017, 04:30
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