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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b

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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 12:55
Mahamudul608 wrote:
QQuestion number 104 need more explanation. The correct answer is given E. But why A and D is incorrect?

The original post contained one extra question that was not in the Official Guide. The non-official question has been removed, leaving the five official questions from the OG. Thanks!
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2017, 01:33
Hi EmpowerGMAT, thanks for putting up a comprehensive breakdown of the passage. Can I clarify a point related to question 101 (OG15):

The question stem states"...following advantages..."

The answer choice C seems to represent a limitation of the study. Doesn't it?

Grateful for your guidance.

Thanks
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2017, 22:37
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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved by a move toward larger, simpler clinical trials of medical treatments. Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials — substantially more than hospitals collect — thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.

Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment’s efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient’s stage of disease. Patients’ ages may also affect a treatment’s efficacy.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) identifying two practices in medical research that may affect the accuracy of clinical trials

(B) describing aspects of medical research that tend to drive up costs

(C) evaluating an analysis of certain shortcomings of current medical research practices

(D) describing proposed changes to the ways in which clinical trials are conducted

(E) explaining how medical researchers have traditionally conducted clinical trials and how such trials are likely to change



OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


Passage: Clinical Trials

Question: Primary Purpose


The Simple Story

Frazier and Mosteller propose that changing clinical trials could improve medical research. They propose two specific changes. First, they suggest limiting the amount of data collected about patients to save costs. Second, they suggest enrolling more patients in trials to obtain a more representative sample of patients.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

F+M: change clin trials

1) Less data à save $

2) More patients à more represent

Step 1: Identify the Question

The words primarily concerned with in the question stem indicate that this is a Primary Purpose, or Main Idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

For Main Idea questions, the answer will come from your overall understanding of the passage and your passage map.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

Remind yourself of your brief summary of the passage.

The passage presents two specific changes to clinical trials that have been suggested as ways to improve medical research.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does suggest that limiting the patients selected for trials (second paragraph) may limit the applicability of results to broad patient populations. The other concern presented (the collection of excessive data), however, affects costs; it does not influence accuracy.

(B) The collection of data is discussed as a factor that drives up costs. The second concern discussed, the restriction of patients selected for studies, is not discussed related to costs. It’s likely that the change that Frazier and Mostellar propose in the second paragraph (larger clinical trials) would increase costs—but that is not the focus of this suggestion.

(C) The passage does discuss potential shortcomings of clinical trials, but the passage does not provide an evaluation of this analysis. Rather, the passage simply presents F & M’s proposed changes.

(D) CORRECT. Two specific changes to clinical trials are proposed in the passage.

(E) Current practices and proposed changes for clinical trials are discussed in the passage. The passage does not address whether the proposed changes are likely to happen.
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2018, 00:35
Question number 5:
I chose C

In option A, nowhere in the first paragraph has it been mentioned or trying to mean that "information likely to be irrelevant to the study". Even from the statement "Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.", one cannot deduce the fact that "information likely to be irrelevant to the study"

I chose C because from the statement "Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study", we can understand that the researchers could be trying to overlook facts relevant to a study by collection more information.

Please explain where is my understanding wrong.
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2018, 23:06
aviejay wrote:
Question number 5:
I chose C

In option A, nowhere in the first paragraph has it been mentioned or trying to mean that "information likely to be irrelevant to the study". Even from the statement "Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.", one cannot deduce the fact that "information likely to be irrelevant to the study"

I chose C because from the statement "Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study", we can understand that the researchers could be trying to overlook facts relevant to a study by collection more information.

Please explain where is my understanding wrong.

Quote:
5. According to the passage, which of the following describes a result of the way in which researchers generally conduct clinical trials?

(A) They expend resources on the storage of information likely to be irrelevant to the study they are conducting.

(B) They sometimes compromise the accuracy of their findings by collecting and analyzing more information than is strictly required for their trials.

(C) They avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings, even though doing so raises their research costs.

(D) Because they attempt to analyze too much information, they overlook facts that could emerge as relevant to their studies.

(E) In order to approximate the conditions typical of medical treatment, they base their methods of information collection on those used by hospitals.

As described towards the end of this post, collecting extra information will never eliminate the risk of overlooking facts relevant to the study.

So even though researchers currently collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required, they do not avoid the risk of overlooking variables that might affect their findings. According to the passage, no matter how much information is collected, that risk will never be eliminated. So (E) is not correct.

As for choice (A), we are specifically told that "researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials." From that, we can immediately infer that they collect information that is not needed and thus likely to be irrelevant.

Taking it a bit further, according to the author, "limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study." However, even if information collection is reduced, the risk of overlooking facts relevant to the study will still be small. This suggests that increasing the amount of information collected does NOT significantly decrease the risk of overlooking facts relevant to the study.

So we can infer that increasing the amount of information collected would not significantly increase the amount of relevant data. This implies that most of the additional information is irrelevant.

In other words, if you increase the amount of information collected, most of it will likely be irrelevant. Thus, most of that information is LIKELY to be irrelevant to the study.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2018, 22:45
Got all correct, 6:25 Minutes :)
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2018, 19:07
3. It can be inferred from the passage that a study limited to patients like those mentioned in lines 20-22 [Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied.] would have which of the following advantages over the kind of study proposed by Frazier and Mosteller?

(A) It would yield more data and its findings would be more accurate.

(B) It would cost less in the long term, though it would be more expensive in its initial stages.

(C) It would limit the number of variables researchers would need to consider when evaluating the treatment under study.

(D) It would help researchers to identify subgroups of patients with secondary conditions that might also be treatable.

(E) It would enable researchers to assess the value of an experimental treatment for the average patient.d

What is the correlation between # of patients studied and # of variables needed?
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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2018, 19:12
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a study of the category of patients referred to in lines 20 - 22 [Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied.]?

(A) Its findings might have limited applicability.

(B) It would be prohibitively expensive in its attempt to create ideal conditions.

(C) It would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients.

(D) It would allow researchers to limit information collection without increasing the risk that important variables could be overlooked.

(E) Its findings would be more accurate if it concerned treatments for a progressive disease than if it concerned treatments for a nonprogressive disease.

The OG explanation states: "The passage then states
that researchers often restrict (lines 20–22) their trials to certain types of patients, therefore limiting the
applicability of their findings."

I have re-read 15-22 and do not see any mention of limited applicability for these findings?

They are talking about adding more patients to the study, in addition the ones already being studied and the control group, so B looks more correct to me
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2018, 11:18
bpdulog wrote:
2. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about a study of the category of patients referred to in lines 20 - 22 [Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied.]?

(A) Its findings might have limited applicability.

(B) It would be prohibitively expensive in its attempt to create ideal conditions.

(C) It would be the best way to sample the total population of potential patients.

(D) It would allow researchers to limit information collection without increasing the risk that important variables could be overlooked.

(E) Its findings would be more accurate if it concerned treatments for a progressive disease than if it concerned treatments for a nonprogressive disease.

The OG explanation states: "The passage then states
that researchers often restrict (lines 20–22) their trials to certain types of patients, therefore limiting the
applicability of their findings."

I have re-read 15-22 and do not see any mention of limited applicability for these findings?

They are talking about adding more patients to the study, in addition the ones already being studied and the control group, so B looks more correct to me

Question #2 refers to a study in which researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied.

Quote:
A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions.

In such a study, researchers are looking at IDEAL conditions. If the treatment is successful, researchers can THEN evaluate the treatment under normal conditions. So right away, this implies that the restricted study does NOT give us information about the treatment under normal conditions. Further research is needed to test the treatment under normal conditions. The findings of the restricted study are only applicable under ideal conditions. This implies that the findings are limited in scope.

The author then contrasts such studies with studies in which patient participation is NOT restricted. This would allow researchers to obtain "a more representative sample of the total population."

Quote:
Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment’s efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups.

So in an unrestricted study, researchers can study diverse patients and various conditions. In a restricted study, researchers can only study the restricted population under ideal conditions.

Although not stated directly, we can infer that the findings of a restricted study are limited in applicability when compared to the findings of an unrestricted study.

I hope that helps!
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