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Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b

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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2017, 12:55
Mahamudul608 wrote:
QQuestion number 104 need more explanation. The correct answer is given E. But why A and D is incorrect?

The original post contained one extra question that was not in the Official Guide. The non-official question has been removed, leaving the five official questions from the OG. Thanks!
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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2017, 01:33
Hi EmpowerGMAT, thanks for putting up a comprehensive breakdown of the passage. Can I clarify a point related to question 101 (OG15):

The question stem states"...following advantages..."

The answer choice C seems to represent a limitation of the study. Doesn't it?

Grateful for your guidance.

Thanks

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Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2017, 22:37
Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved by a move toward larger, simpler clinical trials of medical treatments. Currently, researchers collect far more background information on patients than is strictly required for their trials — substantially more than hospitals collect — thereby escalating costs of data collection, storage, and analysis. Although limiting information collection could increase the risk that researchers will overlook facts relevant to a study, Frazier and Mosteller contend that such risk, never entirely eliminable from research, would still be small in most studies. Only in research on entirely new treatments are new and unexpected variables likely to arise.

Frazier and Mosteller propose not only that researchers limit data collection on individual patients but also that researchers enroll more patients in clinical trials, thereby obtaining a more representative sample of the total population with the disease under study. Often researchers restrict study participation to patients who have no ailments besides those being studied. A treatment judged successful under these ideal conditions can then be evaluated under normal conditions. Broadening the range of trial participants, Frazier and Mosteller suggest, would enable researchers to evaluate a treatment’s efficacy for diverse patients under various conditions and to evaluate its effectiveness for different patient subgroups. For example, the value of a treatment for a progressive disease may vary according to a patient’s stage of disease. Patients’ ages may also affect a treatment’s efficacy.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) identifying two practices in medical research that may affect the accuracy of clinical trials

(B) describing aspects of medical research that tend to drive up costs

(C) evaluating an analysis of certain shortcomings of current medical research practices

(D) describing proposed changes to the ways in which clinical trials are conducted

(E) explaining how medical researchers have traditionally conducted clinical trials and how such trials are likely to change



OFFICIAL EXPLANATION


Passage: Clinical Trials

Question: Primary Purpose


The Simple Story

Frazier and Mosteller propose that changing clinical trials could improve medical research. They propose two specific changes. First, they suggest limiting the amount of data collected about patients to save costs. Second, they suggest enrolling more patients in trials to obtain a more representative sample of patients.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

F+M: change clin trials

1) Less data à save $

2) More patients à more represent

Step 1: Identify the Question

The words primarily concerned with in the question stem indicate that this is a Primary Purpose, or Main Idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

For Main Idea questions, the answer will come from your overall understanding of the passage and your passage map.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

Remind yourself of your brief summary of the passage.

The passage presents two specific changes to clinical trials that have been suggested as ways to improve medical research.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does suggest that limiting the patients selected for trials (second paragraph) may limit the applicability of results to broad patient populations. The other concern presented (the collection of excessive data), however, affects costs; it does not influence accuracy.

(B) The collection of data is discussed as a factor that drives up costs. The second concern discussed, the restriction of patients selected for studies, is not discussed related to costs. It’s likely that the change that Frazier and Mostellar propose in the second paragraph (larger clinical trials) would increase costs—but that is not the focus of this suggestion.

(C) The passage does discuss potential shortcomings of clinical trials, but the passage does not provide an evaluation of this analysis. Rather, the passage simply presents F & M’s proposed changes.

(D) CORRECT. Two specific changes to clinical trials are proposed in the passage.

(E) Current practices and proposed changes for clinical trials are discussed in the passage. The passage does not address whether the proposed changes are likely to happen.
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Kudos [?]: 1352 [0], given: 440

Re: Frazier and Mosteller assert that medical research could be improved b   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2017, 22:37

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