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# *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism

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*Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 00:30
Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To begin with, autism, a neurological condition that impairs an individual’s ability to interact with others, is a wide-ranging spectrum disorder. Some high-level autistics hold jobs and have families. Others are almost incapable of communicating or otherwise interacting with the world. Between these extremes lie individuals with a variety of symptoms. Some can communicate, but have difficulty differentiating between a trivial comment and an important point. Others cannot stand to be touched, or might feel a gentle touch as hurtful. As there is no nationwide agreement on the classification of different levels of autism, a person considered to have high-level autism (sometimes called Asperger’s Syndrome) could move to a state where he or she is deemed neurotypical—that is, not autistic at all.

Not knowing what causes autism also complicates any consideration of its treatment, though genetic research has proven promising in this regard. A region of chromosome 1 has been associated with autism, as has a region of chromosome 3 that contains the GAT1 gene and the OXTR gene. The GAT1 gene is involved in transmitting messages between brain cells, and the OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop.

Environmental factors, including viral infections and exposure to environmental chemicals, continue to be investigated as well. There has also been research into the possibility of a link between autism and certain vaccines. None of these possible causes has proven conclusive, but none has been ruled out, either.

Finally, many autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. These people, who prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism,” believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities. Many are opposed to a treatment known as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), arguing that this is a potentially traumatic process that only teaches autistics to imitate certain neurotypical behavior. Some in the autistic community are also critical of neuroleptic drugs, which can suppress certain behaviors, but which, the critics say, are overprescribed. With so much controversy regarding the nature of this complicated condition, it is unlikely that any agreement as to its proper treatment, or whether it should be treated at all, will be forthcoming.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.

(A) provide a summary of the range of treatments available for autism
(B) give a general description of the symptoms and possible causes of autism
(C) show that autistics are not in agreement as to how to treat their condition, or whether to treat it at all
(D) reconcile various opinions regarding the treatment of autism
(E) present an overview of the difficulties involved with treating autism

2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.

(A) might have developed the condition through exposure to a vaccine
(B) is symptomatically unlike an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome
(C) given neuroleptic drugs stands a better chance of controlling his or her symptoms than an individual treated with ABA
(D) who is able to communicate with some proficiency would prefer being called “autistic” not “a person with autism”
(E) is not able to properly perceive the sense of touch

3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.

(A) are likely to have Asperger’s Syndrome
(B) are skeptical that altering someone’s GAT1 gene would have any meaningful effect on their autism
(C) would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism
(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease
(E) do not believe that autism is a crucial part of their personalities

4. According to the passage, brain development in infants _______.

(A) is largely determined by a region of chromosome 1
(B) can be affected by environmental chemicals
(C) is aided by the OXTR gene
(D) can be damaged by an overprescription of neuroleptic drugs
(E) can be altered by ABA

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*Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 00:52
1
Here is my take.

1. E.

2. A.

3. C.

4. C

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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 01:23
1

1. e
2. a
3. e
4. c
Intern
Joined: 09 Nov 2012
Posts: 2
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 01:47
1. E
2. A
3. A
4. C
For question no.4: I choosed answer (C) but I am still confused about the expression "appear to" in the text "The OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop." Does it mean "the OXTR seems likely to help the early brain develop" or "the OXTR is (100%) to help the early brain develop"?
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Posts: 101
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Schools: IIMA PGPX"20
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 07:18
My take :
D
A
C
C

I was bit confused with 1st Question option D and E.
Can anybody explain why E is right and not D ?
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 09:07
1-E
2-A
3-C
4-C

Please post the OA and OE to these.

PS: Souvik, can u recommend any particular book or strategy for hard RCs ? I always get atleast 60% wrong in each CAT. ( Kaplan, Princeton and MGMAT)
I would really appreciate it if you could provide a pdf with a good collection RCs to practice.
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 11:17
My take
1.E
2.A
3.C
4.C

@282552 ... E seems to be more accurate since the passage only talks abt difficulties that arise when you treat autism namely wide range of symptoms, no proper classification, causes unknown, and people with autism not wanting to get treatment for their condition.
Director
Joined: 05 Sep 2010
Posts: 707
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2014, 20:56
my take in 9 min 39 sec
1 E
2 A
3 C
4 C
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Joined: 31 Jul 2014
Posts: 4
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2014, 01:38
My take:

1) E
2) A
3) C
4) C

Intern
Joined: 19 Aug 2014
Posts: 13
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2014, 21:07
Took me around 7-8 minutes. Forgot to time it.

1) E
2) A
3) C
4) C
Senior Manager
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 447
Concentration: Technology, Other
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2014, 02:38
Time taken around 10 mins.
Q2 & Q3 were quite tricky to me.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.
(A) provide a summary of the range of treatments available for autism
(B) give a general description of the symptoms and possible causes of autism
(C) show that autistics are not in agreement as to how to treat their condition, or whether to treat it at all
(D) reconcile various opinions regarding the treatment of autism

(E) present an overview of the difficulties involved with treating autism
P1) Basic introduction of problem
P2) Mentions Research done to identify the cause of problem.
P3) Again continuation of 2.(These findings r still not there to pin point the exact reason for the problem)
P4) Patients' approach toward the problem and Author final view "With so much controversy regarding the nature of this complicated condition, it is unlikely that any agreement as to its proper treatment, or whether it should be treated at all, will be forthcoming."

2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.
(A) [might] have developed the condition through exposure to a vaccine
" There has also been research into the [possibility of a link] between autism and certain vaccines."
(B) is symptomatically unlike an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome
(C) given neuroleptic drugs stands a better chance of controlling his or her symptoms than an individual treated with ABA
(D) who is able to communicate with some proficiency would prefer being called “autistic” not “a person with autism”
(E) is not able to properly perceive the sense of touch

3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.
(A) are likely to have Asperger’s Syndrome
(B) are skeptical that altering someone’s GAT1 gene would have any meaningful effect on their autism
(C) would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism
"many autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all.These people, who prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism,..."

(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease
(E) do not believe that autism is a crucial part of their personalities

4. According to the passage, brain development in infants _______.
(A) is largely determined by a region of chromosome 1
(B) can be affected by environmental chemicals
(C) is aided by the OXTR gene
"and the OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop. "

(D) can be damaged by an overprescription of neuroleptic drugs
(E) can be altered by ABA
Intern
Joined: 02 Jun 2014
Posts: 41
Schools: Olin '18 (S)
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2014, 11:59
1.E
2.A
3.D
4.C

wasted 2 mins on Q.3.....My take on this:

what can be inferred about people who preferred to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism:

These autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. So they will not favour genetic manipulation as a method to cure their autism.

Somehow I don't find this as convincing as option D.

Option D says "are able to communicate verbally with relative ease"
P1 provides info that autism is a condition which impairs ability of an individual to communicate/interact with others.Lists the two extremes and variety of symptoms between these extremes.

Now,P3 provides info that many people suffering with autism reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. These people prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism".They argue that curing their autism will take away something very important to their personality.
(Moreover, "cured" is under inverted commas which gives me a feeling that these people do not consider themselves impaired whatsoever.)

Hence, clearly they are able to communicate and interact much more effectively than people with autism normally do.

Please explain, where am I going wrong???
Senior Manager
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 447
Concentration: Technology, Other
Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2014, 22:06
Hi Abhishek,
Here are my 2 cents on this.
C Vs D.
Before starting, I would accept that initially even I was inclined towards D, but then that's how i strike off it.

Q3 Is infer type question. One that can pass fact test based upon the info. mentioned in the argument.
Now lets see D first.
(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease.
First, there is nothing in arg to prove this.

Second,
(Moreover, "cured" is under inverted commas which gives me a feeling that these people do not consider themselves impaired whatsoever.)
Hence, clearly they are able to communicate and interact much more effectively than people with autism normally do.

Now there is a big difference between what they feel and whether they can actually speak effectively. In short this option infers too much.

Coming to C.
Now this is something that we can infer or logically deduct from the argument. ( If u look into the explanation mentioned in my earlier thread for this option.)
"many autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all.These people, who prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism,..."
What does this mean:
1.They don't think they need to be cured at all.
2.They believe eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities.
3.And then the rest of the para explains their view towards the treatments.

Now ask yourself can you convince someone about option C "would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism", using above details?
IMO yes u can.

Regards.

r t
abhishek05 wrote:
1.E
2.A
3.D
4.C

wasted 2 mins on Q.3.....My take on this:

what can be inferred about people who preferred to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism:

These autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. So they will not favour genetic manipulation as a method to cure their autism.

Somehow I don't find this as convincing as option D.

Option D says "are able to communicate verbally with relative ease"
P1 provides info that autism is a condition which impairs ability of an individual to communicate/interact with others.Lists the two extremes and variety of symptoms between these extremes.

Now,P3 provides info that many people suffering with autism reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. These people prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism".They argue that curing their autism will take away something very important to their personality.
(Moreover, "cured" is under inverted commas which gives me a feeling that these people do not consider themselves impaired whatsoever.)

Hence, clearly they are able to communicate and interact much more effectively than people with autism normally do.

Please explain, where am I going wrong???
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 16:51
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 23:28
Can someone please post the OA before I start doing this RC?
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*Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2016, 07:49
OA with explanations Please! (especially Q3)
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2016, 04:59

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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2018, 05:17
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Joined: 03 Feb 2018
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Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2018, 02:05
souvik101990 wrote:
Any discussion of how to treat autism is sure to be problematic. To begin with, autism, a neurological condition that impairs an individual’s ability to interact with others, is a wide-ranging spectrum disorder. Some high-level autistics hold jobs and have families. Others are almost incapable of communicating or otherwise interacting with the world. Between these extremes lie individuals with a variety of symptoms. Some can communicate, but have difficulty differentiating between a trivial comment and an important point. Others cannot stand to be touched, or might feel a gentle touch as hurtful. As there is no nationwide agreement on the classification of different levels of autism, a person considered to have high-level autism (sometimes called Asperger’s Syndrome) could move to a state where he or she is deemed neurotypical—that is, not autistic at all.

Not knowing what causes autism also complicates any consideration of its treatment, though genetic research has proven promising in this regard. A region of chromosome 1 has been associated with autism, as has a region of chromosome 3 that contains the GAT1 gene and the OXTR gene. The GAT1 gene is involved in transmitting messages between brain cells, and the OXTR gene appears to help the early brain develop.

Environmental factors, including viral infections and exposure to environmental chemicals, continue to be investigated as well. There has also been research into the possibility of a link between autism and certain vaccines. None of these possible causes has proven conclusive, but none has been ruled out, either.

Finally, many autistics reject the premise that they need to be “cured” at all. These people, who prefer the term “autistics” to “people with autism,” believe that eradicating their autism would wipe out something central to their personalities. Many are opposed to a treatment known as Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), arguing that this is a potentially traumatic process that only teaches autistics to imitate certain neurotypical behavior. Some in the autistic community are also critical of neuroleptic drugs, which can suppress certain behaviors, but which, the critics say, are overprescribed. With so much controversy regarding the nature of this complicated condition, it is unlikely that any agreement as to its proper treatment, or whether it should be treated at all, will be forthcoming.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to _______.

(A) provide a summary of the range of treatments available for autism
(B) give a general description of the symptoms and possible causes of autism
(C) show that autistics are not in agreement as to how to treat their condition, or whether to treat it at all
(D) reconcile various opinions regarding the treatment of autism
(E) present an overview of the difficulties involved with treating autism

2. According to the passage, an autistic individual _______.

(A) might have developed the condition through exposure to a vaccine
(B) is symptomatically unlike an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome
(C) given neuroleptic drugs stands a better chance of controlling his or her symptoms than an individual treated with ABA
(D) who is able to communicate with some proficiency would prefer being called “autistic” not “a person with autism”
(E) is not able to properly perceive the sense of touch

3. It can be inferred that individuals who prefer to be called “autistics” rather than “people with autism” _______.

(A) are likely to have Asperger’s Syndrome
(B) are skeptical that altering someone’s GAT1 gene would have any meaningful effect on their autism
(C) would not be in favor of genetic manipulation as a way to eliminate their autism
(D) are able to communicate verbally with relative ease
(E) do not believe that autism is a crucial part of their personalities

4. According to the passage, brain development in infants _______.

(A) is largely determined by a region of chromosome 1
(B) can be affected by environmental chemicals
(C) is aided by the OXTR gene
(D) can be damaged by an overprescription of neuroleptic drugs
(E) can be altered by ABA

Hi,

Re: *Fresh* Any discussion of how to treat autism &nbs [#permalink] 25 Nov 2018, 02:05
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