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# In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for

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In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2007, 13:17
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 766
Page: 702

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

(A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing

(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written

(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing

(E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

https://www.nytimes.com/2001/05/08/us/spending-on-prescription-drugs-increases-by-almost-19-percent.html

As an aging population coped with arthritis, diabetes and high cholesterol, spending on prescription drugs shot up 18.8 percent last year, to \$131.9 billion, a new study shows.

Two dozen products accounted for half the increase, which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but because doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs, the study said. The study was issued today by the National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, a nonprofit, nonpartisan group that conducts research on health care issues.
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In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Sep 2019, 01:55
21
21
The correlative conjunction- not only … but also has several other avatars. They are

1. Not only… but also
2. Not only by … but also by
3. Not only because …. But also because
4. Not only because of … but also because of
5. Not just… but also
6. not just by…. But also by

and so on with the additions of because, because of etc, and all of these valid structures are often seen in GMAT

not just by…… but also by is equal to -not only by …. But also by- There is not much difference to see through both of them.

In that case, the correct version of the text would be

a phenomenon that is explained not only because of more expensive drugs but also because of the fact that doctors are writing

or

a phenomenon that is explained not only by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

This is the position as far as the use of // in correlative conjunctions is concerned.
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Originally posted by daagh on 23 Jul 2012, 21:33.
Last edited by daagh on 07 Sep 2019, 01:55, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 00:10
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ajmalshams wrote:
my doubt is

"that" starts another subordinate clause right ??

so how can the subject and verb for "that" clause be the subject and verb for the clause starting with "a phenomenon"

Actually clause starting with "a phenomenon" is not a clause at all!! It's a phrase. Let's take an example:

ajmalshams is studying for GMAT, a competitive exam.
- Hopefully it is easy for you to see that "a competitive exam" is a phrase (and not a clause).

Now lets look at the following sentence:

ajmalshams is studying for GMAT, a competitive exam that is tough to crack .
- Again, the above sentence, at the "core" is same as the previous one; just that the subordinate clause that is tough to crack is modifying a competitive exam. So, a competitive exam that is tough to crack still acts as a phrase.

Also, when Zarrolou says "appositive phrase", perhaps (s)he means "absolute phrase". In SC, it is very essential that test takers get very comfortable with "absolute phrases". Since the structure of "absolute phrase" is so "non-intuitive", GMAT loves to test on that. Few examples from OG:

#102, OG-13:
Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

#38, OG-12:
In 1850, Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women and for changes in the married women’s property laws.

The bold in these sentences is absolute phrase. There are many many other examples in official sources.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2007, 07:40
3
Only one that seems acceptable is B.

A. a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing
because of / by the fact that

C. a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written
Mixture of tenses

D. which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing
Mixture of tenses / needs "also because" before doctors

E. which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written
"because doctors have also written" instead of "also because doctors have written"
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2013, 11:53
In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs,
a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are
writing
many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

below is the correct choice:

a phenomenon that is explained not just by the
fact that drugs are becoming more expensive
but also by the fact that doctors are writing

MY question is : regarding the subordinate clause in this question:

1. a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

a phenomenon ...should start a subordinate clause(because it is after comma ),but I cannot find the verb after a phenomenon (the subject and verb are inside "THAT" clause)

2. but also by the fact that doctors are writing

but ...should start a subordinate clause ..here also no subject and verb (the subj and verb are inside "THAT"clause)
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2013, 12:16
2
ajmalshams wrote:
In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs,
a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are
writing
many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

below is the correct choice:

a phenomenon that is explained not just by the
fact that drugs are becoming more expensive
but also by the fact that doctors are writing

MY question is : regarding the subordinate clause in this question:

1. a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

a phenomenon ...should start a subordinate clause(because it is after comma ),but I cannot find the verb after a phenomenon (the subject and verb are inside "THAT" clause)

2. but also by the fact that doctors are writing

but ...should start a subordinate clause ..here also no subject and verb (the subj and verb are inside "THAT"clause)

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

This is an example of "appositive modifier". This kind of modifier refer to either a specific noun or to the whole concept of the preceding clause; here because "a phenomenon" is an abstract noun we are in the second scenario, hence this modifier will refer to the whole clause.

1) Yes, it does have a verb
a phenomenon that is explained not just by the

2)Yes, there is a verb
but also by the fact that doctors are writing

the construct of the sentence is: a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that X but also by the fact that Y.

Hope it's clear
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2013, 13:13
2
2
ajmalshams wrote:
my doubt is

"that" starts another subordinate clause right ??

so how can the subject and verb for "that" clause be the subject and verb for the clause starting with "a phenomenon"

Oh, I got what you mean.

This appositive modifier is actually an appositive phrase, and keep in mind that an appositive modifier is a single noun.
Cesar, the roman emperor, conquered (...)<== this is fine, and " the roman emperor" is not a clause.

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon
now till here you have "a phenomenon", not really explanatory, the next part "that is explained not just (...)" modifies the noun "phenomenon"

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon(noun) + modifier
the resulting thing is something of this form noun+modifier which is a case of appositive phrase.

Hope I've explained myself well
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2013, 14:44
Just to supplement excellent explanation from Zarrolou

A modifier can be a word (adjective, adverb), phrase (prepositional, noun), or clause (which, that). Here the sentence is using noun modifier.

Hope this helps
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:11
i am still confused about a modifying phrase.

I do understand what EducationAisle said.

For the example given, "I am studying GMAT, a competitive exam that is hard to crack." The modifying phrase "a competitive exam that is hard to crack" is modifying GMAT.
However, in this example, a phenomenon that.... is not modifying prescription drugs but the entire sentence. How is this correct? Can you give examples similar to this?

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2016, 22:35
1
hyoeun87 wrote:
i am still confused about a modifying phrase.

I do understand what EducationAisle said.

For the example given, "I am studying GMAT, a competitive exam that is hard to crack." The modifying phrase "a competitive exam that is hard to crack" is modifying GMAT.

Hello hyoeun87, you are correct. The intent of the example was to illustrate that a competitive exam that is hard to crack is a phrase and not a clause (as was the perception of the user earlier).

hyoeun87 wrote:
However, in this example, a phenomenon that.... is not modifying prescription drugs but the entire sentence. How is this correct? Can you give examples similar to this?

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

Indeed, and this is a very common structure, extensively tested on GMAT. Few official examples from the Official Verbal supplement:

#75: Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area.
- Absolute modifier findings consistent with... modifying the entire previous clause.

#100: Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.
- Absolute modifier an event that caused.... modifying the entire previous clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2016, 01:12
dear experts,
I am confused with absolute phrase and appositive phrase.

any expert can point out how to distinguish these two different modifiers?

I compared these two modifiers, I figured out that absolute phrase can be placed anywhere of the sentence, while appositive phrase only followed a noun which will be modified.

is this way valid?
is any other way to approach?
how to distinguish these two modifiers?

thanks a lot
have a nice day
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2016, 02:50
zoezhuyan wrote:
dear experts,
I am confused with absolute phrase and appositive phrase.

any expert can point out how to distinguish these two different modifiers?

I compared these two modifiers, I figured out that absolute phrase can be placed anywhere of the sentence, while appositive phrase only followed a noun which will be modified.

is this way valid?
is any other way to approach?
how to distinguish these two modifiers?

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

Absolute phrases have the following structure: noun + noun modifier. They modify the whole clause in some way.
I have heard about the event just yesterday, the event that rocked the nation. (noun = event, noun modifier= that rocked the nation - modifies the whole clause)

Appositives consists of just a noun (or a noun phrase). Appositives are noun modifiers (i.e. a noun modifying another noun).
Tommy, my little brother, has done this. (noun phrase = my little brother - no modifier for my little brother - modifies Tommy)
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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10 May 2017, 01:01
1
singh_amit19 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 766
Page: 702

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

(A)a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing

(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written

(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing

(E)which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

Attachments

sc766.gif [ 67.87 KiB | Viewed 20821 times ]

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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 00:09
singh_amit19 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 766
Page: 702

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

(A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing

(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written

(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing

(E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

Option D and E can also be knocked-out because of the incorrect use of 'Which' ..... which is modifying the drugs

Is that correct or Which is somehow magically modifying increase in spending on prescription drugs ...

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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2018, 09:33
1
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singh_amit19 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017 Practice Question Question No.: SC 766 Page: 702

Option D and E can also be knocked-out because of the incorrect use of 'Which' ..... which is modifying the drugs Is that correct or Which is somehow magically modifying increase in spending on prescription drugs ... Please explain

Generally, we'd like our modifiers to be as close as possible to the things they modify, and for this relationship to be clear. But modifiers don't ALWAYS have to "touch" the thing they modify.

In this case, could you argue that "which" clearly refers to the whole phrase, "the increase in spending on prescription drugs?" Sure, that's not a crazy argument. The construction feels less than ideal to me, but is it definitely WRONG? I'm not sure that it is, so I'm not going to overreact to it. If we're unsure about one issue, let's find another!

Quote:
(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing

Here, we have a "not... but" construction, so that means that we need "not just" and "but" to be followed by two things that are parallel to each other. Trouble is, "because" is not parallel to "doctors." So (D) is out.

Quote:
(E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

Again, we need parallel construction. We have "not just because of x, but because doctors did y." Those are not parallel. For proper parallel construction, we'd need, "not just because of x, but because of y," or "not just because doctors did x, but because doctors did y."

Contrast this with the elegant parallel construction we find in the correct answer, (B): "a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing." Clearly a superior option. So in this particular question, there's no reason to worry about "which" and the "touch rule" at all.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2018, 07:24
My question here is around the tense. Both the facts explaining the past event are in present tense !!

Any ambiguity there?

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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2018, 05:53
Hi

Can some expert please explain why the use of are writing/are becoming more expensive correct?
Isn't the phenomenon in the past?
How is present continuous correct here?

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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2019, 11:37
1
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer! First, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs.

(A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing
(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing
(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written
(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing
(E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

While there are a lot of differences between the options, there are a couple glaring differences we can focus on to start:

1. not just... / but... (Idioms)
2. are writing / having also written / are also writing / have also written (verb tense & meaning)

Let's start with #1 on our list: idiom structure. Here is a quick breakdown of the idiom we're using here, and which forms of it are acceptable:

not just X, but also Y = GOOD
not just X, but Y = GOOD

Remember that in any idiom that includes X and Y, they both MUST use parallel structure! Let's take a closer look at each option, and rule out any that don't use the idiom or parallelism correctly:

(A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing --> NOT PARALLEL

(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing --> PARALLEL

(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written --> PARALLEL

(D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing --> NOT PARALLEL

(E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written --> NOT PARALLEL

We can eliminate options A, D, & E because they don't use parallel structure within the idiom we're using here.

Now that we've narrowed it down to only 2 options, let's tackle #2 on our list: verb tense & meaning. Read over each option carefully, and make sure that the meaning is clear and logical:

(B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing

This is CORRECT! The idiom "not just X, but also Y" is used correctly and has parallel structure throughout. The verb "are writing" is also clear and makes sense here logically.

(C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written

This is INCORRECT. While the idiom is used correctly, and it uses parallel structure, there's a problem with the verb at the end. By adding in the word "also," the sentence now suggests that the doctors did more than one thing - but we don't know what the other thing is! WHAT did they do in addition to writing prescriptions? It's unclear, so let's rule this out because it's not logical to say doctors "also" did something when we only see one action in the sentence.

There you have it - option B is the correct choice! By focusing on the simple, yet obvious differences first, we were able to narrow down our options significantly to make the process go quickly!

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Re: In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2019, 11:37
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