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# In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism

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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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JarvisR
6 mins. All correct except 4th question.

Any ideas why E is correct ? I would agree that when taking the whole sentence that one could say that the importance of gender in kenya was one of the reasons for her revision. But the question only asks why the author used "age". And the status of age was her former hypothesis, hence not a factor to change her theory
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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All correct
Time 6 min
Question 3 Was tough so its worth discussion .

The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in line 18, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?

A. Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
B. Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.
C. Colonialism had less of an impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women that it had on the status and authority of other African women.
D. The relative independence of Ghanaian women prior to colonialism was unique in Africa.
E. Before colonialism, the status and authority of Ghanaian women was similar to that of Kenyan women.

The question asks us to infer what the author would have agreed on after the colonisation of Ghana.Read the following lines from the passage and the answer becomes apparent
Subsequent research in
Kenya convinced Robertson
(20)
that she had overgeneralized
about Africa. Before colonialism,
gender was more salient
in central Kenya than
it was in Ghana, although age
(25)
was still crucial in determining
authority. In contrast with
Ghana, where women had
traded for hundreds of years
and achieved legal majority
(30)
(not unrelated phenomena),
the evidence regarding
central Kenya indicated
that women were legal minors
and were sometimes treated

(35)
as male property, as were

European women at that time.
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
asdfghjklasdfghj
JarvisR
6 mins. All correct except 4th question.

Any ideas why E is correct ? I would agree that when taking the whole sentence that one could say that the importance of gender in kenya was one of the reasons for her revision. But the question only asks why the author used "age". And the status of age was her former hypothesis, hence not a factor to change her theory

asdfghjklasdfghj I was wondering the same, I thought age was given more importance even before colonialism. I chose A because senior women had more authority in some situations, and hence this indicated that dependence of women on men was not absolute. Where am I going wrong?

Can someone please clarify this? GMATNinja

Thanks!
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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even after looking at all the comments in this post, I am still skeptical about E as an OA for #4.

workout Can you please help with expert advice here ? Even Jarvis being a very reputed member of GMAT club had some trouble so I think 4th requires discussion.

For me Gender was the main factor for R. to revise the content. Age is a secondary factor which just helps in comparing the situation of elder women and as per passage might go, it would be a factor in Ghana also like was is precolonial age.

Because of Gender author had to come back.
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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I too am really skeptical about Q4.Some expert help needed please..GMATNinja

My thinking is this.....

Previously when CCR wrote the book she indicated that Age was a more important factor than others(Line 1)

Now age is a more important factor(supersedes) gender(to varying degrees sure but still supersedes)

CCR revised her theory because she had found gender played a role In precolonial Africa....Ok till here I figure.Let us see the question

"""4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa""""

Previously age was very important.Now also age is important.What changed is the role gender played(previously unimportant.now some what important).Then how come mentioning age lead her to revise her view and not gender...?????
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

1. In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.

2. Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa.

3. Since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

Isn't Robertson's position after the revision - "in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation" - still the same as her initial position 1 (in 1984 book) or does this revision refer to change with respect to point 2 ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , egmat , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , ChiranjeevSingh, GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , other experts-- please enlighten
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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Skywalker18
4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

1. In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.

2. Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa.

3. Since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

Isn't Robertson's position after the revision - "in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation" - still the same as her initial position 1 (in 1984 book) or does this revision refer to change with respect to point 2 ?
Thanks for all of the thoughtful detail here, Skywalker18! Always good to see your thought process.

To answer your question, no. Robertson's position after the revision states that age superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation. In other words, Robertson made her argument more nuanced than it was before. This isn't a dramatic revision to Robertson's previous argument, but it is still an explicit change.

vishusahni9
even after looking at all the comments in this post, I am still skeptical about E as an OA for #4.

For me Gender was the main factor for R. to revise the content. Age is a secondary factor which just helps in comparing the situation of elder women and as per passage might go, it would be a factor in Ghana also like was is precolonial age.

Because of Gender author had to come back.
Recall what choice (E) says:

Quote:
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa
According to this choice, the status of age was most likely mentioned in order to identify a factor that led Robertson to revise the hypothesis. Even if age is a secondary factor, it's still a factor that led to the revision.

The second paragraph is structured to show Robertson re-considering her prior argument in more than one way, and her revision was influenced by more than one factor. And let's not forget to evaluate all of our other choices:

Quote:
(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
The author never stated that women's dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was absolute in the first place. So why would the author need to indicate that women's dependence was not absolute? Choice (A) veers away from what the author is actually writing and what Robertson was actually thinking about. (A) isn't as strong as (E), so we'll eliminate it.

Quote:
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
This group-to-group comparison is nowhere in the portion of the passage being highlighted. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
This is another comparison that the highlighted text doesn't point to at all. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
The explanation for this difference is nowhere to be found in the passage. Eliminate (D).

(E) remains the best answer choice, with (A) a distant but reject-able second.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Relevant text: <...> the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana.

Could anybody please explain what's wrong with A in Q3? I highlighted the portions of the text that made me pick A. As the situation of women in Europe was a lot similar to that of women in Kenya, I supposed that it was reasonable to come to such conclusion. Does A provide a stretched idea because we know only that women in Europe were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, but we know almost nothing about their land rights and involvement in trade?

Thanks

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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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GMATNinja
jawele
3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Relevant text: <...> the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana.

Could anybody please explain what's wrong with A in Q3? I highlighted the portions of the text that made me pick A. As the situation of women in Europe was a lot similar to that of women in Kenya, I supposed that it was reasonable to come to such conclusion. Does A provide a stretched idea because we know only that women in Europe were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, but we know almost nothing about their land rights and involvement in trade?

Thanks

Question #3 asks what Robertson would have agreed with after conducting additional research, but would not have agreed with before conducting that research regarding women's status and authority in Ghana. Before jumping into answer choices, let's examine her ideas from before and after the research in question:

Before the research, Robertson believed that:

• In pre-colonial times "age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally."
• After colonization, "gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority."

After the research, she believed that:

• She had overgeneralized about the role of gender in pre-colonial Africa
• In Ghana, "women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority." This aligns with Robertson's previous belief that gender was not as important as age as an indicator of status and authority.
• However, in pre-colonial Kenya, "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." This differs from Robertson's previous views, so she revised her hypothesis to say that gender played a more important role in some African locations before colonization.

Notice that Robertson's beliefs about the role of gender in Ghana did not change substantially from before the research to after it -- in both cases, she thought that gender did not play the most important role in determining status and authority. The significant change in her hypothesis concerned Kenya, where women had less power in pre-colonial times than she had previously thought.

Take another look at answer choice (A):
Quote:
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
Remember that we are looking for a statement with which Robertson would have disagreed before her additional research, but with which she would have agreed after that research.

As discussed above, even before the additional research Robertson thought that women in Ghana had a higher status than women in Europe before colonization. So even if the specific factors of land rights and involvement in trade are not discussed in the context of her earlier beliefs, we can't say that she would disagree with the notion that "women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time."

The piece of the passage that you pointed out ("women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana") actually compares women in Kenya to women in Ghana. This is a much different comparison than the one in answer choice (A), which compares women in Europe to women in Ghana.

Because there is no evidence that Robertson would have disagreed with (A) before her additional research, it is not the correct answer.

Now look at (B):
Quote:
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.
Before completing her additional research, Robertson believed that colonialism "weakened women’s power and authority" in Africa generally. So, she believed that colonialism would have a roughly equal impact on Kenyan and Ghanaian women. From this, we know that Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research. So far, so good.

How about after her research? From the discussion above, we know that Robertson's views on the status of women in pre-colonial Ghana did not change. So, her previous belief that women's power and status were weakened after European colonization holds true.

Her understanding of Kenyan society, however, changed substantially -- she learned that even before colonization, in Kenya "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." So, once the Europeans arrived, Kenyan women didn't have much power for the "European-style male dominant notions" to take away -- they were already relatively powerless in their society. This means that colonial rule would have less of an impact on the status of Kenyan women than the status of Ghanaian women.

Because Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research and agreed with it after, (B) is the correct answer to question #3.

I hope that helps!

I find this super subtle. But your great explanation makes it clearer. Thanks so much!
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
jawele
I find this super subtle. But your great explanation makes it clearer. Thanks so much!
Thank you jawele for the kind words! Glad we could help.
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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GMATNinja

Read your wonderful explanations on Qn 4- the passage mentions the status of age most likely to??
I am sorry but I still am not convinced how E is better than A.

(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa
You wrote - According to this choice, the status of age was most likely mentioned in order to identify a factor that led Robertson to revise the hypothesis.

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
You wrote - The author never stated that women's dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was absolute in the first place. So why would the author need to indicate that women's dependence was not absolute?

The passage says :
Subsequent research in Kenya...Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya..although age was still crucial....Factors like...However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis.

My understandings :
1.
The age was a crucial factor in Kenya before colonialism ( but not as much as gender was). Why someone will talk about less crucial factor here? - Just to showcase some reservation on general scenario. Reference of age does the same. It shows that the gender was not absolute determiner and women got some power because of age.
In the last sentence " Thus ....revised her hypothesis" of passage, " Thus" responds to what has been noticed ( from research) in the 2nd paragraph and not just to the sentence prior to it.

2.
One more note : If I erase the "However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority" . Does it change anything in final conclusion?
Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya --> Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis.

I don't see any difference. Request you to help.
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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Sumi1010
Read your wonderful explanations on Qn 4- the passage mentions the status of age most likely to??
I am sorry but I still am not convinced how E is better than A.

(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa
You wrote - According to this choice, the status of age was most likely mentioned in order to identify a factor that led Robertson to revise the hypothesis.

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
You wrote - The author never stated that women's dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was absolute in the first place. So why would the author need to indicate that women's dependence was not absolute?

The passage says :
Subsequent research in Kenya...Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya..although age was still crucial....Factors like...However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis.

My understandings :
1.
The age was a crucial factor in Kenya before colonialism ( but not as much as gender was). Why someone will talk about less crucial factor here? - Just to showcase some reservation on general scenario. Reference of age does the same. It shows that the gender was not absolute determiner and women got some power because of age.
In the last sentence " Thus ....revised her hypothesis" of passage, " Thus" responds to what has been noticed ( from research) in the 2nd paragraph and not just to the sentence prior to it.

2.
One more note : If I erase the "However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority" . Does it change anything in final conclusion?
Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya --> Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis.

I don't see any difference. Request you to help.
In your point #1, you ask, "Why someone will talk about less crucial factor here?"

We were not asked to consider why "someone" would raise the issue of age. We were asked why the author raised the issue of age in the context of this passage. We have the choose the answer that's most reflected by the passage, NOT the answer that we think would generally make the most sense.

So let's step back and refresh on the passage itself. The purpose of the second paragraph is to explain how and why Robertson revised her hypothesis. Subsequent research about precolonial Ghana and Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized, and the role of age in central Kenya is raised as one of the factors that led to Robertson's revision.

Choice (E) fits perfectly into the structure and purpose of the paragraph.

Now, in your interpretation of choice (A), you write, "It shows that the gender was not absolute determiner and women got some power because of age." But this is not what choice (A) says:

Quote:
(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
Choice (A) states that the author is trying to indicate that women's dependence on men was not absolute. This is NOT the same as trying to indicate that gender wasn't the absolute determinant of women's greater power in Kenya.

And getting back to the question we're trying to answer... how would choice (A) fit into the passage itself?

Well, it doesn't. As I pointed out earlier, the author never states that women's dependence on men was absolute. In fact, the author explicitly states that women were "more dependent on men than generally was the case in Ghana." The issue of dependence is raised to contrast the treatment of women in two countries and ultimately to help explain why Robertson revised her hypothesis about precolonial Africa — NOT to support a conclusion about whether or not women absolutely depended on men in precolonial Kenya.

Choice (A) sounds sensible, but it doesn't fit the purpose of the paragraph or reflect the goal of the author in writing this passage.

(E) remains a much better answer to the question we were asked, and that's why we keep (E) and eliminate (A).

I hope this helps!
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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Skywalker18
4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

1. In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.

2. Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa.

3. Since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

Isn't Robertson's position after the revision - "in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation" - still the same as her initial position 1 (in 1984 book) or does this revision refer to change with respect to point 2 ?
Thanks for all of the thoughtful detail here, Skywalker18! Always good to see your thought process.

To answer your question, no. Robertson's position after the revision states that age superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation. In other words, Robertson made her argument more nuanced than it was before. This isn't a dramatic revision to Robertson's previous argument, but it is still an explicit change.

vishusahni9
even after looking at all the comments in this post, I am still skeptical about E as an OA for #4.

For me Gender was the main factor for R. to revise the content. Age is a secondary factor which just helps in comparing the situation of elder women and as per passage might go, it would be a factor in Ghana also like was is precolonial age.

Because of Gender author had to come back.
Recall what choice (E) says:

Quote:
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa
According to this choice, the status of age was most likely mentioned in order to identify a factor that led Robertson to revise the hypothesis. Even if age is a secondary factor, it's still a factor that led to the revision.

The second paragraph is structured to show Robertson re-considering her prior argument in more than one way, and her revision was influenced by more than one factor. And let's not forget to evaluate all of our other choices:

Quote:
(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
The author never stated that women's dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was absolute in the first place. So why would the author need to indicate that women's dependence was not absolute? Choice (A) veers away from what the author is actually writing and what Robertson was actually thinking about. (A) isn't as strong as (E), so we'll eliminate it.

Quote:
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
This group-to-group comparison is nowhere in the portion of the passage being highlighted. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
This is another comparison that the highlighted text doesn't point to at all. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
The explanation for this difference is nowhere to be found in the passage. Eliminate (D).

(E) remains the best answer choice, with (A) a distant but reject-able second.

I hope this helps!
CAn anyone explain why B is wrong?
Since senior women had more authority ,so isnot it comapriosn of their situation?
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
JarvisR
In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally. British colonialism imposed European-style male dominant notions upon more egalitarian local situations to the detriment of women generally, and gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority.

Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa. Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya than it was in Ghana, although age was still crucial in determining authority. In contrast with Ghana, where women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority (not unrelated phenomena), the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana. However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present evidence undermining a certain hypothesis
(B) describe a particular position and its subsequent modification
(C) discuss two contrasting viewpoints regarding a particular issue
(D) describe how a social phenomenon varied by region
(E) evaluate an assumption widely held by scholars

2. The passage indicates that Robertson’s research in Kenya caused her to change her mind regarding which of the following?

(A) Whether age was the prevailing principle of social organization in Kenya before colonialism
(B) Whether gender was the primary determinant of social authority in Africa generally before colonialism
(C) Whether it was only after colonialism that gender became a significant determinant of authority in Kenyan society
(D) Whether age was a crucial factor determining authority in Africa after colonialism
(E) Whether British colonialism imposed European-style male-dominant notions upon local situations in Ghana

3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?

(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.
(C) Colonialism had less of an impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women that it had on the status and authority of other African women.
(D) The relative independence of Ghanaian women prior to colonialism was unique in Africa.
(E) Before colonialism, the status and authority of Ghanaian women was similar to that of Kenyan women.

4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

Can anyone explain why is B wrong in question 2?
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
HI,

Could you please explain why A is wrong for Q1? I understand that hypothesis formed by Robertson is presented in par1, and then evidence is presented in par 2 to prove that this hypothesis is not correct?
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
Q2: Can someone please help me to identify where it is explained in the passage that Robertson believed that gender became significant determinant of social authrority prior to colonialism? I can see that Robertson explained her position about the role of gender and authority prior to colonialism, but not after colonialism.
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Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
tkorzhan18
HI,

Could you please explain why A is wrong for Q1? I understand that hypothesis formed by Robertson is presented in par1, and then evidence is presented in par 2 to prove that this hypothesis is not correct?

Hi,

The author is not undermining anyone's work. He is just giving us information about Robertson's work. In para 1, he gives information on what Robertson wrote in her book, and in para 2 he gave us information on the modification she made later.
The author is just presenting information but not his views.

Hit Kudos, if it helps.
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism [#permalink]
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