GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 16 Oct 2019, 17:33

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 383
Concentration: Technology, Other
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 04 Aug 2019, 00:07
7
40
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 988 sessions

84% (02:32) correct 16% (02:44) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 982 sessions

44% (01:18) correct 56% (01:36) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 956 sessions

42% (01:50) correct 58% (01:55) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 900 sessions

46% (01:30) correct 54% (01:27) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally. British colonialism imposed European-style male dominant notions upon more egalitarian local situations to the detriment of women generally, and gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority.

Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa. Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya than it was in Ghana, although age was still crucial in determining authority. In contrast with Ghana, where women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority (not unrelated phenomena), the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana. However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present evidence undermining a certain hypothesis
(B) describe a particular position and its subsequent modification
(C) discuss two contrasting viewpoints regarding a particular issue
(D) describe how a social phenomenon varied by region
(E) evaluate an assumption widely held by scholars



2. The passage indicates that Robertson’s research in Kenya caused her to change her mind regarding which of the following?

(A) Whether age was the prevailing principle of social organization in Kenya before colonialism
(B) Whether gender was the primary determinant of social authority in Africa generally before colonialism
(C) Whether it was only after colonialism that gender became a significant determinant of authority in Kenyan society
(D) Whether age was a crucial factor determining authority in Africa after colonialism
(E) Whether British colonialism imposed European-style male-dominant notions upon local situations in Ghana



3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?

(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.
(C) Colonialism had less of an impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women that it had on the status and authority of other African women.
(D) The relative independence of Ghanaian women prior to colonialism was unique in Africa.
(E) Before colonialism, the status and authority of Ghanaian women was similar to that of Kenyan women.



4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa


Originally posted by JarvisR on 13 Jun 2015, 08:52.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 04 Aug 2019, 00:07, edited 8 times in total.
Updated complete topic (70).
Most Helpful Community Reply
Director
Director
User avatar
G
Joined: 26 Oct 2016
Posts: 613
Location: United States
Concentration: Marketing, International Business
Schools: HBS '19
GMAT 1: 770 Q51 V44
GPA: 4
WE: Education (Education)
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 05 Jul 2017, 21:06
9
In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.
Robertson’s hypothesis in determining status and authority- Before colonialism
AGE > important indicator > GENDER (in Ghana and Africa in general)
British colonialism imposed European-style male-dominant notions upon more egalitarian local situations to the detriment of women generally, and gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority.
Colonialism- Gender became a defining characteristic.
Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa. (Q2)
Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya than it was in Ghana, although age was still crucial in determining authority. In contrast with Ghana, where women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority (not unrelated phenomena), the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time.
elaborate on the difference of gender domninance bwteeen ghana and kenya
Ghana- women traded and had legal majority
Kenya- women legal minors- treated as male property
Ghana was impacted to a higher degree as women in Kenya had low authority before colonialism too. (Q3)
Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana. However, since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.
Factors leading to women’s dependence on men
Thus she revised her hypothesis after identifying all the stated factors. (Q4)
1)R argued on something,
Subsequent research made R to believe something else,
based on that belief R modifies her hypothesis.
Hence, B is correct. As it clearly depicts that R took a position and subsequent research forced her to change her hypothesis.
2) The passage indicates that Robertson’s research in Kenya caused her to change her mind regarding which of the following?
Ans- caused her to changer her mind regarding over generalization about Africa. As seen through the passage, women in kenyan society were treated as legal minors and sometimes as male property. This shows the gender played a prominent role in determining authority in kenyan society even before colonialism.
Since the question mentioned "research in Kenya," we should zero in on the portion of the passage that discusses this research, lines 18-24:
"Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa. Before colonialism, gender was more salient in central Kenya than it was in Ghana."
Compare this with R's initial theory (note that this is conveniently located near the beginning of the passage, in lines 3-7): "Before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally."
R has learned that even before colonialism, gender was more important in Kenya than she'd thought it was in Africa generally. This leads us straight to C.
3)The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in the highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
Ans- After conducting the research she would have agreed that she over generalized and gender had played different role in ghana and kenya. Women in Ghana were more independent as compared to women in other African countries (see Kenya), so colonialism affected their lives the most, since they went from independent to legal minors. " "In contrast with Ghana, where women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority (not unrelated phenomena), the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors". Hence B.
4)The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in the highlighted text most likely in order to
Ans- “Thus” she revised her hypothesis after identifying all the stated factors. (Last line). Hence E.
_________________
Thanks & Regards,
Anaira Mitch
General Discussion
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 41
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Jan 2017, 08:05
1
JarvisR wrote:
6 mins. All correct except 4th question.



Any ideas why E is correct ? I would agree that when taking the whole sentence that one could say that the importance of gender in kenya was one of the reasons for her revision. But the question only asks why the author used "age". And the status of age was her former hypothesis, hence not a factor to change her theory
VP
VP
User avatar
D
Status: Learning
Joined: 20 Dec 2015
Posts: 1006
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Marketing
GMAT 1: 670 Q48 V36
GRE 1: Q157 V157
GPA: 3.4
WE: Engineering (Manufacturing)
Reviews Badge
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2017, 07:12
2
1
All correct
Time 6 min
Question 3 Was tough so its worth discussion .

The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in line 18, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?


A. Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
B. Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.
C. Colonialism had less of an impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women that it had on the status and authority of other African women.
D. The relative independence of Ghanaian women prior to colonialism was unique in Africa.
E. Before colonialism, the status and authority of Ghanaian women was similar to that of Kenyan women.

The question asks us to infer what the author would have agreed on after the colonisation of Ghana.Read the following lines from the passage and the answer becomes apparent
Subsequent research in
Kenya convinced Robertson
(20)
that she had overgeneralized
about Africa. Before colonialism,
gender was more salient
in central Kenya than
it was in Ghana, although age
(25)
was still crucial in determining
authority. In contrast with
Ghana, where women had
traded for hundreds of years
and achieved legal majority
(30)
(not unrelated phenomena),
the evidence regarding
central Kenya indicated
that women were legal minors
and were sometimes treated

(35)
as male property, as were

European women at that time.

_________________
Please give kudos if you find my answers useful
Manager
Manager
User avatar
G
Joined: 01 Feb 2018
Posts: 96
Location: India
GMAT 1: 700 Q47 V38
WE: Consulting (Consulting)
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 28 Aug 2018, 22:10
asdfghjklasdfghj wrote:
JarvisR wrote:
6 mins. All correct except 4th question.



Any ideas why E is correct ? I would agree that when taking the whole sentence that one could say that the importance of gender in kenya was one of the reasons for her revision. But the question only asks why the author used "age". And the status of age was her former hypothesis, hence not a factor to change her theory



asdfghjklasdfghj I was wondering the same, I thought age was given more importance even before colonialism. I chose A because senior women had more authority in some situations, and hence this indicated that dependence of women on men was not absolute. Where am I going wrong?

Can someone please clarify this? GMATNinja

Thanks!
_________________
Please press Kudos if this helped :-)

“Going in one more round when you don't think you can, that's what makes all the difference in your life.”
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 20 Sep 2018
Posts: 5
Location: India
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
Schools: IIMA PGPX "21
GPA: 3.68
Reviews Badge
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Oct 2018, 07:52
even after looking at all the comments in this post, I am still skeptical about E as an OA for #4.

workout Can you please help with expert advice here ? Even Jarvis being a very reputed member of GMAT club had some trouble so I think 4th requires discussion.

For me Gender was the main factor for R. to revise the content. Age is a secondary factor which just helps in comparing the situation of elder women and as per passage might go, it would be a factor in Ghana also like was is precolonial age.

Because of Gender author had to come back.
Booth Moderator
avatar
G
Joined: 11 Feb 2018
Posts: 293
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Finance
GMAT 1: 690 Q47 V37
GMAT 2: 710 Q50 V36
GMAT 3: 750 Q50 V42
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Oct 2018, 13:03
I too am really skeptical about Q4.Some expert help needed please..GMATNinja

My thinking is this.....

Previously when CCR wrote the book she indicated that Age was a more important factor than others(Line 1)

Now age is a more important factor(supersedes) gender(to varying degrees sure but still supersedes)

CCR revised her theory because she had found gender played a role In precolonial Africa....Ok till here I figure.Let us see the question

"""4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa""""

Previously age was very important.Now also age is important.What changed is the role gender played(previously unimportant.now some what important).Then how come mentioning age lead her to revise her view and not gender...?????
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2400
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Oct 2018, 04:30
4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

1. In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.

2. Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa.

3. Since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

Isn't Robertson's position after the revision - "in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation" - still the same as her initial position 1 (in 1984 book) or does this revision refer to change with respect to point 2 ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , egmat , RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , ChiranjeevSingh, GMATGuruNY , VeritasKarishma , other experts-- please enlighten
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2857
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Oct 2018, 13:01
3
Skywalker18 wrote:
4. The author of the passage mentions the status of age as a principle of social organization in precolonial central Kenya in highlighted text most likely in order to

(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

1. In a 1984 book, Claire C. Robertson argued that, before colonialism, age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally.

2. Subsequent research in Kenya convinced Robertson that she had overgeneralized about Africa.

3. Since age apparently remained the overriding principle of social organization in central Kenya, some senior women had much authority. Thus, Robertson revised her hypothesis somewhat, arguing that in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation.

Isn't Robertson's position after the revision - "in determining authority in precolonial Africa age was a primary principle that superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation" - still the same as her initial position 1 (in 1984 book) or does this revision refer to change with respect to point 2 ?

Thanks for all of the thoughtful detail here, Skywalker18! Always good to see your thought process.

To answer your question, no. Robertson's position after the revision states that age superseded gender to varying degrees depending on the situation. In other words, Robertson made her argument more nuanced than it was before. This isn't a dramatic revision to Robertson's previous argument, but it is still an explicit change.

vishusahni9 wrote:
even after looking at all the comments in this post, I am still skeptical about E as an OA for #4.

For me Gender was the main factor for R. to revise the content. Age is a secondary factor which just helps in comparing the situation of elder women and as per passage might go, it would be a factor in Ghana also like was is precolonial age.

Because of Gender author had to come back.

Recall what choice (E) says:

Quote:
(E) identify a factor that led Robertson to revise her hypothesis about precolonial Africa

According to this choice, the status of age was most likely mentioned in order to identify a factor that led Robertson to revise the hypothesis. Even if age is a secondary factor, it's still a factor that led to the revision.

The second paragraph is structured to show Robertson re-considering her prior argument in more than one way, and her revision was influenced by more than one factor. And let's not forget to evaluate all of our other choices:

Quote:
(A) indicate that women’s dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was not absolute

The author never stated that women's dependence on men in precolonial Kenya was absolute in the first place. So why would the author need to indicate that women's dependence was not absolute? Choice (A) veers away from what the author is actually writing and what Robertson was actually thinking about. (A) isn't as strong as (E), so we'll eliminate it.

Quote:
(B) contrast the situation of senior women to that of less senior women in precolonial Kenyan society

This group-to-group comparison is nowhere in the portion of the passage being highlighted. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) differentiate between the status and authority of precolonial Kenyan women and that of precolonial Ghanaian women

This is another comparison that the highlighted text doesn't point to at all. Eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) explain why age superseded gender to a greater extent in precolonial Kenya than it did elsewhere in Africa

The explanation for this difference is nowhere to be found in the passage. Eliminate (D).

(E) remains the best answer choice, with (A) a distant but reject-able second.

I hope this helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Manager
Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 30 Sep 2017
Posts: 143
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jun 2019, 22:50
3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Relevant text: <...> the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana.

Could anybody please explain what's wrong with A in Q3? I highlighted the portions of the text that made me pick A. As the situation of women in Europe was a lot similar to that of women in Kenya, I supposed that it was reasonable to come to such conclusion. Does A provide a stretched idea because we know only that women in Europe were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, but we know almost nothing about their land rights and involvement in trade?

Thanks

u1983 GMATNinja SajjadAhmad workout GMATNinjaTwo Gnpth
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2857
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Jun 2019, 06:59
3
jawele wrote:
3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Relevant text: <...> the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana.

Could anybody please explain what's wrong with A in Q3? I highlighted the portions of the text that made me pick A. As the situation of women in Europe was a lot similar to that of women in Kenya, I supposed that it was reasonable to come to such conclusion. Does A provide a stretched idea because we know only that women in Europe were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, but we know almost nothing about their land rights and involvement in trade?

Thanks

u1983 GMATNinja SajjadAhmad workout GMATNinjaTwo Gnpth

Question #3 asks what Robertson would have agreed with after conducting additional research, but would not have agreed with before conducting that research regarding women's status and authority in Ghana. Before jumping into answer choices, let's examine her ideas from before and after the research in question:

Before the research, Robertson believed that:

  • In pre-colonial times "age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally."
  • After colonization, "gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority."


After the research, she believed that:

  • She had overgeneralized about the role of gender in pre-colonial Africa
  • In Ghana, "women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority." This aligns with Robertson's previous belief that gender was not as important as age as an indicator of status and authority.
  • However, in pre-colonial Kenya, "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." This differs from Robertson's previous views, so she revised her hypothesis to say that gender played a more important role in some African locations before colonization.

Notice that Robertson's beliefs about the role of gender in Ghana did not change substantially from before the research to after it -- in both cases, she thought that gender did not play the most important role in determining status and authority. The significant change in her hypothesis concerned Kenya, where women had less power in pre-colonial times than she had previously thought.

Take another look at answer choice (A):
Quote:
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.

Remember that we are looking for a statement with which Robertson would have disagreed before her additional research, but with which she would have agreed after that research.

As discussed above, even before the additional research Robertson thought that women in Ghana had a higher status than women in Europe before colonization. So even if the specific factors of land rights and involvement in trade are not discussed in the context of her earlier beliefs, we can't say that she would disagree with the notion that "women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time."

The piece of the passage that you pointed out ("women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana") actually compares women in Kenya to women in Ghana. This is a much different comparison than the one in answer choice (A), which compares women in Europe to women in Ghana.

Because there is no evidence that Robertson would have disagreed with (A) before her additional research, it is not the correct answer.

Now look at (B):
Quote:
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Before completing her additional research, Robertson believed that colonialism "weakened women’s power and authority" in Africa generally. So, she believed that colonialism would have a roughly equal impact on Kenyan and Ghanaian women. From this, we know that Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research. So far, so good.

How about after her research? From the discussion above, we know that Robertson's views on the status of women in pre-colonial Ghana did not change. So, her previous belief that women's power and status were weakened after European colonization holds true.

Her understanding of Kenyan society, however, changed substantially -- she learned that even before colonization, in Kenya "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." So, once the Europeans arrived, Kenyan women didn't have much power for the "European-style male dominant notions" to take away -- they were already relatively powerless in their society. This means that colonial rule would have less of an impact on the status of Kenyan women than the status of Ghanaian women.

Because Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research and agreed with it after, (B) is the correct answer to question #3.

I hope that helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Manager
Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 30 Sep 2017
Posts: 143
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 13 Jun 2019, 01:55
1
1
GMATNinja wrote:
jawele wrote:
3. The passage suggests that after conducting the research mentioned in highlighted text, but not before, Robertson would have agreed with which of the following about women’s status and authority in Ghana?
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Relevant text: <...> the evidence regarding central Kenya indicated that women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time. Factors like strong patrilinearity and patrilocality, as well as women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana.

Could anybody please explain what's wrong with A in Q3? I highlighted the portions of the text that made me pick A. As the situation of women in Europe was a lot similar to that of women in Kenya, I supposed that it was reasonable to come to such conclusion. Does A provide a stretched idea because we know only that women in Europe were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, but we know almost nothing about their land rights and involvement in trade?

Thanks

u1983 GMATNinja SajjadAhmad workout GMATNinjaTwo Gnpth

Question #3 asks what Robertson would have agreed with after conducting additional research, but would not have agreed with before conducting that research regarding women's status and authority in Ghana. Before jumping into answer choices, let's examine her ideas from before and after the research in question:

Before the research, Robertson believed that:

  • In pre-colonial times "age was a more important indicator of status and authority than gender in Ghana and in Africa generally."
  • After colonization, "gender became a defining characteristic that weakened women’s power and authority."


After the research, she believed that:

  • She had overgeneralized about the role of gender in pre-colonial Africa
  • In Ghana, "women had traded for hundreds of years and achieved legal majority." This aligns with Robertson's previous belief that gender was not as important as age as an indicator of status and authority.
  • However, in pre-colonial Kenya, "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." This differs from Robertson's previous views, so she revised her hypothesis to say that gender played a more important role in some African locations before colonization.

Notice that Robertson's beliefs about the role of gender in Ghana did not change substantially from before the research to after it -- in both cases, she thought that gender did not play the most important role in determining status and authority. The significant change in her hypothesis concerned Kenya, where women had less power in pre-colonial times than she had previously thought.

Take another look at answer choice (A):
Quote:
(A) Greater land rights and greater involvement in trade made women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time.

Remember that we are looking for a statement with which Robertson would have disagreed before her additional research, but with which she would have agreed after that research.

As discussed above, even before the additional research Robertson thought that women in Ghana had a higher status than women in Europe before colonization. So even if the specific factors of land rights and involvement in trade are not discussed in the context of her earlier beliefs, we can't say that she would disagree with the notion that "women in precolonial Ghana less dependent on men than were European women at that time."

The piece of the passage that you pointed out ("women’s inferior land rights and lesser involvement in trade, made women more dependent on men than was generally the case in Ghana") actually compares women in Kenya to women in Ghana. This is a much different comparison than the one in answer choice (A), which compares women in Europe to women in Ghana.

Because there is no evidence that Robertson would have disagreed with (A) before her additional research, it is not the correct answer.

Now look at (B):
Quote:
(B) Colonialism had a greater impact on the status and authority of Ghanaian women than on Kenyan women.

Before completing her additional research, Robertson believed that colonialism "weakened women’s power and authority" in Africa generally. So, she believed that colonialism would have a roughly equal impact on Kenyan and Ghanaian women. From this, we know that Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research. So far, so good.

How about after her research? From the discussion above, we know that Robertson's views on the status of women in pre-colonial Ghana did not change. So, her previous belief that women's power and status were weakened after European colonization holds true.

Her understanding of Kenyan society, however, changed substantially -- she learned that even before colonization, in Kenya "women were legal minors and were sometimes treated as male property, as were European women at that time." So, once the Europeans arrived, Kenyan women didn't have much power for the "European-style male dominant notions" to take away -- they were already relatively powerless in their society. This means that colonial rule would have less of an impact on the status of Kenyan women than the status of Ghanaian women.

Because Robertson would have disagreed with (B) before her additional research and agreed with it after, (B) is the correct answer to question #3.

I hope that helps!


I find this super subtle. But your great explanation makes it clearer. Thanks so much!
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
User avatar
D
Status: GMAT and GRE tutor
Joined: 13 Aug 2009
Posts: 2857
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
GMAT 2: 800 Q51 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V170
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Jun 2019, 12:39
jawele wrote:
I find this super subtle. But your great explanation makes it clearer. Thanks so much!

Thank you jawele for the kind words! Glad we could help. :)
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutor @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

YouTube LIVE verbal webinars: Series 1: Fundamentals of SC & CR | Series 2: Developing a Winning GMAT Mindset

SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for $29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2019, 12:39
Display posts from previous: Sort by

In a 1984 book, Claire C, Robertson argued that, before colonialism

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne