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In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a

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In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 05:32
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In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a single explanation — a conscious, even willful preference for a selective portrayal of a situation — for a range of instances in which the message does not reflect the reality. But few objective observers of, for instance, the reporting of campaign finance would argue that conventional biases are operating there. Journalists, in general, are not singling out Democrats or Republicans, liberals or conservatives, for praise or blame. Rather one has to look to more intrinsic and ingrained factors — to the "structural biases" of American newspapers and the "political assumptions" of their reporters, editors, and headline writers — to explain bias in the news.

Structural biases are rooted in the very nature of journalism — in its professional norms, in marketplace imperatives, in the demands of communicating information to an unsophisticated audience. Stories need identifiable actors; understandable activity; and elements of conflict, threat, or menace. They cannot be long and must avoid complexity — they must focus on controversy, personalities, and negative statistics rather than on concepts. These characteristics define the "good" story. As for political assumptions, all observers bring a cognitive map to American politics — a critical posture toward politics, parties, and politicians. For some, it is as Ample as "all politicians are crooks"; for others, it involves a particular understanding of the distribution of power and influence in America.

The media's distinct understanding of the ways of influence and decision making in government colors the way journalists describe political reality. This conceptualization also defines journalists' responsibility in reporting that reality; contemporary reporters are in many ways the grandchildren of the Progressive muckrakers. Few aspects of American politics reinforce this Progressive worldview as effectively as the American way of campaign finance. Its cash is an easy measure of influence, and its PACs are perfect embodiments of vested, selfish interests. In assuming that public officials defer to contributors more easily than they do to their party, their own values, or their voting constituency, one has the perfect dramatic scenario for the triumph of wealthy special interests over the will of majorities and the public interest.

Structural bias and political assumption, finally, meet in an analytical conundrum. Structural biases dictate that newspapers print stories that will be read. But does the press publish a story because readers have been previously conditioned to accept and believe such accounts, or does it publish the story because of its conviction that it represents political truth?

1. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

A)The business decisions necessary to the successful practice of journalism lead to inherent biases.

B)The American public demands simplistic, dramatic stories that are the result of poor journalism.

C) The way in which journalists report on campaign finance is inherently biased by two factors.

D) Systematic factors and political assumptions should supplant conventional political divisions in the analysis of journalistic bias.

E)Only journalists working for nonprofit organizations can avoid bias in reporting on campaign finance and other political issues.

2. According to the passage, which of the following would demonstrate structural biases inherent in journalists work?
I. An article that adheres loyally to Progressivist dictates
II. An article that successfully masks its biased opinions
III. An article that is entertaining and easily understood

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and II

E) II and III


3. The author suggests in the passage that the American system of campaign finance:

A)is unjust and should be reformed

B)has exclusively served the interests of the wealthy

C)is an easy target for journalists

D)has been unfairly singled out for criticism by politicians

E)can never overcome its inherent biases



4. Which of the following best describes the "analytical conundrum" referred to in the fourth paragraph?

A) Newspapers cynically promote Progressive ideas in which they do not believe.

B)It is difficult to distinguish the roles of structural biases and political assumptions in publishing decisions.

C)Structural biases and political assumptions exert confiding pressures on newspaper publishers.

D)Readers’ preference for dramatic news accounts reflecting Progressive ideas determine what is published

E) Structural biases are rooted in journalism's professional norms.


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In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 05:19
Read actively like this (note para gist is something you do in your mind)... if by reading in this way you still cannot find the ansers please ask ..i will try to explain the question using this passage reakdown !!

PARA 1
Quote:
"In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a single explanation — a conscious, even willful preference for a selective portrayal of a situation — for a range of instances in which the message does not reflect the reality."

para gist : author starts with bias in jornalism ...so now we know the topic of the passage (Knowing the "topic" helps in eliminating the out of scope answers) he tells us a single one root explanation of bias ... Now i know that the author is going to be talkig about bias in journalism ..lets read !!

" But few objective observers of, for instance, the reporting of campaign finance would argue that conventional biases are operating there."

para gist : okaykeyword "but"... we are now getting a contrast .. author says that alsmost no observers think that there is bias in journalism ..for example in AMERICAN CAMPAING FINANCE....so now i feel that if author has given certain people's point of viiew he will either support it or will go against it
Lets first be clear about the observer's POV : NO conventional bias in journalism

"Journalists, in general, are not singling out Democrats or Republicans, liberals or conservatives, for praise or blame. Rather one has to look to more intrinsic and ingrained factors — to the "structural biases" of American newspapers and the "political assumptions" of their reporters, editors, and headline writers — to explain bias in the news."

para gist : keyord "rather" this means author is going o ptovide an alternate view which may be not along the lines of observers...he is saying that we have to dig in deep to know if there is a bias ...and he says indeed there is bias (it is very intrinsic and cannot be noticed easily)... Now maybe the author will try to support his claim or explain us how there are these intrincsic biases !!

Para summary : bias - osever POV- author alternative POV(bias there)- what are these biases( S and P)

There we go ...we have the main purpose why author is writting this pasage : to tell usthat there is IN FACT bias but at a very intrinsic level !!!


PARA 2
Quote:
"Structural biases are rooted in the very nature of journalism — in its professional norms, in marketplace imperatives, in the demands of communicating information to an unsophisticated audience. "

para gist : "rooted in the very nature" this is a strong claim (rememeber this) ... so author tells us that Stru B is somehwat a rooted/more intrinsic nature of journalism.. He gives us examples where we can find this bias !! ...so now te author starts with SB ..maybe he will tell us why this is roted or why jorunalists go for it or maybe author is just trying o make his point clearer...his point : bias is there !!

"Stories need identifiable actors; understandable activity; and elements of conflict, threat, or menace. They cannot be long and must avoid complexity — they must focus on controversy, personalities, and negative statistics rather than on concepts. These characteristics define the "good" story."

para gist : here we go ..now we know why journos go for this bias !!! ...lets read firther

"As for political assumptions, all observers bring a cognitive map to American politics — a critical posture toward politics, parties, and politicians. For some, it is as Ample as "all politicians are crooks"; for others, it involves a particular understanding of the distribution of power and influence in America. "

para gist : now author tells us about P assum... he says tat these too are rooted in some scenraios !! ... so now maybe in the next para author will tell us how these bias and assumps are used ...coz in this oara he told us WHY they are used!!

para summary : info about SB and PA ..why journos go for SB and PA
para function : tryin to elaborate the last line of first para


PARA 3
Quote:
The media's distinct understanding of the ways of influence and decision making in government colors the way journalists describe political reality. This conceptualization also defines journalists' responsibility in reporting that reality; contemporary reporters are in many ways the grandchildren of the Progressive muckrakers.

para gis : author tells us that the media's understanding is what influeces their "politica reality" ...now this may be the actual "reality" or based pn political assumptions made by the jouns... and this why it is attractive to journos ...

Few aspects of American politics reinforce this Progressive worldview as effectively as the American way of campaign finance. Its cash is an easy measure of influence, and its PACs are perfect embodiments of vested, selfish interests.

para git : now author tells us with the help of example (campaign finacne ) why the joruns think that this dtopic is great (reasons folowed)

In assuming that public officials defer to contributors more easily than they do to their party, their own values, or their voting constituency, one has the perfect dramatic scenario for the triumph of wealthy special interests over the will of majorities and the public interest.

para ist : one more reason for using such topics with political assumps

para summary : why political assumps are used and how they influence "reality"
para function : elaborating the last line of first para ; in continution to second para (same direction)


PARA 4
Quote:
Structural bias and political assumption, finally, meet in an analytical conundrum.

para gist : Atohor says SB and PA meet at an analytical conundrum (analytical :analysiing/ studying ... conundrum ; dilemma/confusion)...maybe he means that studying both of these simultaneously (becasue they do occur simulataneosly (bias of the newspapaer and the assumptos pf their editors)
is somehwat confusing...studying both SB and PA simultaneously is kind of a riddle !!

Structural biases dictate that newspapers print stories that will be read. But does the press publish a story because readers have been previously conditioned to accept and believe such accounts, or does it publish the story because of its conviction that it represents political truth?

para gist : here we go !! this measn that what the newspaper EXACTLY employ maybe completely diferent and which may not incovelve SB or PA or may incluve both !!!

para summary : making additional point regarding the actual "reality" of newspaper bias !!!
para function : trying to present a confusing state which is why the observers do not actually see the intrinsc bias !!


main point : there actually is a bias !! if we look at the intrinsic factors we maybe able to understand it !!!
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Re: In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2019, 01:50
Hi

Can anyone post the OE for q1 & 3
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Re: In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2019, 07:51
Hello,

Could someone help explain how to conclude from the passage that D is the correct answer for Question 1? I am getting a bit confused about this one.

Thank you!
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Re: In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a   [#permalink] 06 Mar 2019, 07:51
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In journalism, "bias" is a word with many meanings. It suggests a

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