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# In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United

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In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Oct 2019, 22:13
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 251, Date : 06-Aug-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

In the history of nineteenth-century landscape
painting in the United States, the Luminists are
distinguished by their focus on atmosphere and
light. The accepted view of Luminist paintings is
(5) that they are basically spiritual and imply a tranquil
mysticism that contrasts with earlier American
artists’ concept of nature as dynamic and energetic.
According to this view, the Luminist atmosphere,
characterized by “pure and constant light,” guides
(10) the onlooker toward a lucid transcendentalism, an
idealized vision of the world.

What this view fails to do is to identify the true
significance of this transcendental atmosphere in
Luminist paintings. The prosaic factors that are
(15) revealed by a closer examination of these works
suggest that the glowing appearance of nature in
Luminism is actually a sign of nature’s
domestication, its adaptation to human use. The
idealized Luminist atmosphere thus seems to
(20) convey, not an intensification of human responses
to nature, but rather a muting of those emotions,
like awe and fear, which untamed nature elicits.

One critic, in describing the spiritual quality of
harbor scenes by Fitz Hugh Lane, an important
(25) Luminist, carefully notes that “at the peak of
Luminist development in the 1850s and 1860s,
spiritualism in America was extremely widespread.”
It is also true, however, that the 1850s and 1860s
were a time of trade expansion. From 1848 until his
(30) death in 1865, Lane lived in a house with a view of
the harbor of Gloucester, Massachusetts, and he
made short trips to Maine, New York, Baltimore,
and probably Puerto Rico. In all of these places he
painted the harbors with their ships—the

Lane usually depicts places like New York
Harbor, with ships at anchor, but even when he
depicts more remote, less commercially active
harbors, nature appears pastoral and domesticated
(40) rather than primitive or unexplored. The ships,
rather than the surrounding landscapes—including
the sea—are generally the active element in his
pictures. For Lane the sea is, in effect, a canal or a
trade route for commercial activity, not a free,
(45) powerful element, as it is in the early pictures of his
predecessor, Cole. For Lane nature is subdued,
even when storms are approaching; thus, the sea is
always a viable highway for the transport of goods.
In sum, I consider Lane’s sea simply an environment
(50) for human activity—nature no longer inviolate.
The luminescence that Lane paints symbolizes
nature’s humbled state, for the light itself is as
docile as the Luminist sea, and its tranquillity in a
sense signifies no more than good conditions on the
(55) highway to progress. Progress, probably even more
than transcendence, is the secret message of
Luminism. In a sense, Luminist pictures are an
ideological justification of the atmosphere
necessary for business, if also an exaggerated,
(60) idealistic rendering of that atmosphere.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

(A) the importance of religion to the art of a particular period
(B) the way one artist’s work illustrates a tradition of painting
(C) the significance of the sea in one artist’s work
(D) differences in the treatment of nature as a more active or a less active force
(E) variations in the artistic treatment of light among nineteenth-century landscape painters

2. The author argues that nature is portrayed in Lane’s pictures as

(A) wild and unexplored
(B) idealized and distant
(C) continually changing
(D) difficult to understand
(E) subordinate to human concerns

3. The passage contains information to suggest that the author would most probably agree with which one of the following statements?

(A) The prevailing religious principles of a given time can be reflected in the art of that time.
(B) In order to interest viewers, works of art must depict familiar subjects in detail.
(C) Because commerce is unusual as a subject in art, the painter of commercial activity must travel and observe it widely.
(D) Knowing about the environment in which an artist lived can aid in an understanding of a work by that artist.
(E) The most popular works of art at a given time are devoted to furthering economic or social progress.

4. According to the author, a supporter of the view of Luminism described in the first paragraph would most likely

(A) be unimpressed by the paintings’ glowing light
(B) consider Luminist scenes to be undomesticated and wild
(C) interpret the Luminist depiction of nature incorrectly
(D) see Luminist paintings as practical rather than mystical
(E) focus on the paintings’ subject matter instead of on atmosphere and light

5. According to the author, the sea is significant in Lane’s paintings because of its association with

(A) exploration
(B) commerce
(C) canals
(D) idealism
(E) mysticism

6. The author’s primary purpose is to

(A) refute a new theory
(C) summarize current critics’ attitudes
(D) support another critic’s evaluation
(E) describe the history of a misinterpretation

7. The author quotes a critic writing about Lane (lines 25–27) most probably in order to

(A) suggest that Luminism was the dominant of painting in the 1850s and 1860s
(B) support the idea that Lane was interested in spiritualism
(C) provide an example of the primary cultural factors that influenced the Luminists
(D) explain why the development of Luminism coincided with that of spiritualism
(E) illustrate a common misconception concerning an important characteristic of Lane’s paintings mode

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 18 (December 1992)
• Difficulty Level: 700

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Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 06 Oct 2019, 22:13, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (818).
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Re: In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2019, 21:35
give explanation for question 1
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Re: In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2019, 03:43

Topic and Scope:

Luminist painting; specifically, the interpretation of Luminist painting.

Purpose and Main Idea:

The author’s purpose is to offer a non-traditional interpretation of Luminist painting by examining the work of Fitz Hugh Lane; the author’s specific main idea is that, contrary to the accepted view, Luminist painting doesn’t present a spiritual and mystical view of untamed nature.

Paragraph Structure:

Para 1 presents the accepted view of Luminist painting. In Para 2, the author provides a counter interpretation, arguing that Luminist works actually portray man’s conquest and exploitation of nature. Paras 3 and 4 illustrate the author’s view through a detailed examination of Lane’s landscapes. Essentially, what the author says is that Lane’s harbor views are meant to portray man’s domestication and exploitation of the sea for the purposes of expanding commerce.

• Yet another passage with a classic structure. Para 1 provides the accepted view of the topic, while Paras 2, 3, and 4 present a counter interpretation through an extended example.

• Since topic, scope, and purpose are evident early on, this passage is certainly one that should be tackled earlier rather than later in the section.

Explanation

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Paras 2, 3, and 4 describe the author’s perspective about Luminist painting, principally by analyzing the work of one artist, Fitz Hugh Lane.

(A) The allegedly spiritual and mystical (or religious) nature of Luminist painting is discussed only in Para 1. Besides, this passage isn’t about art in general.

(C) plays on a detail, mainly in Para 4. Luminist painting, not the sea, is the central theme of this passage.

(D) focuses on a detail in Para 1.

(E) is beyond the scope of the passage, which is about one particular school of 19th-century American landscape painters. The text isn’t about 19th-century landscape painters in general.

Hope it helps

Kanvi wrote:
give explanation for question 1

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10 Aug 2019, 09:41
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10 Aug 2019, 23:31
2
1
Explanation

5. According to the author, the sea is significant in Lane’s paintings because of its association with

Difficulty Level: 650

Explanation

Most of Paras 3 and 4 explore the connection between the sea and commerce in Lane’s paintings.

(A), (C) “Exploration,” (A), and “canals,” (C), are words that the author uses as part of his discussion of the link between the sea and commerce in Lane’s work. The author doesn’t contend that Lane himself associated the sea with either of these things.

(D), (E) “Idealism,” (D), and “mysticism,” (E), are terms that those who subscribe to the traditional view of Luminist painting apply to this school in general.

• Never pick a choice simply because it uses the same words or phrases that the passage uses.

7. The author quotes a critic writing about Lane (lines 25–27) most probably in order to

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

The Contrast Keyword “however” (line 28), which comes immediately after the quote in question, indicates that the author has included this quote in order to “illustrate a...misconception concerning a characteristic of Lane’s paintings.” In particular, the author claims that Lane’s paintings reflect a growth in commerce rather than widespread religious fervor.

(A) is beyond the scope of the passage, which doesn’t refer to non-Luminist painting.

(B) Au contraire. The author includes the quote to help make the point that Lane was interested in commerce, not spiritualism.

(C) The quote is included to point out a “cultural factor” that the author feels didn’t influence Luminist painting.

(D) The author doesn’t discuss this correlation. Indeed, he denies an explicit link between Luminist painting and spiritual fervor.

• Questions often ask about the purpose, not the substance, of a detail—that’s one major reason why you’ve got to read for “sense.”

Hope it helps

Mudit27021988 wrote:

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Re: In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2019, 01:45
1
Hi everyone
Took 12:55 minutes and got 6/7 correct. Took me 5:10 minutes to read, write down paragraphs summaries and main point.

P1: Introduction to luminism
P2: The correct view about luminism
P3:why trade and not spiritualism affected Lane's art
P4: Lane's view on art and Author's view on luminism

MP: To discuss luminism's features and factors affecting it.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. The passage is primarily concerned with discussing

Pre-thinking
Refer to main point formulation above to analyze the answer choices

(A) the importance of religion to the art of a particular period
Religion is never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(B) the way one artist’s work illustrates a tradition of painting
The main focus of the passage is luminism and its features are discussed through Lane's work. Hence correct

(C) the significance of the sea in one artist’s work
True but too narrow to encompass the entire passage. Therefore partial scope and incorrect

(D) differences in the treatment of nature as a more active or a less active force
Seas are mentioned briefly in the last paragraph so they cannot convey the purpose of the all passage. Hence incorrect

(E) variations in the artistic treatment of light among nineteenth-century landscape painters
No variation is discussed . Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. The author argues that nature is portrayed in Lane’s pictures as

Pre-thinking
We can refer to the last paragraph for pre-thinking this question. Lane's art describes nature as domesticate, as a means through which human can trade and do business. Even a storm won't scare humans since they think of nature as a domesticated entity.....

(A) wild and unexplored
Opposite. And not just for Lane but for all luminists. Hence incorrect

(B) idealized and distant
idealized nature is mentioned in the first paragraph but later on we see that this is the wrong view. Distant is never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(C) continually changing
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect.

(D) difficult to understand
Never mentioned. Hence incorrect.

(E) subordinate to human concerns
In line with pre-thinking. Just refer to the storm example. Even with a storm at hand the sea would be seen as viable means for doing some trade. Hence correct

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. The passage contains information to suggest that the author would most probably agree with which one of the following statements?

Pre-thinking
Since pre-thinking cannot be done let's evaluate the answer choices

(A) The prevailing religious principles of a given time can be reflected in the art of that time.
Religious principles are never mentioned. Hence incorrect.

(B) In order to interest viewers, works of art must depict familiar subjects in detail.
the intention of interesting viewers is never mentioned. Hence incorrect

(C) Because commerce is unusual as a subject in art, the painter of commercial activity must travel and observe it widely.
Not a requirement. Lane did it but nowhere the author says that traveling is required. Hence incorrect

(D) Knowing about the environment in which an artist lived can aid in an understanding of a work by that artist.
Refer to P3. Trade was an essential factor to the luminism movement. Hence correct

(E) The most popular works of art at a given time are devoted to furthering economic or social progress.
This is too general. It might apply to luminism but the author does not think it can apply to other movements

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. According to the author, a supporter of the view of Luminism described in the first paragraph would most likely

Pre-thinking:
Refer to the first paragraph

(A) be unimpressed by the paintings’ glowing light
Cannot be inferred. Hence incorrect

(B) consider Luminist scenes to be undomesticated and wild
opposite. Hence incorrect

(C) interpret the Luminist depiction of nature incorrectly
The first paragraph depicts an incorrect view of Luminism as the second paragraph states. Hence correct

(D) see Luminist paintings as practical rather than mystical
Opposite. Hence incorrect

(E) focus on the paintings’ subject matter instead of on atmosphere and light
Never mentioned . Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. According to the author, the sea is significant in Lane’s paintings because of its association with

Pre-thinking:
Trade as explicitly stated in P4

(A) exploration

(B) commerce
As mentioned in P4. Correct

(C) canals

(D) idealism

(E) mysticism

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. The author’s primary purpose is to

Pre-thinking
Refer to main point formulation above

(A) refute a new theory
No new theory is presented. The passage talks about the accepted theory. So this AC is inconsistent and incorrect

The incorrect analysis is expressed in P1 and the rest of the passage contrasts it. Hence correct

(C) summarize current critics’ attitudes
Not the purpose.Plus just one critic's view. Hence incorrect.

(D) support another critic’s evaluation
The author does not support the critic view. So this choice is incorrect

(E) describe the history of a misinterpretation
No such thing is described. Hence incorrect

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. The author quotes a critic writing about Lane (lines 25–27) most probably in order to

Pre-thinking:
The author contrasts (note carefully the usage of however) the critic's view on luminism and spiritualism with the spread of trade during those years. While one might think that spiritualism influenced luminism, trade actually was the influencing factor.

(A) suggest that Luminism was the dominant of painting in the 1850s and 1860s
Not the purpose. Hence incorrect

(B) support the idea that Lane was interested in spiritualism
of course not. Hence incorrect

(C) provide an example of the primary cultural factors that influenced the Luminists
The purpose is to correct the misconception that spiritualism affected luminism. Hence opposite

(D) explain why the development of Luminism coincided with that of spiritualism
No such explanation is given. Plus from the information given we cannot infer which came first. Hence incorrect

(E) illustrate a common misconception concerning an important characteristic of Lane’s paintings mode
In line with pre-thinking. Hence correct

It'a a good day to be alive, cheers!
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Re: In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2019, 01:52
Quote:
2.The author argues that nature is portrayed in Lane’s pictures as

(A) wild and unexplored
(B) idealized and distant
(C) continually changing
(D) difficult to understand
(E) subordinate to human concerns

I picked up C because “
Quote:
nature no longer inviolate
"
However, OA is E, I have no idea how subordinate to human concerns equals to “nature is subdued.”

Quote:
3.According to the author, a supporter of the view of Luminism described in the first paragraph would most likely

(A) be unimpressed by the paintings’ glowing light
(B) consider Luminist scenes to be undomesticated and wild
(C) interpret the Luminist depiction of nature incorrectly
(D) see Luminist paintings as practical rather than mystical
(E) focus on the paintings’ subject matter instead of on atmosphere and light

I didnot picked up C because the author points out that
Quote:
What this view fails to do is to identify the true
significance of this transcendental atmosphere in
Luminist paintings.

For me, it merely points out a drawback, but it doesn’t mean incorrect.
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17 Aug 2019, 05:32
Hello zoezhuyan

Why C is wrong in q#2?

“Continually changing” is a phrase that the author might apply to pre-Luminist portrayals of nature.

Why E is correct?

In lines 43-45, the author says, “For Lane the sea is...a canal or a trade route for commercial activity, not a free, powerful element.” In line 46, he says “For Lane, nature is subdued....” In line 49, he says, “I consider Lane’s sea simply an environment for human activity— nature no longer inviolate.” Moreover, elsewhere in the passage, the author makes it clear that he believes that Luminist paintings portray man’s dominance of nature.

I didn't understand what you want to know for question #3 as OA for Q#3 is D but you are saying you haven't picked up C then what is your question?

Regards
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17 Aug 2019, 06:58
Hello zoezhuyan

I didn't understand what you want to know for question #3 as OA for Q#3 is D but you are saying you haven't picked up C then what is your question?

Regards

I picked up B for Q3, because P1 says
Quote:
According to this view, the Luminist atmosphere,
characterized by “pure and constant light,”
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17 Aug 2019, 08:25
Why B is wrong?

(B) is beyond the scope of the passage, which doesn’t concern itself with “viewer interest.” Besides, Luminist paintings are idealized, not highly detailed, landscapes.

Why D is correct?

In the last sentence of para 3, the author mentions that Lane lived near and travelled to various commercial ports. In para 4, the author suggests that this proximity accounts for Lane’s propensity to paint harbor scenes that reflect business themes.

Hope it helps

zoezhuyan wrote:
Hello zoezhuyan

I didn't understand what you want to know for question #3 as OA for Q#3 is D but you are saying you haven't picked up C then what is your question?

Regards

I picked up B for Q3, because P1 says
Quote:
According to this view, the Luminist atmosphere,
characterized by “pure and constant light,”

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In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2020, 20:26

I went through the official explanation but couldn't understand why (B) is correct

5. According to the author, the sea is significant in Lane’s paintings because of its association with

(A) exploration
(B) commerce
(C) canals
(D) idealism
(E) mysticism

The author mentions trade, commercial activity and canal. He later also mentions Luminist pictures are an
ideological justification of the atmosphere
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04 Jun 2020, 02:43
Can someone explain how Q 6 author’s primary purpose is to "replace an inadequate analysis".

An analysis of the paintings is provided in the first para, but it seems the author "himself" feels that the analysis is inadequate.
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04 Jun 2020, 09:32
Hoozan wrote:

I went through the official explanation but couldn't understand why (B) is correct

5. According to the author, the sea is significant in Lane’s paintings because of its association with

(A) exploration
(B) commerce
(C) canals
(D) idealism
(E) mysticism

The author mentions trade, commercial activity and canal. He later also mentions Luminist pictures are an
ideological justification of the atmosphere

In all of these places he painted the harbors with their ships—the instruments of expanding trade.

Lines 43-47

For Lane the sea is, in effect, a canal or a trade route for commercial activity, not a free, powerful element........ the sea is always a viable highway for the transport of goods.

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04 Jun 2020, 09:39
Ruchirkalra wrote:
Can someone explain how Q 6 author’s primary purpose is to "replace an inadequate analysis".

An analysis of the paintings is provided in the first para, but it seems the author "himself" feels that the analysis is inadequate.

Explanation

6. The author’s primary purpose is to

Difficulty Level: 700

Explanation

Para 1 lays out the accepted interpretation of Luminist painting. Paras 2, 3, and 4, in contrast, are devoted to presenting an alternate interpretation, which, according to the author, is more accurate than the accepted interpretation.

(A) First, the passage doesn’t discuss any “theory.” Second, the accepted interpretation of Luminist painting isn’t “new.” (C), (D) The passage is primarily about the author’s interpretation of Luminist painting, not the attitudes, (C), or interpretations, (D), of critics in general. Both of these choices play on passage details.

(E) The author briefly sets out what is considered to be a wrongheaded interpretation of Luminist painting, but the history of that interpretation is never probed.

In global questions, abstractly-phrased choices needn’t pose a problem. Simply summarize the contents of each para and look for the corresponding choice.

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In the history of nineteenth-century landscape painting in the United   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2020, 09:39