Summer is Coming! Join the Game of Timers Competition to Win Epic Prizes. Registration is Open. Game starts Mon July 1st.

It is currently 16 Jul 2019, 12:03

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 16 Sep 2006
Posts: 378
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 02 Oct 2018, 07:02
2
36
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

63% (01:22) correct 37% (01:33) wrong based on 1345 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics


It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.


(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year

(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues

(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues

(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy

(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy


The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 120
Page: 657

Originally posted by jyotsnasarabu on 28 Nov 2006, 12:10.
Last edited by Bunuel on 02 Oct 2018, 07:02, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
Most Helpful Expert Reply
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4774
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 May 2013, 06:20
13
6
Redundancy of annual and per year; kill A,B and D. Between C and E, E has a peculiar twist to the meaning. E, per se, may be absurdly taken to mean that the lost industrial output and tax revenues lacked literacy and cost the country the estimated amount. So C
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Most Helpful Community Reply
Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 14 Jan 2007
Posts: 698
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 20 Apr 2008, 06:49
5
1
prasannar wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year

(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues

(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy

(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy.


A,B and D use redundant words

E is wordy and weakly constructed.

C is correct.
General Discussion
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 28 May 2011
Posts: 149
Location: United States
Concentration: General Management, International Business
GMAT 1: 720 Q49 V38
GPA: 3.6
WE: Project Management (Computer Software)
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 17 Jul 2011, 00:06
4
This is a good one.

Three options (A, B, D) can be ruled out immediately if one can see simultaneous use of "annual" and " year".
Between C and E, E is changing the intention (I don't think meaning is changing) of the sentence by shifting the emphasis to "lost industrial output and tax revenues cost" from "illiteracy".

So we remain with C
_________________
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://gmatclub.com/forum/a-guide-to-the-official-guide-13-for-gmat-review-134210.html
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Joined: 16 Dec 2011
Posts: 296
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 May 2013, 06:43
1
jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy

(A) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(B) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. "because of" is incorrect idiomatically.
(C) Correct.
(D) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(E) Meaning changed.
Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 20 Aug 2014
Posts: 1
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Oct 2014, 06:33
jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy


Can someone explain how D is not the right option.
VP
VP
User avatar
P
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 1378
Location: India
Schools: ISB
GPA: 3.31
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Oct 2014, 03:53
Deshwani wrote:
Can someone explain how D is not the right option.

Original sentence says: at least $20 billion a year

D says: $20 billion a year

In GMAT land, that is a reasonably big change in meaning, to warrant rejection of D (among other errors, which have already been pointed out)
_________________
Thanks,
Ashish
EducationAisle, Bangalore

Sentence Correction Nirvana available on Amazon.in and Flipkart

Now! Preview the entire Grammar Section of Sentence Correction Nirvana at pothi.com
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 30 Sep 2015
Posts: 52
Location: United States (MD)
Concentration: Marketing, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 620 Q49 V25
GMAT 2: 620 Q49 V27
WE: Marketing (Consumer Products)
Reviews Badge
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 01 Nov 2016, 06:24
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

First, we understand the intended meaning: Something has been estimated about illiteracy. It costs the US at least certain amount of money in two fields/factors.

Identify errors
From the original sentence, we see that the underlined portion is a dependent clause.
1. Redundancy: Annual cost & $20 billion a year is unnecessary.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. Incorrect
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues. Incorrect
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues. Correct
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy. Incorrect
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy.
This option changes the intended meaning. It is establishing a causal-relation.Als, it is now quantifying the cost of lost industrial output and tax revenue, not of illiteracy anymore.
Manager
Manager
User avatar
S
Joined: 11 Aug 2018
Posts: 111
Location: Pakistan
GPA: 2.73
Premium Member CAT Tests
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 24 Aug 2018, 06:27
1
In his book Mr. Kozol estimated that the direct annual cost to the nation of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues was at least $20 billion. But that, he said, does not include billions of dollars in such costs as crime resulting from illiteracy.
NY times

https://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/22/scie ... ation.html
_________________
If you like this post, be kind and help me with Kudos!

Cheers!
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 13 Dec 2018
Posts: 50
Location: India
GPA: 3.94
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Dec 2018, 00:57
In choices A, B, and D, the combined use of annual and a year is redundant. Choices A, D, and E are awkward and confused because other constructions intrude within the phrase cost... of illiteracy: for greatest clarity, cost should be followed immediately by a phrase (e.g., of illiteracy ) that identifies the nature of the cost. Choice E is particularly garbled in reversing cause and effect, saying that it is lost output and revenues rather than illiteracy that costs the United States over $20 billion a year. Choice B is wordy and awkward, and idiom requires in rather than because of to introduce a phrase identifying the constituents of the $20 billion loss. Concise, logically worded, and idiomatic, choice C is best. Hence, C is the answer.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 14 Mar 2017
Posts: 21
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jan 2019, 03:53
I understand the answers posted here .
What I am confused about is option (B). The annual/per year is clearly redundant. So its wrong
But in the official guide explanation it says that the idiom "Because of " is incorrect here.
Can anybody suggest why is that.
What is the correct usage of "because of"
What i understand is "because of" is a compound preposition and can be followed by noun, pronoun or a gerund. So if its true then why "because of" is unidiomatic in option (B).
Retired Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: enjoying
Joined: 19 Feb 2007
Posts: 4774
Location: India
WE: Education (Education)
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jan 2019, 09:14
Top Contributor
'Because of' is wrong not due to the noun that follows the phrase. That phrase will usually be followed a noun or its equivalent even in wrong choices. However, when you have' because of', which is an adverbial modifier, It should l have an action verb prior to that. A simple linking verb such as 'is' will not be sufficient. If we were to re write the sentence, as given below, then it might be ok.

Quote:
The United States loses $20 billion every year in industrial output and tax revenues because of illiteracy.

Here 'loses' is the essential action verb, if we have to use the phrase 'because of'

It must be also mentioned that B could be correct if it used due to instead of 'because of'.

Quote:
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion due to lost industrial output and tax revenues


I do not think OG's explanation has to go so deep into grammar to reject this choice, when the redundancy error is popping up in front of our eyes.

HTH
_________________
The Take-Away: Grammar First and Then the Rest
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
D
Joined: 25 Dec 2018
Posts: 423
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Finance
GMAT Date: 02-18-2019
GPA: 3.4
WE: Engineering (Consulting)
CAT Tests
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 30 Jan 2019, 21:16
daagh wrote:
'Because of' is wrong not due to the noun that follows the phrase. That phrase will usually be followed a noun or its equivalent even in wrong choices. However, when you have' because of', which is an adverbial modifier, It should l have an action verb prior to that. A simple linking verb such as 'is' will not be sufficient. If we were to re write the sentence, as given below, then it might be ok.

Quote:
The United States loses $20 billion every year in industrial output and tax revenues because of illiteracy.

Here 'loses' is the essential action verb, if we have to use the phrase 'because of'

It must be also mentioned that B could be correct if it used due to instead of 'because of'.

Quote:
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion due to lost industrial output and tax revenues


I do not think OG's explanation has to go so deep into grammar to reject this choice, when the redundancy error is popping up in front of our eyes.

HTH


niceexplanation
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 14 Mar 2017
Posts: 21
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Jan 2019, 04:17
daagh wrote:
'Because of' is wrong not due to the noun that follows the phrase. That phrase will usually be followed a noun or its equivalent even in wrong choices. However, when you have' because of', which is an adverbial modifier, It should l have an action verb prior to that. A simple linking verb such as 'is' will not be sufficient. If we were to re write the sentence, as given below, then it might be ok.

Quote:
The United States loses $20 billion every year in industrial output and tax revenues because of illiteracy.

Here 'loses' is the essential action verb, if we have to use the phrase 'because of'

It must be also mentioned that B could be correct if it used due to instead of 'because of'.

Quote:
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion due to lost industrial output and tax revenues


I do not think OG's explanation has to go so deep into grammar to reject this choice, when the redundancy error is popping up in front of our eyes.

HTH


I just wanted to understand the idiom. Thanks for the explanation though. I really got it.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 14 Mar 2017
Posts: 21
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Mar 2019, 05:04
daagh wrote:
'Because of' is wrong not due to the noun that follows the phrase. That phrase will usually be followed a noun or its equivalent even in wrong choices. However, when you have' because of', which is an adverbial modifier, It should l have an action verb prior to that. A simple linking verb such as 'is' will not be sufficient. If we were to re write the sentence, as given below, then it might be ok.

Quote:
The United States loses $20 billion every year in industrial output and tax revenues because of illiteracy.

Here 'loses' is the essential action verb, if we have to use the phrase 'because of'

It must be also mentioned that B could be correct if it used due to instead of 'because of'.

Quote:
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion due to lost industrial output and tax revenues


I do not think OG's explanation has to go so deep into grammar to reject this choice, when the redundancy error is popping up in front of our eyes.

HTH


Hi sir I have two more queries.
1) can you explain the idiomatic usage of the idiom " Because Of "

2) Why these two sentences wrong
(a)Plants grow because of the sun , which shines
(b)because of the shining , the sun makes plants grow
CEO
CEO
User avatar
V
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 2844
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
GRE 1: Q170 V169
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Mar 2019, 23:13
daagh wrote:
It must be also mentioned that B could be correct if it used due to instead of 'because of'.

Quote:
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion due to lost industrial output and tax revenues
If we want to use due to as an adjective, we would not want a due to in there.

X is due to Y.
This could be acceptable.

X is $20 billion due to Y.
This is not acceptable. We're not talking about either X or $20 billion separately.

Let me know if I've overlooked something. I'd be happy to know about it.

aashishlandmark wrote:
But in the official guide explanation it says that the idiom "Because of " is incorrect here.
Look at this as a meaning issue rather than something to do with grammar. The because of is incorrect because it does not give us the right meaning. We are not looking to provide the reason for something here. Instead, we're looking to provide, loosely speaking, a category.

Last year, we lost $20,000 because of bad marketing.
The bad marketing bit identifies the cause of the loss, but not the type of the loss ("category").

Last year, bad marketing cost us $20,000 in lost revenue.
Last year, bad marketing cost us $20,000 in lost profits.
Last year, bad marketing cost us $20,000 in lost goodwill.

You can see here that lost revenue/profits/goodwill is not something that tells us what the problem was (the problem was bad marketing). Instead, it's telling us what that $20,000 was "made of". In other words, the possibility that bad marketing actually led to a much larger overall loss exists. That is, maybe the overall loss was $60,000 (20 in R + 20 in P + 20 in G). So we could even combine those sentences and say something like this:

Last year, bad marketing cost us $5,000 in lost revenue, $10,000 in lost profits, and $20,000 in lost goodwill.
_________________
Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 11 Jun 2018
Posts: 98
GMAT 1: 500 Q39 V21
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 09 Jul 2019, 11:03
1
Did no one see United States of Illiteracy in option A lol. Thank god this wasn't on the test, i would have started laughing at the centre. :p
GMAT Club Bot
Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2019, 11:03
Display posts from previous: Sort by

It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne