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It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of

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It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Oct 2018, 06:02
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It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.


(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year

(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues

(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues

(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy

(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy


The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 120
Page: 657

Originally posted by jyotsnasarabu on 28 Nov 2006, 11:10.
Last edited by Bunuel on 02 Oct 2018, 06:02, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2013, 05:20
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Redundancy of annual and per year; kill A,B and D. Between C and E, E has a peculiar twist to the meaning. E, per se, may be absurdly taken to mean that the lost industrial output and tax revenues lacked literacy and cost the country the estimated amount. So C
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Apr 2008, 05:49
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prasannar wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year

(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues

(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy

(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy.


A,B and D use redundant words

E is wordy and weakly constructed.

C is correct.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2011, 23:06
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This is a good one.

Three options (A, B, D) can be ruled out immediately if one can see simultaneous use of "annual" and " year".
Between C and E, E is changing the intention (I don't think meaning is changing) of the sentence by shifting the emphasis to "lost industrial output and tax revenues cost" from "illiteracy".

So we remain with C
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2013, 05:43
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jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy

(A) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(B) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. "because of" is incorrect idiomatically.
(C) Correct.
(D) "annual" + "a year" --> redundant. Sentence is verbose and awkwardly structured.
(E) Meaning changed.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2014, 05:33
jyotsnasarabu wrote:
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy


Can someone explain how D is not the right option.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2014, 02:53
Deshwani wrote:
Can someone explain how D is not the right option.

Original sentence says: at least $20 billion a year

D says: $20 billion a year

In GMAT land, that is a reasonably big change in meaning, to warrant rejection of D (among other errors, which have already been pointed out)
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2016, 05:24
It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year.

First, we understand the intended meaning: Something has been estimated about illiteracy. It costs the US at least certain amount of money in two fields/factors.

Identify errors
From the original sentence, we see that the underlined portion is a dependent clause.
1. Redundancy: Annual cost & $20 billion a year is unnecessary.

(A) the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues is at least $20 billion a year. Incorrect
(B) the annual cost of illiteracy to the United States is at least $20 billion a year because of lost industrial output and tax revenues. Incorrect
(C) illiteracy costs the United States at least $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues. Correct
(D) $20 billion a year in lost industrial output and tax revenues is the annual cost to the United States of illiteracy. Incorrect
(E) lost industrial output and tax revenues cost the United States at least $20 billion a year because of illiteracy.
This option changes the intended meaning. It is establishing a causal-relation.Als, it is now quantifying the cost of lost industrial output and tax revenue, not of illiteracy anymore.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 05:27
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In his book Mr. Kozol estimated that the direct annual cost to the nation of illiteracy in lost industrial output and tax revenues was at least $20 billion. But that, he said, does not include billions of dollars in such costs as crime resulting from illiteracy.
NY times

https://www.nytimes.com/1986/07/22/scie ... ation.html
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2018, 23:57
In choices A, B, and D, the combined use of annual and a year is redundant. Choices A, D, and E are awkward and confused because other constructions intrude within the phrase cost... of illiteracy: for greatest clarity, cost should be followed immediately by a phrase (e.g., of illiteracy ) that identifies the nature of the cost. Choice E is particularly garbled in reversing cause and effect, saying that it is lost output and revenues rather than illiteracy that costs the United States over $20 billion a year. Choice B is wordy and awkward, and idiom requires in rather than because of to introduce a phrase identifying the constituents of the $20 billion loss. Concise, logically worded, and idiomatic, choice C is best. Hence, C is the answer.
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Re: It has been estimated that the annual cost to the United States of &nbs [#permalink] 17 Dec 2018, 23:57
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