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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century

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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 24 Jul 2018, 20:40
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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.

RC0433-02. The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to

(A) show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than most historians appear to realize

(B) qualify the claim that patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology

(C) question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction

(D) highlight an apparent tension between Royalist ideology and the ideas of early feminists

(E) argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization and women's political rights
Passage: English Women

Question: Specific Purpose

The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on

that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrasing in order to in the question stem indicates that this is a Purpose question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The question refers you to line 9 of the passage. Reread that line and the surrounding text.

“Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth-century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom…—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women…”

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The author brings up Filmer while explaining why early feminists’ association with Royalism is surprising. Because Filmer’s radical patriarchalist beliefs are used in Royalism, it’s unusual that feminists would associate themselves with Royalist ideology.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) Royalist ideology was radical, but the author does not claim that historians failed to realize that.

(B) To qualify a claim is to add caveats or exceptions to it, or to soften it. (Note: to qualify something does not mean to strengthen it.) The author does qualify the claim that patriarchalism and Royalism were closely associated, towards the end of the first paragraph. However, this isn’t why Filmer was initially brought up. In fact, the author initially mentions Filmer while noting that patriarchalism and Royalism were associated.

(C) The passage does not disagree with the view that feminists were associated with Royalism (in fact, the first sentence says this is indisputable). It only asks why that unusual association occurred.

(D) CORRECT. Filmer is brought up in order to demonstrate that Royalists held radical patriarchalist beliefs, which were in tension with the beliefs of early feminists.

(E) The passage does say that the Royalists and Parliamentarians may have had no consistent differences in their beliefs on family organization and women’s political rights. This isn’t why the author introduced Filmer in the first place, however; in this part of the passage, in fact, the author is noting that some people have questioned, or doubted, Filmer’s association with Royalism.



RC0433-11. The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminism is not entirely justified.

B: They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology.

C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women's equality with men.

D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology.

E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Parliamentarian side in the English Civil Wars.
OA:E



RC0433-04. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: justify her support for the Royalist cause

B: encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmerian patriarchalism

C: persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation

D: analyze the causes for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power

E: create a world over which she could exercise total control
OA:E



RC0433-08. The phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self

B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity

C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper

D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society

E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch
OA:D



RC0433-09. Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

(A) Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts.

(B) Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas.

(C) Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works.

(D) The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights.

(E) The Royalist side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism.
Passage: English Women

Question: Weaken the Argument

The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on

that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase most clearly undermine in the question stem indicates that this is a Weaken the Argument question. Treat it in the same way you would treat a Weaken the Argument Critical Reasoning problem.

Step 2: Find the Support

Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism is described at the beginning of the second paragraph:

“Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self.”

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The word engendered means brought about or caused to happen. Gallagher argues that Royalism brought about feminism because an idea from Royalism (absolute monarchy) allowed the feminists to develop the ideology of the absolute self.

In order to weaken Gallagher’s argument, the right answer might suggest that the ideology of absolute monarchy didn’t provide a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. It might also challenge the association between ideology of the absolute self and early feminism.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) Gallagher’s argument does not relate Royalism to Parliamentarianism. Even if Royalists were better educated than Parliamentarians, their overall level of education could be either high or low. No specific conclusion about the Royalist women can be drawn from this limited information.

(B) It’s possible that Filmer was critical of Cavendish. However, the argument claims that feminism (represented by Cavendish) was based on Royalism (represented by Filmer), not the other way around. What matters is whether Cavendish was critical of Filmer’s ideas, which, from the information in the passage, she apparently wasn’t.

(C) CORRECT. If Cavendish was an outlier, then Gallagher is incorrect to connect Cavendish’s ideology of the absolute self with feminism in general. Gallagher’s explanation of why Royalism engendered feminism would be significantly weakened.

(D) This doesn’t relate to whether Royalism did or didn’t engender feminism. Knowing that the two ideologies were in agreement doesn’t provide any additional information about Royalism itself.

(E) The ideology of feminism could have been based on the majority faction’s beliefs. The presence of a minority faction does not make this less likely.



RC0433-06. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of a modern sociopolitical movement

(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon

(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict

(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer

(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate
Passage: English Women

Question: Primary Purpose

The Simple Story

Seventeenth-century English feminists sided with the Royalists, not the Parliamentarians. This is strange, because Royalists are often associated with the belief that the male head of household holds absolute power. One possible explanation is that Royalists actually didn’t commonly hold these patriarchal beliefs; however, that wouldn’t explain why the feminists were more commonly found among the Royalists. A better explanation (put forth by Gallagher) is that the feminists agreed with the Royalist belief in the power and sovereignty of the individual.

Sample Passage Map

Here is one way to map this passage. (Note: abbreviate as desired!)

P1: feminists more with R than P

weird b/c R believe in power for men

P2: CG: R beliefs related to absolute self

feminists (ex. MC) agreed with R on

that

Step 1: Identify the Question

The phrase primary purpose in the question stem indicates that this is a Primary Purpose, or main idea, question.

Step 2: Find the Support

The support for a Purpose question is in the structure of the passage itself. The first paragraph introduces the idea that seventeenth-century feminists were, surprisingly, aligned with Royalists in the English Civil Wars. The remainder of the passage addresses why this phenomenon was surprising, then attempts to reconcile it using the concept of the ideology of the absolute self.

Step 3: Predict an Answer

The passage accomplishes three things: introduces a surprising fact, explains why it is surprising, then attempts to provide an explanation. The correct answer will incorporate these major elements of the passage.

Step 4: Eliminate and Find a Match

(A) The passage does not make a connection between seventeenth-century feminism and modern times. Instead, it addresses only the situation in the seventeenth century.

(B) CORRECT. The entire passage is dedicated to describing a puzzling phenomenon—the alignment between seventeenth-century feminists and Royalists—then providing an explanation for it.

(C) The political conflict described in the passage is the conflict between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The passage describes one of the factors (radical patriarchalism) involved in Royalist ideology, but it does not contrast this to another interpretation, nor does it describe the origins of the Royalist-Parliamentarian conflict.

(D) Filmer and Cavendish are both mentioned in the passage, but both of them are used as examples that assist the author in making broader points. Filmer is cited as an example of radical patriarchalism, which helps the author establish the strangeness of the phenomenon described in the first paragraph, while Cavendish is used to help the author explain that phenomenon. The passage is not primarily about these two characters, nor does the author attempt to specifically establish a link between them.

(E) The passage mentions this only briefly, towards the end of the first paragraph. It is not the main focus of that paragraph and is not mentioned in the second paragraph.



Embracing the Absolute: The Politics of the Female Subject in Seventeenth-Century England
Catherine Gallagher

Source : https://www.utexaspressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.5555/gen.1988.1.24



The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 96 ~ 101 // 493-498
Page: 404

Originally posted by RaviChandra on 14 Oct 2015, 22:36.
Last edited by bb on 24 Jul 2018, 20:40, edited 20 times in total.
corrected typos in #98-101
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2017, 00:36
16
Hey Guys,

Below is my thought process for all the remaining questions

Para 1: -
- Feminists took side of Royalists in the English Civil War
- But Royalists believed in the absolute power of a male i.e. a king ruling over the kingdom
- But there is no also significant difference with regards to female rights between Royalists and Parliamentarians
- Therefore author thinks feminists should be equally divided between the two groups

Para 2: -
- Gallagher argues that the absolute monarchy(A king ruling over the kingdom) helped feminists to believe about absolute self
- Gives an example of Cavendish
- Feminists believed in cavendish's ideology but didn't believe to isolate oneself


97. The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?
A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified The passage is not concerned with the status of feminists but rather why feminists took the royalist side even when royalists believed in absolute monarchy
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology Same reasoning as A
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men Nothing such as this option is mentioned. Also we don't know if she was the first woman to do so
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology Trap answer according to me. The feminists view did not oppose the views of royalists and parlimentarians. The passage doesn't say anything like this. If they did oppose, then feminists shouldn't have taken the side of royalists as well. The passage says otherwise
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars. bingo! yes, the last few lines of the first para says that parlimentarians and royalists had similar views in terms of woman's right etc. So feminists should be equally divided between the two groups.

98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause The author cites her book/work as an example that lead to belief of absolute self. its not the other way round
B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism Nothing such as this is mentined nor can be inferred
C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation same reasoning as B
D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power Same reasoning as B
E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control Bingo! The author mentions that cavendish believed in a world in which shoe could be a mistress of her own world. This can be potential reason for cavendish to write the book


99. The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to

A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self
B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity
C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper
D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society This one looks good.
E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch


101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

Prethinking :- Looking for an option which says that the views were of cavendish were wrong or feminists didn't agree with

A: Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarians counterparts we are not bothered about education
B: Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas even if filmer was critical, we don't know if feminists had the same view
C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works Coincides with the prethinking I mentioned above
D: The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights A repeat of what is already said in the passage. This is in no way hurting the arguement
E: The Royalists side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism even if they minority faction didn't believe filmer's view, were the minority factions feminists ? we don't know about this


102. The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement No not at all
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon looks ok. The passage whats to find out why feminists chose royalists even though the royalists believed in absolute monarchy
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict The passage is not talking about a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer The passage doesn't want to link the ideology. Rather the passage wants to find out why feminists chose royalists who believed in absolute monarchy. This is a trap answer according to me
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate The pssage is not debating anything

P.S : - Don't forget to give kudos :thumbup: 8-)
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 21:40
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You'll never know the difficulty level of the RC passage you'll get on the exam. If there are hard words, put parts of the sentence in brackets [ .... ] so you can focus on the sentence structure and better understand what the sentence is trying to do. Use that as a foundation to aggregate all the words to then derive the meaning.

Hope that helps.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2015, 06:09
1
thangvietnam wrote:
is this from og ? the passage is hard.



yes it is newly included in OG 16
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2015, 02:29
97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars --—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact


Can someone explain Q1?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2015, 09:24
1
One more question from this passage:

The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate

The correct answer is B.

I got the other 5 right, but fail to understand this one. Ok, I understand to some extent why B, but the correct answer is very well hidden in the context. Any thoughts?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2015, 12:02
RaviChandra wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
is this from og ? the passage is hard.



yes it is newly included in OG 16


Hey Ravi Could you check with the OG again . There seem to be some deliberate Typos in bothe the passage and the answer choices . Q2 Choice is its Parlamaintarians rather than Patriachs . Also para 1 has a portion from the "Feminists extended criticism " absent . Both these typos caused me to get a 3/5 rather than a 5/5. So took the pain to check .

Thanks
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2016, 13:40
9SidMn wrote:
RaviChandra wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
is this from og ? the passage is hard.



yes it is newly included in OG 16


Hey Ravi Could you check with the OG again . There seem to be some deliberate Typos in bothe the passage and the answer choices . Q2 Choice is its Parlamaintarians rather than Patriachs . Also para 1 has a portion from the "Feminists extended criticism " absent . Both these typos caused me to get a 3/5 rather than a 5/5. So took the pain to check .

Thanks

Thanks 9SidMn

i found one more error in the original post.

the last sentence of the passage should be 'but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.'

the 'the complete political and social' is missing

the passage is from OG 16 P404.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2016, 20:01
97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars
"Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism" & "but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides."

98. The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to
E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control
"she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind"

99.The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to
D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society
"Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet."

101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?
C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works
"Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish "

Can some one explain question 97 why the answer is D ?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2016, 21:06
for 97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars




The official answer is:
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars

the official explanation rejects D saying:
The passage does not indicate what the Parliamentarian view of family organization and women's political rights was, so there is no way to determine whether the royalist forerunners of modern feminism were opposed to that view

And the official explanation for E towards the end says:
Historians would most likely have been less surprised if these women had been identified with parliamentary side, which presumably did not embrace radical patriarchalism

1) In the passage, lines 20-25 do suggest that Parliamentarians had a similar radical view, even though it says a few historians claim it.
2) If there is no way to determine the views of parliamentary side(according to official explanation for option D), how do they assume in option E that it was less radical?


I thought the correct answer to be D. Any explanations would be appreciated?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2016, 14:17
what kind of passage is this ?
if i want to categories then will it be History passage ?
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 20 May 2016, 00:14
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mdsingh2013 wrote:
for 97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars




The official answer is:
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars

the official explanation rejects D saying:
The passage does not indicate what the Parliamentarian view of family organization and women's political rights was, so there is no way to determine whether the royalist forerunners of modern feminism were opposed to that view

And the official explanation for E towards the end says:
Historians would most likely have been less surprised if these women had been identified with parliamentary side, which presumably did not embrace radical patriarchalism

1) In the passage, lines 20-25 do suggest that Parliamentarians had a similar radical view, even though it says a few historians claim it.
2) If there is no way to determine the views of parliamentary side(according to official explanation for option D), how do they assume in option E that it was less radical?


I thought the correct answer to be D. Any explanations would be appreciated?


I did not see official guide. But I think that there are some errors in the words written in the question above. Do not confuse parliamentary with patriarchalism.

According to passage:

There are conflicts between Royalism and parliamentary.
There is a association between Royalism and patriarchalism.
patriarchalism = radical absolute power.

So, parliamentary = not or less radical idea.

Royal feminists ---> criticize women subordination and advocate women political power but royalism ---> absolute male power. so historians are puzzled.

If feminists had been identified with parliamentary side(less absolute male power), not royal side, then historians would have been less puzzled.
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New post 17 Jun 2016, 09:22
Can someone explain why D for Q.96 and why not B? The passage introduces Robert Filmer and introduces the patriarchy he preached , this is the primary purpose of introducing him.
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New post 18 Jun 2016, 00:53
jjindal wrote:
Can someone explain why D for Q.96 and why not B? The passage introduces Robert Filmer and introduces the patriarchy he preached , this is the primary purpose of introducing him.


The passage says that:
"Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth-century political theorist Robert Filmer— ... —historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticism of the absolute systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men."

The author introduces Robert Filmer to explain that historians have been puzzled about the relationship between Royalist women and Royalism. Royalism is associated with patriarchalism, which is about radical male power, while early Royal women that adopted Royalist ideology criticize radical male power. So, there is an apparent tension. Author uses the association between Royalism and patriarchalism of Robert Filmer to highlight this tension and the puzzle of historians.
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New post 17 Jul 2016, 09:22
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My 2 cents:

The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to
A: show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than most historians appear to realize
B: qualify the clit ht patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology
C: question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction

D: highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists
E: argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions[/color] on issues of family organization and women's political rights
>>Why not E but D?

97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?
A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men

close call between D and E, but ,after re-reading the passage ,i feel E is the correct answer.
The Para tries to resolve the paradox that historian faced - forerunners of modern feminism were identified with the Royalist society , which was based upon monarchy and male dominance.

E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars
>>It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalist and Parliamentarians...
indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalist and Parliamentarians on issues of family organisation and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
>>We dont know this for sure. Second para just provides details to resolve the paradox.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2016, 23:02
1
rmohammadi wrote:
mdsingh2013 wrote:
for 97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and patriarchalism ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars




The official answer is:
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars

the official explanation rejects D saying:
The passage does not indicate what the Parliamentarian view of family organization and women's political rights was, so there is no way to determine whether the royalist forerunners of modern feminism were opposed to that view

And the official explanation for E towards the end says:
Historians would most likely have been less surprised if these women had been identified with parliamentary side, which presumably did not embrace radical patriarchalism

1) In the passage, lines 20-25 do suggest that Parliamentarians had a similar radical view, even though it says a few historians claim it.
2) If there is no way to determine the views of parliamentary side(according to official explanation for option D), how do they assume in option E that it was less radical?


I thought the correct answer to be D. Any explanations would be appreciated?


I did not see official guide. But I think that there are some errors in the words written in the question above. Do not confuse parliamentary with patriarchalism.

According to passage:

There are conflicts between Royalism and parliamentary.
There is a association between Royalism and patriarchalism.
patriarchalism = radical absolute power.

So, parliamentary = not or less radical idea.

Royal feminists ---> criticize women subordination and advocate women political power but royalism ---> absolute male power. so historians are puzzled.

If feminists had been identified with parliamentary side(less absolute male power), not royal side, then historians would have been less puzzled.



you're right.

I didn't choose E of Q97 b/c it said "E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars". While in OG, the original option uses the Parliamentarian side.
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2016, 23:10
passage 5'11-total 11'

Vocabulary
ordain
duchess
mistress

Bx Dv
(E)
E
D
C

explanation of Q96 in OG:
The author states that Filmer’s radical patriarchalism is associated with Royalist ideology and then goes on to define radical patriarchalism as an ideology that asserts the power of the king
and the male head of the household. Early feminists, however, questioned the subordination of women in marriage. Thus, there seems to be a conflict between these two sets of ideas.

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New post 23 Aug 2016, 22:29
Hi,
Can someone explain answer to the below question missed from the actual question stem list.

One more question from this passage:

The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate

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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2017, 23:59
RaviChandra wrote:
It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalist and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenth-century political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticism of the absolute systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalist and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626-1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclose, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.

96 The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer primarily in order to

A: show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than most historians appear to realize
B: qualify the clit ht patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology
C: question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction
D: highlight an apparent tension between Royalists ideology and the ideas of early feminists
E: argue that Royalists held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization nd women's political rights
OA:D


97 The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in line 2?

A: Their status as forerunners of modern feminists is not entirely justified
B They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology
C: Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women's subordination in marriage and assert women equality with men
D: Their views on family organization and women's political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist and Parliamentarian ideology
E: Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the Patriarchalism side in the English Civil Wars
OA:E


98 The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish's decision to become a author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to

A: Justify her support for the Royalist cause
B: Encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmer Patriarchalism
C: Persuade other women to break free from their political and social isolation
D: Analyze the cause for women's exclusion from the pursuit of power
E: Create a world over which she could exercise total control
OA:E


99.The Phrase "a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet" refers most directly to
A: Cavendish's concept that each woman is a sovereign self
B: the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity
C: the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper
D: the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society
E: the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch
OA:D


101. which of the following,if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher`s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?
A: Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarians counterparts
B: Filmer himself had read some Cavendish's early writings and was highly critical of her ideas
C: Cavendish's views were highly individual and were not shared by other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works
D: The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women's political rights
E: The Royalists side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism
OA:C


The primary purpose of the passage is to:

(A) trace the historical roots of modern sociopolitical movement
(B) present one scholar's explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon
(C) contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict
(D) establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer
(E) call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate



The OA of Q3 should be E

B (Wrong)
A(Wrong)
EDCB
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 05:19
mynamegoeson wrote:

The OA of Q3 should be E

B (Wrong)
A(Wrong)
EDCB


Do you have the screenshot or any reference so that I can change the OA. I feel it is E too :P
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Re: It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century &nbs [#permalink] 05 Jul 2017, 05:19

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