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Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S

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Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.


(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart

(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting

(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart

(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting

(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart


The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 267
Page: 321

https://www.nytimes.com/1999/07/27/us/a-fungus-to-kill-marijuana-has-environmentalists-wary.html

Kudzu, a Chinese vine that has grown rampant in the South since its introduction in the 1920's to thwart soil erosion, has swallowed houses and acres of roadside in Florida, as it grows a foot a day. Melaleuca trees, planted decades ago to help drain the Everglades because they suck up so much water, have infested hundreds of thousands of acres.

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Originally posted by hazelnut on 16 May 2017, 04:37.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Feb 2019, 21:17, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2017, 13:47
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Luckisnoexcuse wrote:

can anyone throw some light on the construct of option C & E

is the construction of C better is the only thing which makes it the right option or option E has some grammer/ly mistake?

I don't think there are grammar errors, exactly, in (E), but it's a little bit illogical. This doesn't happen a whole lot on the GMAT, but the comma warps the meaning in (E):

Quote:
Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart

If we look very literally at (C), it's saying that the vine has grown rampant in the time since it was introduced in the 1920s. That makes perfect sense, and the word "since" is a reference to time.

But as soon as we put the comma before "since" in (E), the word "since" takes on a different meaning. The phrase "since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion" becomes a non-essential modifier -- and it seems to be giving us an explanation. "Since" now functions as a synonym for "because": "the vine growing rampantly in the southern US, because it was introduced to thwart erosion, has overrun..."

That's not quite what we're trying to say here: the vine hasn't grown rampant because it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart erosion -- it's just become rampant in the time since the 1920s.

Nasty and subtle, no? :(

For more on the "rampant" vs. "rampantly" issue, see my explanation above: https://gmatclub.com/forum/kudzu-an-asi ... l#p1854183
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2017, 16:57
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ziyuen wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 267
Page: 321

Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart
(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting
(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart


Notice that adverb "rampantly" versus adjective "rampant".

Adjectives are fine "Your son has grown so tall!".

We use an adverb if we're describing HOW he's growing.

We use an adjective if we're describing what he has grown INTO or become.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Jun 2017, 09:02
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ziyuen wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 267
Page: 321

Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart
(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting
(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart


The original sentence has an error in the part "since introducing it in the 1920s". This is awkward construction.

Option B - "for thwarting" is incorrect
Option C - Correct. Rectifies the error in the original sentence with the clause "since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart"
Option D - "That" is required. Also "for thwarting" is incorrect
Option E - Same error as option D

Originally posted by niks18 on 16 May 2017, 05:56.
Last edited by niks18 on 06 Jun 2017, 09:02, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2017, 08:22
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ziyuen wrote:
Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart
(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting
(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart


Correct answer must be (C) for the highlighted errors in the other options...

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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of the roadside.

A. First, that the modifier part in A has no verb is a wrong notion; as an appositive noun modifier that is contained within commas, it will certainly not have a finite verb. On the contrary, the use of the active voice 'introducing it' is a problem with no indication of who introduced it. The passive voice 'it was introduced' is the correct diction. We can remove A and D on this count.


(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting -- 'for thwarting' is unidiomatic in cases where a purpose is intended. The infinitive to thwart' is better in such instances.

(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart -----The best option.

(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart--- The adverb 'rampantly' can modify neither the immediate present participle 'growing' nor the far-placed verb 'has overrun'. This is a case of the misplaced modifier.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2017, 10:22
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Expert, can you suggest,
Is usage of word 'Rampant' and 'Rampantly', both hare correct in the sentence?

can we select right answer on the basis of this word usage?
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2017, 10:31
In option C is the use of rampant correct ?
We use adverb to modify verb; here it is modifying grown .
For example how has the Kuzdu grown
Am i correct in my reasoning , if not please clarify.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2017, 12:40
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ziyuen, how did you get your hands on the 2018 verbal guide so quickly?! The 2018 OGs are available for pre-order, but they aren't being shipped in the U.S. yet. The book markets in Malaysia are just awesomer than ours? You're making me jealous! You get your GMAT books faster, plus you have laksa. Fond memories of downing three bowls of the stuff in a market in Kuching. Had some amazing century eggs in KL once, probably the best I've ever eaten...

Sorry, I got lost in a food fantasy there. Back to kudzu and grammar.

Quote:
Expert, can you suggest,
Is usage of word 'Rampant' and 'Rampantly', both hare correct in the sentence?

can we select right answer on the basis of this word usage?


Quote:
In option C is the use of rampant correct ?
We use adverb to modify verb; here it is modifying grown .
For example how has the Kuzdu grown
Am i correct in my reasoning , if not please clarify.


You're all correct that "rampant" is an adjective (modifies a noun), and "rampantly" is an adverb (modifies a verb). But you could actually use either an adjective or an adverb in this case -- and I think that's what ziyuen was trying to say in his last post, too.

  • Mike has grown tired of the GMAT books' terrible SC explanations. --> "tired" doesn't describe the verb "grown" or "has grown" -- it's an adjective, describing Mike
  • Mike's surfing prowess has grown rapidly in recent years. --> "rapidly" is an adverb, modifying "grown"

In this case, I think "rampant" or "rampantly" could both be perfectly fine. I'll strip down the sentence a little bit for clarity:

  • Kudzu has grown rampant in the southern United States. --> "rampant" is an adjective, and we're just saying that the kudzu itself is rampant
  • Kudzu has grown rampant in the southern United States. --> "rampantly" is an adjective, and we're just saying that the kudzu has grown in a rampant (or uncontrolled or unchecked) way

It's a sneaky little thing they've done here: the difference between "rampant" and "rampantly" is irrelevant!
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 05 Jun 2017, 21:59
Apart from the "for thwarting " error in option B,is the first part in option B is a run on as it was separated by a comma or if not is it right to put comma before since in the dependent clause?

Originally posted by techiesam on 05 Jun 2017, 21:17.
Last edited by techiesam on 05 Jun 2017, 21:59, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 21:38
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techiesam wrote:
Apart from the "for thwarting " error in option B,is the first part in option B is a run on as it was separated by a comma.

Hi techiesam, I believe you are referring to the following first part:

Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting soil erosion

This is not a run-on. A run-on sentence is when the sentence has two Independent clauses connected by a comma.

The first part does not have any Independent clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses types of clauses, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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B. Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of the roadside

It will be of interest to note that as per sentence structure neither B nor any of the other choices is a complex sentence with a DC and an IC but a simple sentence with a subject, verb, and an object phrase plus a host of long, long modifiers. The actual subject is the substantive noun phrase
Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting soil erosion
has overrun is the verb
many houses and countless acres of the roadside- is the object phrase.
There is no run-on as there are no two ICs here.
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Originally posted by daagh on 05 Jun 2017, 23:19.
Last edited by daagh on 13 Jun 2017, 20:28, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 05:04
GMATNinja wrote:
ziyuen, how did you get your hands on the 2018 verbal guide so quickly?! The 2018 OGs are available for pre-order, but they aren't being shipped in the U.S. yet. The book markets in Malaysia are just awesomer than ours? You're making me jealous! You get your GMAT books faster, plus you have laksa. Fond memories of downing three bowls of the stuff in a market in Kuching. Had some amazing century eggs in KL once, probably the best I've ever eaten...

Sorry, I got lost in a food fantasy there. Back to kudzu and grammar.

Quote:
Expert, can you suggest,
Is usage of word 'Rampant' and 'Rampantly', both hare correct in the sentence?

can we select right answer on the basis of this word usage?


Quote:
In option C is the use of rampant correct ?
We use adverb to modify verb; here it is modifying grown .
For example how has the Kuzdu grown
Am i correct in my reasoning , if not please clarify.


You're all correct that "rampant" is an adjective (modifies a noun), and "rampantly" is an adverb (modifies a verb). But you could actually use either an adjective or an adverb in this case -- and I think that's what ziyuen was trying to say in his last post, too.

  • Mike has grown tired of the GMAT books' terrible SC explanations. --> "tired" doesn't describe the verb "grown" or "has grown" -- it's an adjective, describing Mike
  • Mike's surfing prowess has grown rapidly in recent years. --> "rapidly" is an adverb, modifying "grown"

In this case, I think "rampant" or "rampantly" could both be perfectly fine. I'll strip down the sentence a little bit for clarity:

  • Kudzu has grown rampant in the southern United States. --> "rampant" is an adjective, and we're just saying that the kudzu itself is rampant
  • Kudzu has grown rampant in the southern United States. --> "rampantly" is an adjective, and we're just saying that the kudzu has grown in a rampant (or uncontrolled or unchecked) way

It's a sneaky little thing they've done here: the difference between "rampant" and "rampantly" is irrelevant!



GMATNinja-Thanks for the explanation-can you please explain how to eliminate A. Also, in my highlighted part of your post, did you mean 'rampantly' is an adjective or adverb?Also, you have mentioned rampant in the second sentence as well. Thanks
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2017, 07:26
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KS15 wrote:
GMATNinja-Thanks for the explanation-can you please explain how to eliminate A.



Hello KS15,


I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :-)

Let's take a look at the original sentence: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.


First thing first. Let's understand what the sentence intends to convey. The sentence states that Kudzu has grown rampantly in the southern US and has spread through many houses and many acres of roadside. Describing Kudzu, the sentence mentions that it is an Asian creeper that was introduced in 1920s to hinder soil erosion.


However, there is an issue with the phrase since introducing it. The way this phrase is written, it seems to suggest that Kudzu introduced itself. We may also infer that the sentence fails to say who introduced it because there is no entity introducing can be associated with. This is the reason Choice A is incorrect.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2017, 03:07
hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 267
Page: 321

Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart
(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting
(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart


can anyone throw some light on the construct of option C & E
option C
(C)
Kudzu,
an Asian vine that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion,
has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(E)
Kudzu,
an Asian vine growing rampantly in the southern United States,
since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion,
has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

is the construction of C better is the only thing which makes it the right option or option E has some grammer/ly mistake?
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 08:19
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hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 267
Page: 321

Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(A) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart
(B) that has grown rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s for thwarting
(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(D) growing rampant in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s for thwarting
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart

lots of wondeeful explanations here , but i still can't find out one that
the [color=#ec008c]"linking verb error"
here
[/color]

I will try to narrow down options with it. As mentioned in MANHATTAN SC GUIDE, an adverb will modify anyting except nouns/pronouns , but when it comes to linking verbs (( grow , turn , has have ,seem , you can check the list on anywhere )) an adjective not an adverb will modify the linking verb
here grow is a linking verb so we need an adjective not an adverb to modify it
Options A,B,E are gone
between c and d , clearly d has multiple errors as compared to c
for thwarting is wrong here, we need a that construction not a "ing" construction
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 13:35
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GMATNinja wrote:
Luckisnoexcuse wrote:

can anyone throw some light on the construct of option C & E

is the construction of C better is the only thing which makes it the right option or option E has some grammer/ly mistake?

I don't think there are grammar errors, exactly, in (E), but it's a little bit illogical. This doesn't happen a whole lot on the GMAT, but the comma warps the meaning in (E):

Quote:
Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United States since introducing it in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion, has overrun many houses and countless acres of roadside.

(C) that has grown rampant in the southern United States since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart
(E) growing rampantly in the southern United States, since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart

If we look very literally at (C), it's saying that the vine has grown rampant in the time since it was introduced in the 1920s. That makes perfect sense, and the word "since" is a reference to time.


But as soon as we put the comma before "since" in (E), the word "since" takes on a different meaning. The phrase "since it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart soil erosion" becomes a non-essential modifier -- and it seems to be giving us an explanation. "Since" now functions as a synonym for "because": "the vine growing rampantly in the southern US, because it was introduced to thwart erosion, has overrun..."

That's not quite what we're trying to say here: the vine hasn't grown rampant because it was introduced in the 1920s to thwart erosion -- it's just become rampant in the time since the 1920s.

Nasty and subtle, no? :(

For more on the "rampant" vs. "rampantly" issue, see my explanation above: https://gmatclub.com/forum/kudzu-an-asi ... l#p1854183



Hi, can you please explain why we needed a that after Asian vine.. I had chosen E since it did not contain that :( why cant we go without a that in the sentence?
Can someone please help!!
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2017, 08:53
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doeadoer wrote:

Hi, can you please explain why we needed a that after Asian vine.. I had chosen E since it did not contain that :( why cant we go without a that in the sentence?
Can someone please help!!

The presence or absence of the word "that" is not a deciding factor on this question. There's nothing inherently wrong with the phrase "a vine that has grown" nor the phrase "a vine growing" -- it's just that (C) and (E) have different meanings, and that's the more important issue, as described here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/kudzu-an-asi ... l#p1930060.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2018, 23:37
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Can anybody explain why in option B "for thwarting" is actually incorrect.
I was down to B and C and chose B.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2018, 07:34
suramya26 wrote:
Can anybody explain why in option B "for thwarting" is actually incorrect.
I was down to B and C and chose B.

Hi suramya26, the intent of introducing Kudzu was to thwart soil erosion.

Whenever intent needs to be depicted, an infinitive (to + verb) is normally the preferred structure. Hence, to thwart is preferred.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses the use of "infinitive". Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: Kudzu, an Asian vine that has grown rampantly in the southern United S   [#permalink] 03 Mar 2018, 07:34

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