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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 00:34
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A
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Question Stats:

86% (01:26) correct 14% (01:36) wrong based on 152 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 195: Sentence Correction (SC1)


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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.


A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased

B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase

C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing

D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels

E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 00:36
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Project SC Butler: Day 195: Sentence Correction (SC1)



• HIGHLIGHTS

• This question tests parallelism
The sentence presents two effects of practicing tai chi: X goes up, Y goes down.
When two items are presented this way, you can assume that
(1) the question tests parallel structure, and
(2) the correct answer will list the items on either side of the construction in the same format

• This question also tests the idiom Such X as Y.
-- You can eliminate two answers on the basis of a botched idiom, Such X as Y
More information about "such as" and "such X as Y" is below.

• I use questions such as this one to teach about concepts tested even when those concepts aren't the most important issues. (There is method to this madness. Stay tuned.)

I have changed the order of presentation in this post.
My "Notes" are just below "Comments."

THE PROMPT
Quote:
Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.


THE OPTIONS
Quote:
A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased

• the effects of tai chi are not written in parallel form.
-- reducing ___ is a verb-like noun phrase (a "gerund phrase, no verb) whereas levels . . . are increased is a full clause (a noun plus a verb)
Eliminate A

Quote:
B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase

• although the items in option B may seem to be parallel, they are not
• true, reduction and levels are both nouns.
• but reduction of levels of ___ is a noun phrase (without a verb) whereas levels of ___ increase is a full clause (with a verb)
Eliminate B
Quote:
C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing

• the idiom is Such X as Y, not Such X like Y
Although the words "such as" are split apart, still, we use such as to introduce examples, not such like.
• the items are not parallel; the problem is similar to that in option A.
-- the reducing of ___ is a gerund phrase (no verb) whereas levels of ___ are increasing is a full clause (noun + verb)
Eliminate C

Quote:
D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels

• the items are not parallel
-- harmful triglyceride levels are reduced is a full clause (with a verb) whereas increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels is a gerund phrase (a verbING phrase, no verb)
• the sentence is nonsensical
-- Its effects are such that increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels. A verb is missing.
such that is almost never correct—in any context.
-- Almost never = I can't find one single correct answer that uses "such that."
-- See below. I discuss official examples that have tested "such that."
Eliminate D
Quote:
E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol

• the items are parallel and logically related.
-- a reduction in [bad cholesterol] and an increase in [good cholesterol] are both noun phrases
-- the logic is clean: ABC decreases and DEF increases

Option E is the answer

COMMENTS

I am happy to see posts from people I have not seen for awhile.
As always, I am happy to see posts from consistent participants.

Explanations range from good to excellent. Kudos to all.


• NOTES

Such X as Y [and Z]

Correct: Such X as Y and Z.
Correct: He enjoys playing such racket sports as tennis and squash.
Wrong: Such X like Y and Z
Wrong: He enjoys playing such racket sports like tennis and squash.

An official question in which the idiom is tested can be found here.
Spoiler alert: that question is both good and difficult.
If you click on the link armed with what I just wrote, you will almost certainly know the answer.

SUCH THAT: avoid it in any context.

In another question (a very good one), I included the information immediately below.
I doubt that my considerable effort was worth it. It appears that aspirants neither noticed nor cared.
I would care. :) I'll try one more time, because "such that" is a fairly common issue.

SUCH THAT
I cannot find ANY official questions in which the phrase "such that" is correct.
I've listed six of the eight or nine official questions I found in which "such that" was part of an answer choice.

SPOILER ALERT: If you click on these links to official questions, you will know at least one incorrect answer.
OFFICIAL QUESTIONS in which such that is an option but not the correct answer.
HERE, #1
HERE, #2
HERE, #3
HERE, #4
HERE, #5
HERE, #6

LIKE v. SUCH AS distinction? Still true?

First, "such like" is never correct, whether the phrase is in one piece or split apart.

Second, if at all possible, I would follow the guideline that we use such as to introduce examples.
We do not use like to do so. Like is used for comparisons.

Some controversy exists about whether GMAC has abandoned the distinction between such as and like.

This issue is not easily settled.
At least one official question uses "like" in the non-underlined portion of the question.
That question is here.
We don't have a choice. The word "like" introduces examples.
[Sidebar. In CR and RC, I have seen "like" used to introduce examples.
Do not rely on prose in CR, RC, or the official guides as an example of GMAC's position on an SC issue.]

Many people believe that GMAC will abandon this preference soon.
Before I saw OG VR 2020, I might have agreed.
I thought that one question would disappear from OG VR 2020.
The question explicitly tests such as and like to introduce examples, although both incorrect options that use like have an additional error.
The question did not disappear from OG VR 2020.

Its official explanation states:
The preferred way to introduce examples is with the phrase "such as," rather than with the word "like," which suggests a comparison.

Spoiler alert: two incorrect answers to an official question are revealed
The official question (OG VR 2020 #310) is HERE.
In addition to the statement above, the author of the OE writes:
(A) Like should be replaced by such as. Have been becoming is an incorrect verb tense.
(D) Like should be replaced by such as. Those of is unnecessary and awkward. Have been becoming is an incorrect verb tense.


At this point I would not use such as/like as the only basis upon which to eliminate an answer, but if you narrow the answers down to two, choose the one that uses "such as."
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Re: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 01:27
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A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased
Not parallel

B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase
Not parallel

C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing
Such like is not an idiom

D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels
not parallel

E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol

Answer is E
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New post 23 Nov 2019, 01:40
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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.

Examples to be mentioned using such as.

A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased - usage of while is somewhat fishy. Left and right of while are not balanced. Still hold, let's find another better option.

B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase - Left and right part of connector 'and' is not balanced.

C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing - Such as is correct idiom.

D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels - Such as is correct idiom.

E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol - Seems no error and sentence is balanced.

Imo. E
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New post 23 Nov 2019, 04:09
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My answer is (E), and it took me 1 minute 1 second to make the call.

In reading the original sentence, I notice its error rather easily. It can use parallelism for better organization and clarity.

(A) Technically not incorrect. But it should use parallelism for better organization and clarity.
(B) No parallelism between "the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides" and 'levels of "good" HDL increase'
(C) "Such ... as" should be used instead of "Such ... like"
(D) No parallelism between 'harmful triglyceride levels are reduced' and 'increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels'.
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Re: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 09:16
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A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased
Reducing X while Y are increased. Not parallel eliminate.

B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase

"Reduction of X" (Noun Phrase) and Y increase (clause); Not parallel.

C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing

Like for giving examples is wrong use.

D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels

X are reduced and increasing Wrong.

E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol

COrrect. parallel.
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Re: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 09:40
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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.

Meaning: Tai chi as a form of physical activity might help to mitigate the risk of heart disease. How? It has some effects associated with it. These effects are: 1. a reduction in levels of triglycerides and 2. an increase in levels of good HDL cholesterol.
We need to ensure that these two effects are presented parallel to each other. With this in mind, let's take a look at the answer choices.

Quote:
A: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.

To present the effects associated with tai chi in a parallel manner, the use of while is not appropriate. I expect to see X and Y, where X and Y are parallel to each other. I may be wrong, so I stand to be corrected. Nevertheless, X is: reducing levels of harmful triglycerides, Y is: levels of good HDL are increased. X and Y are not parallel. X, a participial phrase is not parallel to Y, a clause. Eliminate A.

Quote:
B: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase.

X: the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and Y: levels of good HDL increase. X, a noun phrase, and Y, a clause, are not parallel. To correct this, we can rewrite Y as an increase in the levels of good HDL. Eliminate B.

Quote:
C: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing.

X: the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides, and Y: levels of good HDL cholesterol are increasing. X, a noun phrase, and Y, a clause, are not parallel. In addition, reduction is a better action noun than the reducing, which is a complex gerund. The use of like is inappropriate. It should rather be as. Eliminate option C.

Quote:
D: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels.

X: harmful triglyceride levels are reduced, and Y: increasing good HDL cholesterol levels. X, a clause is not parallel to Y, a participial phrase. Eliminate option D.

Quote:
E: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.

X: a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides, and Y: an increase in levels of good HDL cholesterol. both X and Y are noun phrases, and they are parallel to each other.

The answer is, therefore, option E.
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Re: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 10:16
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Quote:
Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.

Definitely easier than the other one :lol:

Meaning: Tai Chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease. Why? Because it does two things: 1. Its effects include : reducing levels of harmful TC and levels of "good" HDL are increased.

Notice that two things are independent. Both are different effects of the same thing. The reduction in one is not causing the increase in other one.

Also, We need to maintain Parallelism. If we are using "reducing" then we need to use "increasing". And same will be case of reduction/increase.

Keeping all that in mind.

Quote:
A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased
C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing
D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels


Quote:
B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase - Voids Parallelism. The reduction cannot be parallel to "levels"
E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol - Perfect!

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Re: Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 12:34
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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the risk of heart disease because it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased.


A) it has such effects as reducing levels of harmful triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL are increased

B) its effects include the reduction of levels of harmful triglycerides and levels of "good" HDL increase

C) it has such effects like the reducing of harmful levels of triglycerides while levels of "good" HDL cholesterol are increasing

D) its effects are such that harmful triglyceride levels are reduced and increasing "good" HDL cholesterol levels

E) its effects include a reduction in levels of harmful triglycerides and an increase in levels of "good" HDL cholesterol

All options has those highlighted parallelism error except option E, which makes it the correct answer.
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New post 24 Nov 2019, 15:25
The official explanation is here.
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New post 25 Nov 2019, 11:29
Hi generis, I have a question about HERE, #4. The correct answer [SPOILER] uses a structure such X that Y. Does that mean that such X that Y is a correct idiom, while such that is incorrect?

Btw, thanks much for sharing the list of OG questions for additional practice. This pack of questions allows me to conclude that there is no end in the study... lol.
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Like other forms of physical activity, tai chi might help mitigate the   [#permalink] 25 Nov 2019, 11:29
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