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# Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances

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Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2018, 07:50
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95% (hard)

Question Stats:

48% (02:17) correct 52% (02:20) wrong based on 559 sessions

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Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances discovered in plants that grow only in tropical rain forests. There are thousands of plant species in these rain forests that have not yet been studied by scientists, and it is very likely that many such plants also contain substances of medicinal value. Thus, if the tropical rain forests are not preserved, important types of medicine will never be developed.

Which one of the following is an assumption required by the argument?

(A) There are substances of medicinal value contained in tropical rain forest plants not yet studied by scientists that differ from those substances already discovered in tropical rain forest plants.

(B) Most of the tropical rain forest plants that contain substances of medicinal value can also be found growing in other types of environment.

(C) The majority of plant species that are unique to tropical rain forests and that have been studied by scientists have been discovered to contain substances of medicinal value.

(D) Any substance of medicinal value contained in plant species indigenous to tropical rain forests will eventually be discovered if those species are studied by scientists.

(E) The tropical rain forests should be preserved to make it possible for important medicines to be developed from plant species that have not yet been studied by scientists.

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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2018, 08:20
Neat question but a toughieeee.

A is the answer..Negating A we get = The substances don't differ from the substances already found.Implies we don't need the rainforest preservation.Kills the arguments conclusion that "important types of medicine will never be developed"
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2018, 08:56
Hi everyone
Can there be any other way to approach this question or assumption questions in general?this is really good one.
Thanks

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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2018, 09:18
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The alternative for negation I can think of is "MUST BE TRUE".Think of assumption questions as must be true questions that can be slightly out of scope.I used negation here just for explanation.I get your point.Applying the technique of negation is just too time consuming in the real exam
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2018, 16:37
redskull1 and sonusaini1 - I'd argue that it depends on how you apply negation. If you apply negation by writing out the negated answer choice, then I'd agree that it's probably a waste of time. However, if you are doing it in your head (and you've practiced the technique) it's a good strategy to be able to pull out of your toolbox to help eliminate incorrect answer choices and find the right one. (Although it's true that if you don't practice it, it'll take a lot longer than you might be comfortable spending on an assumption question.)
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 02:09
LauriaOrion mentions ¨If you apply negation by writing out the negated answer choice¨...one question on exam date are we given anything to write things out as say scratch paper....thanks.
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 08:31
Hey sony1000 -You'll have a five laminated sheets of gridded paper and a "wet erase" marker.
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 10:03
Can some expert please reply as to why option D is not correct.
If the substances cannot be found by the scientists then important types of substances will never be developed?
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 11:27
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Even I narrowed it down to option A, which is the OA. Could have selected E as well. Why is E wrong?

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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2018, 20:35
I am also confused between A and E. I chose E and the OA is A

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Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2018, 04:26
I think E is wrong because it is just a replica of the conclusion and a not a gap which fills between premise and conclusion. A talks nothing about the preservation but still is the only left option if one could have eliminated E.
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2018, 19:42
Quote:
Can some expert please reply as to why option D is not correct.
If the substances cannot be found by the scientists then important types of substances will never be developed?

Even I have the same doubt... Can anyone explain, Why D is incorrect? GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2018, 20:08
GptShubham wrote:
Quote:
Can some expert please reply as to why option D is not correct.
If the substances cannot be found by the scientists then important types of substances will never be developed?

Even I have the same doubt... Can anyone explain, Why D is incorrect? GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo

Hi
you can easily boil down to A and D, in D there is a subtle difference.
The conclusion of the argument is about if NOT preserve(cause) R.Forests---- Medicinal Values will be lost.(effect)

In the premise the remaining PS LIKELY to contain the Medicinal Values(not absolute that it will contain if studied).

Option D says: Its evident that if PS not preserved then DEFINITELY we will loose the imp MV's, that's wrong!!.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2018, 21:52
I do not understand why D wrong.
Option D states: Any substance of medicinal value contained in plant species indigenous to tropical rain forests will eventually be discovered if those species are studied by scientists.

Negating->If substances of medicinal value contained in plant species indigenous to tropical rain forests will eventually NOT be discovered if those species are studied by scientists ->even then important types of medicine will never be developed.
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2018, 11:32
3
GptShubham wrote:
Quote:
Can some expert please reply as to why option D is not correct.
If the substances cannot be found by the scientists then important types of substances will never be developed?

Even I have the same doubt... Can anyone explain, Why D is incorrect? GMATNinja GMATNinjaTwo

The conclusion of this argument is: If the tropical rain forests are not preserved, important types of medicine will never be developed.

Here's how the author gets to this conclusion:

• Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances found in plants -- specifically, plants that only grow in tropical rainforests.
• Thousands of plant species in these rain forests have not yet been studied by scientists.
• It's very likely that many of those plant species contain substances of medicinal value.
• So if the tropical rainforests are not preserved, then important types of medicine (made from substances inside tropical rain forest plants) will never be developed.

We're asked if choice (D) is an assumption required by the argument. Let's take a close look at (D) to decide:

Quote:
(D) Any substance of medicinal value contained in plant species indigenous to tropical rain forests will eventually be discovered if those species are studied by scientists.

"Any substance" here has the same meaning as "every substance" or "all substances." So according to choice (D), if any substance at all has medicinal value, then that substance will eventually be discovered. In other words, every single substance of medicinal value will be discovered.

But does the conclusion really assume that every single substance of medicinal value will be discovered upon study?

No. Scientists do not have to discover every single substance of medicinal value in order to develop important types of medicine. Put another way, scientists can develop important types of medicine after studying fewer than 100% of the plants that contain these substances. Nothing we've read in the argument suggests otherwise.

Compare this to choice (A):

Quote:
(A) There are substances of medicinal value contained in tropical rain forest plants not yet studied by scientists that differ from those substances already discovered in tropical rain forest plants.

This choice recognizes that medicinally valuable substances have already been discovered in tropical rain forest plants. What the conclusion really requires is that some substances in tropical rain forest plants are different from the ones already discovered.

Choice (A) calls out this requirement, as obvious as it might seem. And this choice doesn't slip up by saying something like, "All substances of medicinal value contained in tropical rain forest plants not yet studied by scientists differ from those substances already discovered in tropical rain forest plants." That change in wording would make this answer choice just as wrong as (D).

That's why we eliminate (D) and stick with (A).

I hope this helps!
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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2018, 22:30
1
PowerScore Complete Question Explanation

Assumption. The correct answer choice is (A)

Assumptions are typically unspoken statements that the author must believe in order to believe that
argument. If the author’s belief in an assumption were rendered untenable, the argument would no
longer be believable. The argument here is that failure to preserve tropical rain forests will prevent
the development of important types of medicine. This belief is supported by evidence that many
types of medicine have come from substances only found in tropical rain forests and that many
similar substances in these rain forests remain undiscovered.

A further belief is required in order for the author to believe that important types of medicine would
go undiscovered if rain forests were destroyed. The author must believe that since past medicines
came in this manner, at least some future medicines could not come in any other way. Put differently,
if these medicines could be developed without discovering yet unknown substances in tropical
rain forests, then the author could not believe that preserving the rain forests was a necessary precondition
for the medicine’s development.

Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice. Discovery of unknown substances is
required for future development of medicine if our knowledge of current substances would not
lead to the same development. As with any Contender to an Assumption question, you can test this
answer by negating it and determining if it renders that argument unacceptable. This answer can be
negated as “there are no unknown substances of medicinal value that differ from substances already
discovered.” If the negation were true, then it would be unnecessary to preserve rain forests since
scientists could develop the same types of medicine by studying existing, known substances.

Answer choice (B): This answer would weaken the argument. If the author believed that most
substances from the rain forest were not unique to that environment, then it would be less necessary
to preserve the rainforest.

Answer choice (C): An assumption does not have to strengthen an argument. Many incorrect answers
on assumptions go beyond what is required for belief in the argument.

Here, for example, we are told that the majority of unique plant species contain substances of medicinal
value. Since there are so many unique plant species in the rain forest and most of them are likely to
have medicinal value, this would certainly support the importance of preserving the rain forest.

But that’s not the author’s argument; the author is arguing that developing important medicines
depends on preserving the rain forest. In order to believe that conclusion, the author does not have to
believe that the majority of plant species unique to the rain forest have medicinal value; the author
needs only believe that there are some unknown rain forest plants with medicinal value that cannot
be found any other way.

Answer choice (D): While it would be comforting to believe that scientists will extract the full
medicinal value of all substances they encounter in the rain forest, this belief is not required for
the argument. Even if scientists are woefully inefficient at discover the full range of medicinally
valuable substances in the rain forest, preserving the rain forest may still be the only way to make
certain medical discoveries. The arguments requires that certain discoveries can only come from
substance in tropical rain forests, regardless of whether scientists are able to make all such potential
discoveries.

Answer choice (E): This is a value statement. The author’s argument that some discoveries would
be precluded by the failure to preserve to rain forest does not depend upon any particular value
judgment. Whether or not is it desirable to preserve rain forests and make important medical
discoveries, the conditional relationship between the two would be unchanged. Thus, even if the
author were not in favor of preserving rain forests, he could still believe that medical developments
depended on doing so.

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Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2018, 02:59
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One thing i have noticed about any question , may it be termed very hard , hard , medium or easy, it all depends on YOUR KNOWLEDGE . No question is difficult, its just that you fall short of the knowledge .
for example, couple of days back there was an SC question ( 5% low dfficulty according to gmatclub) for which I spent 3 minutes and still got it wrong !!! why?? i had no idea about a particular idiom.
similarly, The above CR example (tagged as 95% difficult) , i took hardly 1 minute 15 seconds.
So you see it is not that you cannot solve, its just that you did not have that kinda knowledge.
So do not think that you cannot solve a so-called 700 level question , you can . All you need to do is increase your knowledge.

mikemcgarry has always been saying READ READ READ material from mags articles etc. At first i thot why would i need to know about stock markets or genes in the body, but i read them anyway and today when iread passages (so called convoluted ones) i do not get nervous or anxious , and when you are neither nervous or anxious , al you are left with is focus..

mikemcgarry GMATNinja agree?
Re: Many important types of medicine have been developed from substances   [#permalink] 31 Oct 2018, 02:59
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