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# More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d

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More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Sep 2019, 21:38
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NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

Passage-04 GMATPrep RCs-Collection (Main article)
More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily destroy only unwanted species, biocontrol agents (such as insects, fungi, and viruses) eat, infect, or parasitize targeted plant or animal pests. However, biocontrol agents can negatively affect nontarget species by, for example, competing with them for resources: a biocontrol agent might reduce the benefits conferred by a desirable animal species by consuming a plant on which the animal prefers to lay its eggs. Another example of indirect negative consequcnces occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring. The paucity of known extinctions or disruptions resulting from indirect interactions may reflect not the infrequency of such mishaps but rather the failure to look for or to detect them: most organisms likely to be adversely affected by indirect interactions are of little or no known commercial value and the events linking a biocontrol agent with an adverse effect are often unclear. Moreover, determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways so that it can feed on or otherwise harm new hosts.

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

(A) explaining why until recently scientists failed to recognize the risks presented by biocontrol agents.

(B) emphasizing that biocontrol agents and chemical pesticides have more similarties than differences.

(C) suggesting that only certain biocontrol agents should be used to control plant or animal pasts.

(D) arguing that biocontrol agents involve risks, some of which may not be readily discerned.

(E) suggesting that mishaps involving biocontrol agents are relatively commonplace.

2. The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the use of biocontrol agents?

(A) Biocontrol agent should be used only in cases where chemical pesticides have proven ineffective or overly dangerous.

(B) Extinctions and disruptions resulting from the use of biocontrol agents are likely to have increasingly severe commercial consequences.

(C) The use of biocontrol agents does not require regulation as stringent as that required by the use of chemical pesticides.

(D) The use of biocontrol agents may even-finally supersede the use of chemical pesticides in controlling unwanted species.

(E) The risks of using native biocontrol agents may be easier to predict than the risks of using nonnative biocontrol agents.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an indirect effect of using a biocontrol agent?

(A) Reduction of the commercial value of a desirable animal species

(B) An unintended proliferation of a nontarget animal species

(C) An unforeseen mutation in a target species

(D) Diminution of the positive effects conferred by a nontarget animal species

(E) Competition for resources with a larger species

4. The example presented by the author in highlight text most clearly serves to illustrate

(A) a situation in which a species is less vulnerable to biocontrol agents than it would have been to chemical pesticides.

(B) a way in which the introduction of a biocontrol agent can affect a nontarget species.

(C) a nonnative agent's adapting in an unpredictable way that results in damage to a new host.

(D) The contention that biocontrol agents can harm nontarget species by competing with them for resources.

(E) the way in which indirect consequences from the use of biocontrol agents are most likely to occur.

5. According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?

(A) Biocontrol agents are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones.

(B) Biocontrol agents are likely to have indirect as well as direct adverse effects on nontarget species.

(C) Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.

(D) Biocontrol agents may be ineffective in destroying targeted species.

(E) Biocontrol agents may be effective for only a short period of time.

6. The passage suggests which of the following about the blue butterfly mentioned in the highlighted text?

(A) The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.

(B) The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining large amounts of vegetation in its habitat.

(C) The blue butterfly's survival was threatened when the ants began preying on its offspring.

(D) The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations.

(E) The blue butterfly was adversely affected by a biocontrol agent that competed with it for resources.

Originally posted by PiyushK on 12 Aug 2014, 02:35.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 30 Sep 2019, 21:38, edited 11 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (126).
##### Most Helpful Community Reply
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Jun 2015, 08:27
11
Time Taken: 10 mins.
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining why until recently scientists failed to recognize the risks presented by biocontrol agents.
Nope.Nothing like that has been mentioned.
B. emphasizing that biocontrol agents and chemical pesticides have more similarties than differences.
>>Nope.Nothing like that has been mentioned.
C. suggesting that only certain biocontrol agents should be used to control plant or animal pasts.
>>Nope,no preferance regarding any particular agent has been mentioned.
D. arguing that biocontrol agents involve risks, some of which may not be readily discerned.
"The paucity of known extinctions or disruptions resulting from indirect interactions may reflect not the infrequency of such mishaps but rather the failure to look for or to detect them: most organisms likely to be adversely affected by indirect interactions are of little or no known commercial value and the events linking a biocontrol agent with an adverse effect are often unclear"
E. suggesting that mishaps involving biocontroll agents are relatively commonplace.
Nope.

2. The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the use of biocontrol agents?
E. The risks of using native biocontrol agents may be easier to predict than the risks of using nonnative biocontrol agents.
"determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways. so that it can feed on or otherwise harm new hosts."

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an indirect effect of using a biocontrol agent?
D. Diminution of the positive effects conferred by a nontarget animal species.
"competing with them for resources: a biocontrol agent might reduce the benefits conferred by a desirable animal species by consuming a plant on which the animal prefers to lay its eggs."

4. The example presented by the author in highlight text most clearly serves to illustrate
B. a way in which the introduction of a biocontrol agent can affect a nontarget species.
"...in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring."

5. According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?
C. Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.
"determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways. so that it can feed on or otherwise harm new hosts."

6. The passage suggests which of the following about the blue butterfly (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text?
A. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.

Originally posted by JarvisR on 21 Aug 2014, 22:59.
Last edited by JarvisR on 20 Jun 2015, 08:27, edited 1 time in total.
##### General Discussion
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2014, 00:13
1. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. explaining why until recently scientists failed to recognize the risks presented by biocontrol agents.
B. emphasizing that biocontrol agents and chemical pesticides have more similarties than differences.
C. suggesting that only certain biocontrol agents should be used to control plant or animal pasts.
D. arguing that biocontrol agents involve risks, some of which may not be readily discerned.
E. suggesting that mishaps involving biocontroll agents are relatively commonplace.

2. The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the use of biocontrol agents?
A. Biocontrol agent should be used only in cases where chemical pesticides have proven ineffective or overly dangerous.
B. Extinctions and disruptions resulting from the use of biocontrol agents are likely to have increasingly severe commercial consequences.
C. The use of biocontrol agents does not require regulation as stringent as that required by the use of chemical pesticides.
D. The use of biocontrol agents may even-finally supersede the use of chemical pesticides in controlling unwanted species.
E. The risks of using native biocontrol agents may be easier to predict than the risks of using nonnative biocontrol agents.

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an indirect effect of using a biocontrol agent?
A. Reduction of the commercial value of a desirable animal species
B. An unintended proliferation of a nontarget animal species
C. An unforeseen mutation in a target species
D. Diminution of the positive effects conferred by a nontarget animal species.
E. Competition for resources with a largest species.

4. The example presented by the author in highlight text most clearly serves to illustrate
A. a situation in which a species is less vulnerable to biocontrol agents than it would have been to chemical pesticides.
B. a way in which the introduction of a biocontrol agent can affect a nontarget species.
C. a nonnative agent's adapting in an unpredictable way that results in damage to a new host.
D. The contention that biocontrol agents can harm nontarget species by competing with them for resources
E. the way in which indirect consequences from the use of biocontrol agents are most likely to occurs.

5. According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?
A. Biocontrol agents are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones.
B. Biocontrol agents are likely to have indirect as well as direct adverse effects on nontarget species.
C. Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.
D. Biocontrol agents may be ineffective in destroying targeted species.
E. Biocontrol agents may be effective for only a short period of time.

6. The passage suggests which of the following about the blue butterfly (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text?
A. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.
B. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining large amounts of vegetation in its habitat.
C. The blue butterfly's survival was threatened when the ants began preying on its offspring.
D. The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations.
E. The blue butterfly was adversely affected by a biocontrol agent that competed with it for resources.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2014, 19:16
1
ColdSushi wrote:

Hi there,

Would you mind explaining how you came up with E for Q2. I see everyone here has got it but I can't work out why.

Thanks a mil

A- Passage hasn’t mentioned anything about when Bio should be used—Out

B-Tricky option. In passage it is mentioned that “most organisms likely to be adversely affected by indirect interactions are of little or no known commercial value”

Now the option said “increasingly severe commercialconsequences.”. Nothing mentioned about it in passage- Out

C- nothing about regulation- out

D-Nothing about -- supersede the use of chemical pesticides—out

E is correct. “ determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced”

It says that if you introduce non-native agent it will be difficult for you to determine the potential risk. So it means it will be easier to determine the potential risk of native agent. Look at the word “especially”

Hope it is clear
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2014, 13:07
1
Hi,

For 1, I picked E instead of D because of the word "Arguing".

I didn't see the author having a debate that's why I was thrown off. Can someone please explain what word "arguing" serves?

Thank You,
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2014, 14:07
1
russ9 wrote:
Hi,

For 1, I picked E instead of D because of the word "Arguing".

I didn't see the author having a debate that's why I was thrown off. Can someone please explain what word "arguing" serves?

Thank You,

argue = assert

However, biocontrol agents can negatively affect nontarget species by, for example, competing with them for resources

So D is corret

Hpe this helps
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2015, 14:57
1
1
Radhika11 wrote:
Can somebody please explain what is wrong with choice E of Q4

Hello Radhika11.

The answer E of Q4 says: "the way in which indirect consequences from the use of biocontrol agents are most likely to occurs."
But higlighted text doesn't describe the most likely occurs way. Those situation is just one of the possible ways of indirect consequences. Words in the beginning of text (Another example) show that this is just another example and not usual pattern.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2015, 04:42
In Q6, I was stuck between A & E

A: BBfly's survival was indeed indirectly dependent on sustaining rabbit population. sustaining rabbit pop = no virus introduction = no reduction in ant nests = no BBfly extinction

E: BBfly was indeed badly affected by the virus that competed with it for resources (ant nests).

What's wrong with E?
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2015, 13:18
2
1
rohitmanglik wrote:
In Q6, I was stuck between A & E

A: BBfly's survival was indeed indirectly dependent on sustaining rabbit population. sustaining rabbit pop = no virus introduction = no reduction in ant nests = no BBfly extinction

E: BBfly was indeed badly affected by the virus that competed with it for resources (ant nests).

What's wrong with E?

Hello, rohitmanglik
The E says that "The blue butterfly was adversely affected by a biocontrol agent that competed with it for resources."

But in the passage we don't have information about such biocontrol agent that compete with butterflies. The virus kills rabbits and as a consequence reduce open ground and as a consequence reduce the number of ants nests and butterflies need these nests for their children.

So we don't have any biological agent who competes with butterflies for resources.

A says that "The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size." and this is true because we see a consequence of indirect influences from virus to butterflies.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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15 May 2016, 08:32
Wondering why can't the ans for Q6 be D- "The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations."?

The passage clearly states that - "indirect negative consequences occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly"

Is it because the butterfly wasn't infectedbut impactedby the consequences?
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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23 May 2016, 02:17
1
Amit0507 wrote:
Wondering why can't the ans for Q6 be D- "The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations."?

The passage clearly states that - "indirect negative consequences occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly"

Is it because the butterfly wasn't infectedbut impactedby the consequences?

I think the word here is infected - BB doesn't get infected by the virus, its population is indirectly reduced.

Here might be a line of reason in my opinion:

Virus -> kill rabbit --> reduce rabbit number --> reduce open ground --> reduce underground ant nests --> reduce BB laying egg place --> reduce BB population.

There is no direct cause from Virus -> BB (but a series of consequence event in between). So the answer (A) is more appropriate in this sense:

A. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 14:07
1
rohitmanglik wrote:
In Q6, I was stuck between A & E

A: BBfly's survival was indeed indirectly dependent on sustaining rabbit population. sustaining rabbit pop = no virus introduction = no reduction in ant nests = no BBfly extinction

E: BBfly was indeed badly affected by the virus that competed with it for resources (ant nests).

What's wrong with E?

Hi Rohit,

I fell in the same trap and this trap is placed purposefully in the answer choices ( its not really a random choice). Now let me help you understand.

The passages states the following :
However, biocontrol agents can negatively affect nontarget species by, for example, competing withthem for resources: a biocontrol agent might reduce the benefits conferred by a desirable animal species by consuming a plant on which the animal prefers to lay its eggs.
Another example of indirect negative consequences occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring.

So the author has actually stated two negative consequences:
1. Competing with resources - the agents eat up the plant where the egss are laid
2. Since the virus was introduced to control rabit's population which led to decrease in the underground nests which subsequently affected the butterflies.

The butterflies are actually an example of another negative consequence, which we could generalise as an unforeseen indirect connection.

The best way to avoid this mistake is to read the passage or rather each sentence just the way we read the SC questions. Be sure you understand the purpose/meaning of the statement ( if you start understanding the use of modifiers , punctuations and lists, RCs will start getting easier). Let me know if this helps.

Regards,
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 07:09
13 min taken
4/6 correct.
1. D
2. B Incorrect
3. E Incorrect
4. B
5. C
6. A

2. The passage suggests that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about the use of biocontrol agents?
B. Extinctions and disruptions resulting from the use of biocontrol agents are likely to have increasingly severe commercial consequences. Incorrect
The commercial value of a nontarget specie is mention as a reason for the lack of knowledge of the indirect effect that biocontrol agent has over a nontarget specie. The passage doesn't suggest that extinctions caused by the use if bioagent will lead to some kind of commercial effects.

E. The risks of using native biocontrol agents may be easier to predict than the risks of using nonnative biocontrol agents. Correct
This assumption is suggested in the last part of the passage when the author highlights the introduction of a nonnative agent.
"Moreover, determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced"

3. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as an indirect effect of using a biocontrol agent?
A. Reduction of the commercial value of a desirable animal species. Incorrect
The commercial value of a nontarget specie is mention as a reason for the lack of knowledge of the indirect effect that biocontrol agent has over a nontarget specie. Nowhere in the passage is stated the reduction of the commercial value of a desirable animal specie as an indirect effect.

D. Diminution of the positive effects conferred by a nontarget animal species. Correct
The example of the bioagent introduced to control the rabbit population in England proves the link of effects that this action has on other nontarget specie (plants, ants and butterflies)

E. Competition for resources with a largest species. Incorrect
In fact, an indirect effect of using a bioagent is the competition for resources with another species, but nowhere in the passage is stated that it is a largest one. It could be a smaller one too. This option limits the scope to an specific group of nontarget specie.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2017, 01:49
1
asdfghjklasdfghj wrote:
Could anyone explain to me why in Q5 Answer choice B is wrong ?

Is it because of the word "likely" because everything else is correct..

Hi,

5. According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?

A. Biocontrol agents are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones.
B. Biocontrol agents are likely to have indirect as well as direct adverse effects on nontarget species.
C. Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.
D. Biocontrol agents may be ineffective in destroying targeted species.
E. Biocontrol agents may be effective for only a short period of time.
Moreover, determining the potential risks of biocontrol agents before they are used is difficult, especially when a nonnative agent is introduced, because, unlike a chemical pesticide, a biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways.

The answer is deduced from these lines from the passage. It is too specific to say Biocontrol agents will have direct adverse effects on nontarget species because according to passage Biocontrol agents have only indirect effects as these effects are not known. If direct effects of biocontrol agents are known , agents will not be used. That is why the line is ' biocontrol agent may adapt in unpredictable ways'.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2017, 02:01
nks2611 wrote:
hi , can someone please explain Q6, i chose E for it as it is indirect affect of using bio control agents !
please explain

6. The passage suggests which of the following about the blue butterfly (highlight) mentioned in the highlighted text?
A. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining a rabbit population of a particular size.
B. The blue butterfly's survival was indirectly dependent on sustaining large amounts of vegetation in its habitat.
C. The blue butterfly's survival was threatened when the ants began preying on its offspring.
D. The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations.
E. The blue butterfly was adversely affected by a biocontrol agent that competed with it for resources.

Hello,
In the example given in passage since the rabbit population is finished or became too low due to biocontrol agents , The land was not empty anymore. The result of which was ants could not make nests on the land having plants or trees , leaving no nests for blue butterfly to shelter its offspring. And that is how blue butterfly was indirectly dependent on rabbit population of certain size to sustain. Therefore option A is correct.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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10 Aug 2017, 00:25
4. The example presented by the author in highlight text most clearly serves to illustrate
A. a situation in which a species is less vulnerable to biocontrol agents than it would have been to chemical pesticides.
B. a way in which the introduction of a biocontrol agent can affect a nontarget species.
C. a nonnative agent's adapting in an unpredictable way that results in damage to a new host.
D. The contention that biocontrol agents can harm nontarget species by competing with them for resources
E. the way in which indirect consequences from the use of biocontrol agents are most likely to occurs.

In the above question Option B and E are close. Can anyone explain their POE?
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2017, 21:50
1
wadepooja9 wrote:
Why is A wrong in Qs No 5?

Quote:
5. According to the passage, which of the following is a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but not with chemical pesticides?

(A) Biocontrol agents are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones.

(B) Biocontrol agents are likely to have indirect as well as direct adverse effects on nontarget species.

(C) Biocontrol agents may change in unforeseen ways and thus be able to damage new hosts.

(D) Biocontrol agents may be ineffective in destroying targeted species.

(E) Biocontrol agents may be effective for only a short period of time.

They ask for a concern that arises with biocontrol agents but NOT with chemical pesticides. Refer to the first sentence of the passage: "More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily destroy only unwanted species, biocontrol agents..." So biocontrol agents ordinarily destroy only unwanted species. This implies that chemical pesticides destroy both unwanted species and other wanted species.

Chemical pesticides are likely to destroy desirable species as well as undesirable ones, so choice (A) represents a concern for BOTH chemical pesticides and biocontrol agents. Thus, (A) should be eliminated.
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2018, 23:51
Would anyone please explain the answer of question 6 ? ( want to know the POE of D )

I have selected D ( bcz in the passage it has been stated that 'a virus was introduced....')

Though A seemed also correct.
So confused to choose between D and A
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2018, 03:35
soumya170293 wrote:
Would anyone please explain the answer of question 6 ? ( want to know the POE of D )

I have selected D ( bcz in the passage it has been stated that 'a virus was introduced....')

Though A seemed also correct.
So confused to choose between D and A

soumya170293
Option D says - "The blue butterfly was infected by the virus that had been intended to control rabbit populations."
Here's the highlighted text -
Another example of indirect negative consequcnces occurred in England when a virus introduced to control rabbits reduced the amount of open ground (because large rabbit populations reduce the ground cover), in turn reducing underground ant nests and triggering the extinction of a blue butterfly that had depended on the nests to shelter its offspring
The passage does not mention that the BBF was ever infected by the Virus. All this text says is that there were some indirect consequences which impacted the BBF.
Virus introduced to reduce open ground --> Reduced ant tests --> BBF used nests for shelter --> No nests and BBF became extinct.

Essentially this was an unintended effect - you can eliminate D.
A is the only option which explains this indirectly dependency.

Hope this helps!
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Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2018, 05:51
7:46
4/6
Didi silly mistakes in the last 2 questions.
Could have taken some more time.
Lesson learnt.!!
What is the level of this passage?
Re: More selective than most chemical pesticides in that they ordinarily d   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2018, 05:51

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