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The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of

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The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 30 Nov 2017, 14:29
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A
B
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D
E

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 234
Page: 690

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye

(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible

(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it

(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible

(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.

Originally posted by beckee529 on 27 Jul 2007, 23:52.
Last edited by hazelnut on 30 Nov 2017, 14:29, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2013, 07:15
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atalwar wrote:
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?


Image


Hi Aditya,

Let me write the entire sentence taking Option D into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.

As you can see the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. It can refer to either “wavelength” or “infrared radiation”.

Even if you say that only wavelength can be long and so “it” properly refers to wavelength, then you can say that “thus invisible” is modifying “wavelength” in that case.

The original sentence intends to say that the “infrared radiation” is invisible to the eye because of some reasons. The original sentence doesn’t intend to say that “the wavelength is invisible”.
This is the error in Option D.

Now let us look at the entire sentence taking Option E into consideration.

The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Again, the pronoun “it” is ambiguous. (Making radiation invisible or Making wavelength invisible?)

Also the use of “that” is incorrect.
a. Trees which give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
b. Trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.

Sentence (a) tells us that trees are essential for life on earth and states a property of trees i.e. Trees give oxygen.
Sentence (b) tells us that only trees that give oxygen are essential for life on earth.
This is the meaning difference between “which” and “that”

The usage of “that” in Option E brings about a similar meaning change. It is talking about “a particular wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for eye to register”, whereas the original sentence intends to say that “all wavelengths of 0.1 millimeters are too long for eye to register.”

Hope you get the difference in the meanings.
For the reasons above stated, Option E is incorrect too.

Hope this helps! :-)
Regards,
Krishna
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2010, 13:42
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ajit257 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible


Please can some explain why choice b is not correct ?


Hi! This question is an excellent test of modification, which is heavily tested on the GMAT.

As always, when first evaluating a sentence it's best to ignore the "extra bits" - focus on the subject and verb.

First, we recognize that the semicolon divides two equal sentences; in effect, we can ignore everything that comes before it. So, let's only focus on the underlined portion.

In the original (and, of course, choice (A)), we have:

Quote:
infrared radiation is invisible because its wavelength is too long to be registered by the eye.


Seems like a perfectly sound sentence - it's clear what's invisible (IR), "its" has a single clear antecedent (IR) and no style issues. Lookin' good!

Next up is (B):
Quote:
however, the wavelength ... is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible.


This one isn't as clear: "it" is supposed to refer to IR, but actually modifies the subject of the sentence, "the wavelength". As noted by our Trojan-loving poster, a prepositional phrase can't be the subject, so even though (B) contains "of infrared radiation" that's not a legal parent noun for "it".

Here's another very useful general rule for the GMAT: ignore prepositional phrases. Such phrases appear all the time and are pretty much always just in there to distract you from the basic sentence structure.

Next we have (C):
Quote:
infrared radiation is invisible because its wavelength is too long for the eye to register it.


More pronoun problems (pronouns are another very commonly tested grammar concept)! "it" at the end of the sentence could refer to either IR or wavelength. When you see an ambiguous pronoun, move on!

(Technically pronouns refer to the closest "legal" preceding parent noun - in this sentence that would be "wavelength" - but for the most part the GMAT abhors pronoun ambiguity.)

How about (D):
Quote:
however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.


Same issue as (B) - "of infrared radiation" can't be the antecedent for "it".

Finally (E):
Quote:
however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible.


"that" renders this sentence awkward; also, "it" at the end could refer to IR, wavelength or the eye.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2010, 04:05
beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.


C, D and E: it's not clear what the "it" is referring to.
B: "making it invisible" is misplaced and modifies "eye" changing the meaning.
A: is clear and grammatically correct.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2010, 02:19
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cano wrote:
beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.


C, D and E: it's not clear what the "it" is referring to.
B: "making it invisible" is misplaced and modifies "eye" changing the meaning.
A: is clear and grammatically correct.


In C "it" is referring to infrared radiation, which is incorrect.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2010, 02:56
I chose A as well

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye --> Correct
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible "because" is awkwardly placed with "however"
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible "it" does not refer to a clear antecedent
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2010, 11:11
ajit257 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible


Please can some explain why choice b is not correct ?



Let me try

when -ing is used without comma , it is directly modifying the immediate previous noun, and comma + ing would modify the subject of the previous clause.

here the making it invisible doesnt modify eye... so B is wrong...

pls add something if someone can add
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Dec 2010, 11:58
I picked C, because of the usage "to be". Damn, should've stuck with my gut and picked A.

Wavelength shouldn't be the subject of the sentence, it should be infrared radiation since that is invisible to the eye.

Just wanted to add on to this: the word "Of" before infrared radiation turns the phrase "of infrared radiation" into a preposition. Aside from some idiomatic expressions, prepositions can't be subjects of the sentence. Therefore, given the context of the sentence, A would work best because it matches up subject and verb perfectly.

ajit257 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.

(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible


Please can some explain why choice b is not correct ?

Originally posted by USCTrojan2006 on 03 Dec 2010, 11:30.
Last edited by USCTrojan2006 on 03 Dec 2010, 11:58, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 03 Dec 2010, 13:38
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Didnt like "it" in any of the choices, therefore, picked A
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2011, 01:20
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The physical structure of human eye enables it to sense light of wavelenghs up to 0.0005 millimeters;infrared radiation,however, is invisble because its wavelength-0.1millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye.

a)infrared radiation,however, is invisble because its wavelength-0.1millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye.
b)however,the wavelength of infra red radiation is-0.1 millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible.
c)infrared radiation,however,is invisible because its wavelength-0.1 millimeters-is too long for the eye to register it.
d)however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters,it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.
e)however,infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register,thus making
it invisible.

Hi,
We can straight forward eliminate B,C and E for Ambiguous pronoun reference 'it'. D has got a wrong sentence construction. A is the answer.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2011, 02:28
The physical structure of human eye enables it to sense light of wavelenghs up to 0.0005 millimeters;infrared radiation,however, is invisble because its wavelength-0.1millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye.

a)infrared radiation,however, is invisble because its wavelength-0.1millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye.
b)however,the wavelength of infra red radiation is-0.1 millimeters-is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible.
c)infrared radiation,however,is invisible because its wavelength-0.1 millimeters-is too long for the eye to register it.
d)however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters,it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible.
e)however,infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register,thus making it invisible.

Besides the IT problem, "for - to" is unidiomatic
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2011, 04:29
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Want to know if there is any rule which establishes that "it" in C/D/E is referring to "wavelength"?
In D, I can though say it upto some extent, but not in C/E :( . It has shaken some of my basics. Can some1 explain this?

beckee529 wrote:
The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.
(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye

RIGHT

(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible

Seems to suggest wavelength is too long and makes the eye invisible.

(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it

the eye does not register wavelength

(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible

WORDY. Again wavelength is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible suggests the wavelength is invisble

(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible

Wordy again. Also infrared radiation cannot make ITSELF invisible as the sentence seems to suggest.
I am looking for a good explanation for answer pick.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2013, 18:25
Everything about choice C

I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"

Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.

So, what is wrong with choice C?

IMO, "it" is redundant here.
the sentence"because its wavelength···is too long for the eye to register" is complete, and we do not need a "it" after register!
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2013, 23:12
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nson wrote:
Everything about choice C

I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"

Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.

So, what is wrong with choice C?

IMO, "it" is redundant here.
the sentence"because its wavelength···is too long for the eye to register" is complete, and we do not need a "it" after register!


Hi nson.

You're correct. "it" is redundant in C.
For example:
WRONG: The test took me 1 hour to complete it <== "it" is redundant.
CORRECT: The test took me 1 hour to complete

Same question:
rivaling-the-pyramids-of-egypt-or-even-the-ancient-cities-of-30856.html?fl=similar

Hope it helps.
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New post 02 Aug 2013, 11:42
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nson wrote:
Everything about choice C
I don't agree with the notion that "it do not refer to a clear antecedent" or "it refers to wavelength"
Reason:In choice C, we already got a "its", so "it" and "its" must refer to the same subject---infrared radiation.
So, what is wrong with choice C?



In option C, “it” actually does not have a clear antecedent and therefore, option C has a pronoun ambiguity error.
Let’s look at option C:

Infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it.

Here is the sentence structure of Option C:
1. Infrared radiation, however, is invisible
2. because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it

    A: Now, if we look at it, the beginning of the second clause has possessive pronoun “its” – this pronoun clearly refers to Infrared radiation since there is no other noun before this pronoun.

    B: However, when we reach the end of the second clause and encounter “it”, we have two nouns to which “it” could refer to – “Infrared radiation” or the subject of the “because clause” i.e. wavelength. Now, both the nouns are valid contenders for the antecedent of “it”. Therefore, there is a pronoun ambiguity in the clause.

For this reason, option C is incorrect.

Does this help!

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New post 25 Aug 2013, 04:32
Please explain how reference to it in choice D and E is wrong. IN D,E og says reference to it is not clear. can you highlight this.. is it in these sentences pointing wavelength or infrared (both) ?? how it in B is clear? Is the same error not in B ?
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New post 25 Aug 2013, 21:35
Dont we need direct subject after semi colon and there by eliminating B D E? Can we see it like that ?

Can some one explain the usage of semicolon in gmat?
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New post 01 Sep 2013, 10:33
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The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of wavelengths up to 0.0005 millimeters; infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye.

Analyses of the sentence:

The Physical Structure ..... enables IT(eye- clear antecedent) to sense light of....; Infrared radiation..... is invisible because ITS wavelength- .........

Although the first IT is in non-underlined portion , we will analyse all pronoun-antecedent pairs.

We will run the MGMAT Sc guide proposed filtering test to check for pronoun ambiguity.

(1). Number / Gender:

First IT can refer to EYE(singular) and structure(singular) [Number]
Second ITS can refer to "Infrared radiation","light", "eye", and "structure".

(2). Repeats : Second ITS can refer to EYE as the FIRST one refers to EYE.

(3). Proximity: FIRST IT is closer to EYE, so refers to EYE
SECOND ITS is closer to "IR", so refers to IR

(4). Case: There is no point of case as IT is in same clause.
We don't have || clauses here so cannot apply this step.


(A) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye
Correct as is and as explained above.
(B) however, the wavelength of infrared radiation—0.1 millimeters—is too long to be registered by the eye making it invisible
Making what invisible - "the wavelength" or the IR
(C) infrared radiation, however, is invisible because its wavelength—0.1 millimeters—is too long for the eye to register it
We apply repeats , proximity and case.
Repeats => IT logically refers to IR
Proximity => IT refers to EYE
Case => No || clauses

(D) however, because the wavelength of infrared radiation is 0.1 millimeters, it is too long for the eye to register and thus invisible
EYE is thus INVISIBLE - nonsense
(E) however, infrared radiation has a wavelength of 0.1 millimeters that is too long for the eye to register, thus making it invisible
Repeats => IT occurs only once
Proximity => IT refers to EYE
Case => IT appears to refer to IR correctly
But "THAT" clauses restricts the 0.1 MM wavelength=> change in meaning
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2014, 05:57
I eliminated the options B,C,D and E based on meaning.

B) making it invisible --- what is it referring to

C) for the eye to register it --- Apart from it , this seems as if eye itself is registering.

D) for the eye to register --- Same as in C.

E) If we eliminate the modifier present between commas , we get the following sentence .
however thus making it invisible . --- Makes no sense .
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 08:28
In option (D)
'Because' is used with 'however'. Is this correct?

In option (E)
'however' and 'thus' are used in the same sentence. Is this correct?

Please help.

Thanks.
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Re: The physical structure of the human eye enables it to sense light of &nbs [#permalink] 28 Aug 2014, 08:28

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