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Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much

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Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Oct 2018, 22:01
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Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited.


(A) that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited

(B) that, in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited in babies

(C) that confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development

(D) that babies, if confined much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development

(E) that strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can, if babies are confined to the much of the time, result in muscle development being inhibited


Spoiler: :: nytimes article
https://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/05/science/q-a-519049.html

Child development specialists think that freely crawling, cruising and toddling are a normal progression in a child's physical and cognitive development. But as soon as babies can move independently, they tend to be confined much of the time to strollers, infant seats, highchairs, playpens and walkers. According to Dr. Martin I. Lorin, a pediatrician, who wrote ''The Parents' Book of Physical Fitness for Children,'' this can mean that ''young muscles languish away for want of exercise.''


The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 204
Page: 255

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Originally posted by hazelnut on 30 May 2017, 05:53.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Oct 2018, 22:01, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2017, 06:57
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Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited.

(A) that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited (Red portion do not show where muscle development can be inhibited)
(B) that, in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited in babies (Usage of their is ambiguous also usage of passive should be avoided)
(C) that confining babies much of the time to strollers,high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development (Babies can inhibit muscle development not confining babies)
(D) that babies, if confined much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development (Correct)
(E) that strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can, if babies are confined to the much of the time, result in muscle development being inhibited (Babies can inhibit muscle development not strollers and high chairs)

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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2017, 00:22
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hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 204
Page: 255

Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited.

(A) that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited- INCORRECT as ambiguous meaning is conveyed.
(B) that, in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited in babies- INCORRECT as pronoun "their" does not correctly refer to babies.
(C) that confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development.-CORRECT as the sentence is grammatically correct and logically conveys the meaning that confining the babies most of the time to chairs.....etc inhibits their muscle development.
(D) that babies, if confined much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development.- INCORRECT as "babies" is the subject of this sentence and babies do not inhibit their muscle development.
(E) that strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can, if babies are confined to the much of the time, result in muscle development being inhibited
- INCORRECT as the sentence is awkward and does not convey the proper meaning.

So the correct answer should be C.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2017, 00:41
Can an expert explain the reason why option D is selected over option C?
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2017, 15:56
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C is the only sensible answer. Babies are definitely not what inhibits muscle development! :lol:
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2017, 13:05
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Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited.

(A) that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited
(B) that, in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited in babies
(C) that confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development
(D) that babies, if confined much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development
(E) that strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can, if babies are confined to the much of the time, result in muscle development being inhibited

IMO C
option A has wrong preposition In
Option B Again repeats the same error , it also makes the sentence passive which is not desirable.
Option D suggests that babies inhibit muscle development.
Option E suggests that strollers high chairs etc inhibit muscle development but it is confinement to these things that inhibit muscle development.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 08:36
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Jat wrote:
Can an expert explain the reason why option D is selected over option C?



Hello Jat,


Thank you for the query. :-)

Let's read what choice D has to say: ...babies, if confined much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development (I have struck out the modifier to focus on the Subject-Verb pair).

According to this choice, the babies can inhibit muscle development. This certainly is illogical. The babies do not inhibit the muscle development. The sentence intends to say that because they are confined to certain objects, the muscle development in babies can be inhibited.

Choice C does convey this meaning by saying: ...confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers can inhibit muscle development.


Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2018, 22:26
Hi GMATNinja generis GMATNinjaTwo

Can you explain why (D) is incorrect when we have subject - babies - and
verb - can inhibit muscle development - too far with a conditional clause / modifier in between (if confined to ... walkers)

We have much clearer - can be inhibited - verb closer to subject - babies in (B)

Is it because the noun modifier - in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers,
does not make sense with muscle development?
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2018, 06:28
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adkikani wrote:
Hi GMATNinja generis GMATNinjaTwo

Can you explain why (D) is incorrect when we have subject - babies - and
verb - can inhibit muscle development - too far with a conditional clause / modifier in between (if confined to ... walkers)

We have much clearer - can be inhibited - verb closer to subject - babies in (B)

Is it because the noun modifier - in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers,
does not make sense with muscle development?


First, the part "in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers" is not a noun modifier, but a verb modifier. A prepositional phrase may work as a noun modifier or a verb modifier:
1. A bird in hand worth two in bush: "in hand" = noun modifier ( acting as adjective - referring to "bird")
2. I kept the book in the bag: "in the bag" = verb modifier ( acting as adverb - referring to "book")
In option B, "in their confinement..." refers to the verb "can be inhibited". (Similar to the second example above.)

Now, coming to your question:
The part "in their confinement much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers" is by itself grammatically wrong. The part "much of the time" is an adverbial phrase and hence must refer to a verb / verbal. e.g., They are confined much of the time. However in option B, "much of the time" does not have a verb / verbal to refer to - it erroneously refers to the noun "confinement" - an adverb/adverbial phrase cannot refer to a noun. Hence option B is wrong.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2018, 18:18
can we delete other choices because "specialist believe that ....." , that should be followed by a clause and no comma should be used ?
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2018, 08:22
viviolivia wrote:
can we delete other choices because "specialist believe that ....." , that should be followed by a clause and no comma should be used ?

Only options A and B have comma after that. All the options do have a clause after that.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2018, 17:13
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I was left out with options A and C; however, I chose A. Can anyone tell me, why A is incorrect?
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2018, 00:19
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I think you did the hard work to figure out the 2 closest options i.e option A and option C. Let us look at option A :

Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers, muscle development can be inhibited

Remove the prepositional modifier between the commas "in confining babies much of the time to strollers, high chairs, playpens, and walkers" and then read the sentence. Specialists believe that muscle development can be inhibited. The sentence does not answer in whom the muscle development can be inhibited.

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sriramsundaram91 wrote:
I was left out with options A and C; however, I chose A. Can anyone tell me, why A is incorrect?
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 00:33
this is hard problem because we have to choose between choice A and C.
in choice A, it is unclear what inhibit the muscle develepment. in choice C, confining inhibit muscle development. this is good.

choice A is in passive voice, which do not show the agent making action. passive voice is used when agent performing action is not important. but inhere, it is important that confining perfoming inhibition.

choice A suffer unclear meaning error.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2018, 00:46
we can normally have 2 types of errors. illogic meaning and unclear meaning. illogic meaning is more easy to see than unclear meaning.
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Re: Child development specialists believe that, in confining babies much &nbs [#permalink] 15 Oct 2018, 00:46
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