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# Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement

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Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2013, 09:31
5
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

50% (01:16) correct 50% (01:24) wrong based on 554 sessions

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Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

(A) formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

(B) forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.

(C) forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

(D) formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.

(E) formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

Can someone help me on this question , I am not able to understand why the official answer given by veritas is correct and need more explanation.

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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 02:52
4
3
kinjiGC wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

"formed" can be either Verb-ed modifier or a verb form.

Now "formed" cannot be verb-er modifier as verb-ed modifier should be placed next to the noun it modifies. So "formed" can only modify "Jurassic period" which is not correct.
So formed can be a verb form where
1) is thought to date from the Jurassic period
2) formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere
3) and lasted 200 million years
Forms a list.

Now
the oldest ocean crust is formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere. "is" cannot be an auxiliary verb as the sentence requires was.

Can somebody clarify?

Hi kinjiGC,

D is indeed the credited answer.

Let me draw your attention to a particular exception to the modifier-touch rule

Source: MGMAT SC 5th edition pg. 239 (Rule No.2):
RULE: A very short predicate falls between, shifting a very long modifier back.

Right: A new CEO has been hired who will transform the company bv decentralizing
authority to various division heads while increasing their accountability
through the use of public scorecards.

The alternative construction is confusing, because the modifier is extremely lengthy:
Awkward: A new CEO who will transform the company by decentralizing authority
to various division heads while increasing their accountability through the
use of public scorecards
has been hired.

In essence, in the sentence under question, ‘formed’ very clearly and logically modifies the ‘ocean crust’ and not Jurassic Period. As per the rule, the non-underlined portion ‘is thought to date from the Jurassic period’ is the short predicate which falls in between, shifting the long modifier phrase ‘formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years’ from ‘ocean crust’, the noun it intends to modify.

The second split is to be able to recognize how to select ‘formed v/s forming’ and ‘lasted v/s lasting’. Note, that this is a meaning issue that needs to be dealt with carefully. The ‘ocean crust’ is acted upon by the huge fragments and hence is the receiver of the action ‘to form’ performed by the ‘huge fragments’. Any sentence which conveys a meaning where X is acted upon by Y (X is the receiver of the action being performed by Y), the sentence adopts the passive voice to take the form X action verb-ED (by/from) Y. Vice-versa, when X itself is performing the action, then the sentence would use the verb in the present participle form….X action verb-ING

This means that the ocean crust has been form-ED from fragments… and is (itself) last-ING a certain period

Hope this helps clear your doubts….
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2013, 09:32
3
1

The correct response is (D).

The meaning of the sentence is that the “oldest ocean crust” was “formed” in the past during the Jurassic period and is currently still “lasting” (since if it’s the “oldest” it must still be around!). We need the past tense/participle verbs to be used correctly.

If you chose (A), the ocean crust was “formed” in the past” but if “lasted” is past tense then the oldest ocean crust is no longer around, which would mean it couldn’t be the “oldest.”

If you chose (B) or (C), “forming” implies the crust is still being formed. While it’s true the Earth’s crust is constantly in flux, we’re concerned with the “oldest ocean crust” – that part that is no longer continuing to form, but was formed at some point during the Jurassic period.

If you chose (E), you correctly used “formed
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2014, 20:56
1
Quote:
In the above question, does the verb-ed modifier "formed" modifies the nearest noun Jurassic period?

NO. the fact is that when this same construction is in every choice then it becomes a non issue .
if u really need a more technical answer then--->"comma + verb ed" modifiers can modify some far flung noun if those "nouns" are separated by [i]prepositional phrases OR participle phrases OR "some modifiers" .in fact "comma + verb ed" modifiers modify can modify even the subject of the main clause, for instance: Tommy turned to the audience, flushed with fear
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2014, 21:27

I have seen two main rules for verb-ed modifier posted by egmat:

1) Verb-ed modifier modifies the preceding noun or the noun phrase.
2) When verb-ed modifier is placed in the beginning of the clause followed by a comma, then it modifies the subject of the clause.

In this case we have option 1. We see that "formed" has to jump over the verb "is thought" to modify the subject of the main clause "The oldest ocean".
I have usually seen the verb-ed modifier is placed in the beginning of the sentence when we need to modify the subject of the main clause such as "Flushed with fear, Tommy turned to the audience"

Let me know what you think

Egmat, can you guys please clarify?

Thanks!
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 04:42
andymann wrote:
Hi All,

I have a question regarding usage of verb-ed as mentioned in the question below:

Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

In the above question, does the verb-ed modifier "formed" modifies the nearest noun Jurassic period? It needs to modify "oldest ocean crust". I am confused how "formed" is modifying "oldest ocean crust" here.

Thanks,
Akash

Why not E?
The crust still exists so we need "has been lasting"... am I wrong?
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 07:21
why not b ?? why is it incorrect?
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 00:53
1
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

"formed" can be either Verb-ed modifier or a verb form.

Now "formed" cannot be verb-er modifier as verb-ed modifier should be placed next to the noun it modifies. So "formed" can only modify "Jurassic period" which is not correct.
So formed can be a verb form where
1) is thought to date from the Jurassic period
2) formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere
3) and lasted 200 million years
Forms a list.

Now
the oldest ocean crust is formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere. "is" cannot be an auxiliary verb as the sentence requires was.

Can somebody clarify?
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 02:09
When two plates come together, it is known as a convergent boundary. The impact of the two colliding plates buckles the edge of one or both plates up into a rugged mountain range, and sometimes bends the other down into a deep seafloor trench.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 03:47
itzmyzone911 wrote:
kinjiGC wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

"formed" can be either Verb-ed modifier or a verb form.

Now "formed" cannot be verb-er modifier as verb-ed modifier should be placed next to the noun it modifies. So "formed" can only modify "Jurassic period" which is not correct.
So formed can be a verb form where
1) is thought to date from the Jurassic period
2) formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere
3) and lasted 200 million years
Forms a list.

Now
the oldest ocean crust is formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere. "is" cannot be an auxiliary verb as the sentence requires was.

Can somebody clarify?

Hi kinjiGC,

D is indeed the credited answer.

Let me draw your attention to a particular exception to the modifier-touch rule

Source: MGMAT SC 5th edition pg. 239 (Rule No.2):
RULE: A very short predicate falls between, shifting a very long modifier back.

Right: A new CEO has been hired who will transform the company bv decentralizing
authority to various division heads while increasing their accountability
through the use of public scorecards.

The alternative construction is confusing, because the modifier is extremely lengthy:
Awkward: A new CEO who will transform the company by decentralizing authority
to various division heads while increasing their accountability through the
use of public scorecards
has been hired.

In essence, in the sentence under question, ‘formed’ very clearly and logically modifies the ‘ocean crust’ and not Jurassic Period. As per the rule, the non-underlined portion ‘is thought to date from the Jurassic period’ is the short predicate which falls in between, shifting the long modifier phrase ‘formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years’ from ‘ocean crust’, the noun it intends to modify.

The second split is to be able to recognize how to select ‘formed v/s forming’ and ‘lasted v/s lasting’. Note, that this is a meaning issue that needs to be dealt with carefully. The ‘ocean crust’ is acted upon by the huge fragments and hence is the receiver of the action ‘to form’ performed by the ‘huge fragments’. Any sentence which conveys a meaning where X is acted upon by Y (X is the receiver of the action being performed by Y), the sentence adopts the passive voice to take the form X action verb-ED (by/from) Y. Vice-versa, when X itself is performing the action, then the sentence would use the verb in the present participle form….X action verb-ING

This means that the ocean crust has been form-ED from fragments… and is (itself) last-ING a certain period

Hope this helps clear your doubts….

I agree with your exception to the rule. The Rule is applicable for relative pronoun - who/that/which etc but not for a verb-ed modifier.

If that is the case, can you show me any Official questions where verb-ed modifier modifies slightly far away noun?
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2014, 04:32
1
Hi Kinjal,
My 2 cents on this.
The underlined part is ed-modifier modifying the noun "crust".
Reg. the ed-modifier rule, I totally agree to your point. IMO, (noun modifer)verb-ed modifier doesn't jump over the verb of preceding clause to modify noun at the head of sentence. But we don't have much option in the given choices.
https://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=3509
Also looking at the sentence,I don't see any better place to put that modifier.

I believe, this Q is inspired from the OG question. ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html
My suggestion would be ,don't spend too much effort on this and move on
Regards.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2015, 08:42
andymann wrote:

I have seen two main rules for verb-ed modifier posted by egmat:

1) Verb-ed modifier modifies the preceding noun or the noun phrase.
2) When verb-ed modifier is placed in the beginning of the clause followed by a comma, then it modifies the subject of the clause.

In this case we have option 1. We see that "formed" has to jump over the verb "is thought" to modify the subject of the main clause "The oldest ocean".
I have usually seen the verb-ed modifier is placed in the beginning of the sentence when we need to modify the subject of the main clause such as "Flushed with fear, Tommy turned to the audience"

Let me know what you think

Egmat, can you guys please clarify?

Thanks!

I have the same question as andymann . Although in this question, we don't have to worry about the issue of verb-ed form modifying the preceeding noun or noun phrase separated by comma, as all the options have the same construction, an explanation would be really helpful.
Calling all the experts on this one.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2015, 08:45
Udai wrote:
why not b ?? why is it incorrect?

uday, The activity of the formation of the ocean crust is over;Therefore, forming would be wrong here.
Also, the ocean crust still exists so we need lasting after 'and'.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2015, 09:55
akhil911 wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

Can someone help me on this question , I am not able to understand why the official answer given by veritas is correct and need more explanation.

Hi daagh

I think formed is a ed modifier and it is modifying Jurasic period as it is nearest noun. Could you please provide your comments on option D.

How ed modifier can modify faraway noun ocean crust

Regards
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2015, 10:40
if you look at the non underlined part it says "Ocean is.... " which means the ocean crust is still is . In this context is it correct to say ocean crust is lasting 200 million years...?carcass ,souvik101990 daagh.. anyone?
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2016, 22:53
1
akhil911 wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

Can someone help me on this question , I am not able to understand why the official answer given by veritas is correct and need more explanation.

Hi,
there has been a bit of confusion on the Q.. lets try to clear a bit of air on it

If we look at it, the Q has more to do with parallelism...
there are three info on the oldest ocean crust:-
1) thought to date from the Jurassic period,
2) formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere, and
3) lasted 200 million years.

so the sentence can be written as..
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, the oldest ocean crust is formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and the oldest ocean crust is lasted 200 million years.....
the sentence is perfect except the usage of "is" and "lasted" together..

so we require to clear this..
HOW DO WE DO IT
lasted is changed to lasting as in D..
But it would have been better had it been "lasting for 200 million years"
Also since it is an activity which began in past and still continuing, we should use PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS rather than simple present..

A BETTER WAY:-

Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, is formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and has been lasting for 200 million years.
OR
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period and formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere, and has been lasting for 200 million years.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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22 May 2016, 10:19
1
akhil911 wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

Can someone help me on this question , I am not able to understand why the official answer given by veritas is correct and need more explanation.

There is a 3 : 2 (between formed / forming ) and further 3 : 2 split (between lasted / lasting ) if we can observe.

The correct choice will be

 .... the oldest ocean crust is thought to date ......... formed .................lasting 200 million years

Hence the correct answer will be (D)
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 04:04
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

the ocean crust is already formed and even right now it lasts,
so we need to select the answer choice that convey this meaning .

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years. :lasted is wrong. formed and lasted are not parallel formed is past participle whereas lasted is verb
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.forming is wrong the crust is already formed
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.same as b.forming and lasted are not parallel forming is present participle whereas lasted is verb
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.answer : both formed and lasting are parallel (formed is past participle and lasting is past participle)
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.no need of using present prefect
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2016, 10:36
1
StudentHaas wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

In the above question, does the verb-ed modifier "formed" modifies the nearest noun Jurassic period? It needs to modify "oldest ocean crust". I am confused how "formed" is modifying "oldest ocean crust" here.

Thanks,
Andy

'Formed' and 'lasted' both must modify'the oldest ocean crust'

Let's flip the sentence.
formed from huge fragments, the oldest oceanic crust......

The above sentence makes sense.

lasted 200 million years, the oldest oceanic crust.....

The above sentence doesn't make sense; instead, below is the right way:-
lasting 200 million years, the oldest oceanic crust.....

hence, we must use 'formed' and 'lasting' as in option D.

D is the correct choice.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2017, 16:07
akhil911 wrote:
Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.

A. formed from huge fragments of the Earth's lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
B. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
C. forming from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
D. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
E. formed from huge fragments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.

OFFICIAL SOLUTION

The correct response is (D).

The meaning of the sentence is that the “oldest ocean crust” was “formed” in the past during the Jurassic period and is currently still “lasting” (since if it’s the “oldest” it must still be around!). We need the past tense/participle verbs to be used correctly.

If you chose (A), the ocean crust was “formed” in the past” but if “lasted” is past tense then the oldest ocean crust is no longer around, which would mean it couldn’t be the “oldest.”

If you chose (B) or (C), “forming” implies the crust is still being formed. While it’s true the Earth’s crust is constantly in flux, we’re concerned with the “oldest ocean crust” – that part that is no longer continuing to form, but was formed at some point during the Jurassic period.

If you chose (E), you correctly used “formed,” however the present perfect “has been lasting” is unnecessarily wordy. The simple participle verb form will suffice.

Does logic dictate that (D) is the correct answer? Yes. Will you ignore it because it uses past participle form modifying the previous subject/clause instead of ‘Jurassic Period’? No. Note that it is correct grammatically and you should know it. Whatever we can infer about the preferences of GMAT is from the questions it gives. GMAT doesn’t clarify its stand on every grammatical issue and the stand is probably flexible depending on the sentence under examination. So you need to be flexible in your understanding of what is and is not acceptable in GMAT. Use logic – remember, GMAT is a test of your reasoning skills. Get to the best answer under given circumstances.
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Re: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement &nbs [#permalink] 20 Mar 2017, 16:07

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