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# in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2010, 16:07
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in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Can someone please help me with understanding this part of the sentence:
hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2014, 21:55
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2014, 06:46
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It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 06:30
daagh wrote:
It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify

Hi Sir,

laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included >>> This is the modifier

I think that this is a run on as obervation made and now included requires a verb?Isn't it?
I might be asking a silly one but pls clarify with any supportive examples.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 06:48
sanjeebpanda wrote:
daagh wrote:
It simply means that in order to prove the vulnerability of patenting system, somebody hoodwinked the public by taking a patent on one of the oldest laws of physics; even a school-going child knows this rule, but nobody including the patenting department cared to verify

Hi Sir,

laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included >>> This is the modifier

I think that this is a run on as obervation made and now included requires a verb?Isn't it?
I might be asking a silly one but pls clarify with any supportive examples.

Let's analyze the below sentence. Ignore the parenthetical elements (the non-essential information between two commas), modifiers and prepositional phrases.

in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics

Basically, the sentence means that Richard Stallman had managed to win a patent for Kirchhoff's laws. (Richard Stallman is the subject and had managed is the verb)

Now, the last underlined part is the extra piece of information on Kirchhoff's laws.
If we analyze the underlined portion -
an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics

-which perfectly describes Kirchhoff's laws. (This being an non-essential clause will not contain a 'helping verb')
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 08:35
wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Can someone please help me with understanding this part of the sentence:
hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

From the SC Grail,

The structure for such questions is:

One of the + Noun(will always be plural) + Singular Verb(usually 'is')

It is only when the plural noun is followed by 'that/who' that the singular verb changes into plural.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2014, 09:56
@sanjeebpanda

The confusion basically arises because the word 'clause' has been misunderstood. A clause is essentially a complete theme with a subject and a working verb, or often a verbal phrase that contains modifiers and objects. Thus A clause is different from a phrase, which does not have a verb;

Second, a modifier can either be a clause or even a phrase; the clause itself may be a subordinate clause or a compound clause. Its major job is to give additional info or describe somewhat more what it modifies.
The text under question is just a combination of two phrases joined by conjunction ‘and’. The coordinate conjunction can join both two nouns or two phrases or two clauses. Here, --an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics -- are both modifier phrases without verbs
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2014, 07:51
wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is

Can someone please help me with understanding this part of the sentence:
hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

Daagh,

If you consider option A, shouldnt it actually be:

... a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, that is an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and ow included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

in absence of "that is", the phrase "an observation about..." modifies the entire phrase "a colleague of his had managed..." when it should ideally modify only "Kirchoff's laws".

I feel none of the options are perfect. What are your thoughts? Thanks.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2014, 13:23
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wininblue wrote:
in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is (GMAT Classic error : which blahh blahh and it blahh blahh - pronoun error)

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and (Namely is an adverbial conjunction but it can not join to ICs)

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is ( IC, it is blah blah : two ICs separated by comma)

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is ( Laws are plural thus technical subject of "is" is Richard Stallman included in textbook - non sense)

Can someone please help me with understanding this part of the sentence:
hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had

in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbook of elementary physics.

to test the system, - is just a modifier, and we are lucky that it is not underlined.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2015, 14:27
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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 23:22
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[quote="wininblue"]in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent system, testified in Patent Office hearings that, to test the system, a colleague of his had managed to win a patent for one of Kirchhoff's laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and now included in virtually every textbookof elementary physics.

A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - Correct.

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is - which not used correctly, no comma after 1845.

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - wrong 'namely' is not used correctly.

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is - wrong there cannot be two independent clauses in a sentence without a connector.

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is - wrong seems like the electric current was made in 1845.
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Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2016, 17:31
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A laws, an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - Correct.

B laws, which was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and it is - AFTER AND IT IS PLACD WRONGLY

C laws, namely, it was an observation about electric current first made in 1845 and - wrong 'namely' is not used correctly.

D laws, an aobservation about electric current first made in 1845, it is - wrong there cannot be two independent clauses in a sentence without a connector.

E laws that was an observation about electric current, first made in 1845, and is - wrong seems like the electric current was made in 1845.
Re: in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent   [#permalink] 10 Feb 2016, 17:31
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# in 1995 Richard Stallman, a well-known critic of the patent

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