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Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri

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Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 13:05
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 763

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.

(A) account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been
(B) of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz
(C) the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been
(D) the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz
(E) explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz

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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 09:55
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somtsat99 wrote:
elegantm wrote:
This question tests Parallelism. Parallelism that we need to check may follow either of the 3 below mentioned patterns-
Pattern 1 - Explain the presence of X, Y, & Z - Correct
Pattern 2 - Explain the presence of X, the presence of Y, & the presence of Z - Correct
Pattern 3 - Explain the presence of X, Explain the presence of Y, & Explain the presence of Z - Correct


A) Follows Pattern 2, But use of ACCOUNT FOR is unjustified. Hence Incorrect
B) Follows Pattern 1. Hence Correct
C) Follows mix of Patterns 1, 2, & 3. Hence Incorrect
D) Follows mix of Patterns 2 & 3. Hence Incorrect
E) Follows mix of Patterns 3 & 2. Hence Incorrect


But is follows presence of X and Of Y.

Posted from my mobile device



Hello somtsat99,


I am just adding my two cents here. When the elements in a parallel list are big phrases, the scope of possible parallel elements also increase by far.

Let's take a look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence
    of a buried crater,
    of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and
    of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.


Since all the three elements are prepositional phrases, they are perfectly parallel.

Since of has been used in all the three elements, another possible parallel list can be what elegantm has stated in his post as Pattern 1.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2017, 01:34
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This question tests Parallelism. Parallelism that we need to check may follow either of the 3 below mentioned patterns-
Pattern 1 - Explain the presence of X, Y, & Z - Correct
Pattern 2 - Explain the presence of X, the presence of Y, & the presence of Z - Correct
Pattern 3 - Explain the presence of X, Explain the presence of Y, & Explain the presence of Z - Correct


A) Follows Pattern 2, But use of ACCOUNT FOR is unjustified. Hence Incorrect
B) Follows Pattern 1. Hence Correct
C) Follows mix of Patterns 1, 2, & 3. Hence Incorrect
D) Follows mix of Patterns 2 & 3. Hence Incorrect
E) Follows mix of Patterns 3 & 2. Hence Incorrect
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 20:43
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Topic Tested: Parallelism

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves. -- The original sentence is not parallel

A. account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been - Incorrect. Parallelism error.

B. of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz - Correct. would explain the presence of a buried crater, of the element iridium, and of quartz.

C. the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been - Incorrect. would explain the presence of x, y and explain the presence of z is not parallel again.

D. the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz - Incorrect. Parallelism error again.

E. explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz - Incorrect. Parallelism error.

Answer: B
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2017, 23:38
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.
A. account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been
B. of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz
C. the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been
D. the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz
E. explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 763


||ism ...
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.

lets plug in option B

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz shattered by high-impact shocks wave.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 09:30
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elegantm wrote:
This question tests Parallelism. Parallelism that we need to check may follow either of the 3 below mentioned patterns-
Pattern 1 - Explain the presence of X, Y, & Z - Correct
Pattern 2 - Explain the presence of X, the presence of Y, & the presence of Z - Correct
Pattern 3 - Explain the presence of X, Explain the presence of Y, & Explain the presence of Z - Correct


A) Follows Pattern 2, But use of ACCOUNT FOR is unjustified. Hence Incorrect
B) Follows Pattern 1. Hence Correct
C) Follows mix of Patterns 1, 2, & 3. Hence Incorrect
D) Follows mix of Patterns 2 & 3. Hence Incorrect
E) Follows mix of Patterns 3 & 2. Hence Incorrect


But is follows presence of X and Of Y.

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Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 10:51
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Could someone clarify how D is wrong?

Here is the sentence with D:
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and [would] explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Just before this post, I read:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/your-verbal- ... 46533.html
which suggests not be over fixated with true parallel structure to the hilt.
Shouldn't there be more than just parallelism error for us to eliminate choices?
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 19:52
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sevenplusplus wrote:
Could someone clarify how D is wrong?

Here is the sentence with D:
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and [would] explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Hi sevenplusplus, let's look at the sentence with D again:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

By the intended meaning of the sentence, hopefully it's clear would explain is trying to explain three elements. In D, the repetition of the presence in the second element suggests that the way to do (what we call as) XYZ deconstruct is:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain

i) X: the presence of a buried crater
ii) Y: the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth)
iii) Z: explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Once we have done this deconstruct, the common portion of the sentence (in this case Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain) should individually make sense with X, with Y, and with Z.

In D, this common portion is not making sense with Z, because the sentence would read:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

explain explain is clearly incorrect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this very powerful method of tackling parallelism (XYZ deconstruct) , its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 19:58
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EducationAisle wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
Could someone clarify how D is wrong?

Here is the sentence with D:
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and [would] explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Hi sevenplusplus, let's look at the sentence with D again:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

By the intended meaning of the sentence, hopefully it's clear would explain is trying to explain three elements. In D, the repetition of the presence in the second element suggests that the way to do (what we call as) XYZ deconstruct is:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain

i) X: the presence of a buried crater
ii) Y: the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth)
iii) Z: explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Once we have done this deconstruct, the common portion of the sentence (in this case Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain) should individually make sense with X, with Y, and with Z.

In D, this common portion is not making sense with Z, because the sentence would read:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

explain explain is clearly incorrect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses this very powerful method of tackling parallelism (XYZ deconstruct) , its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.


Thanks for the reply. How do we know that "would explain" is "out" of the XYZ deconstruct? My argument is that it could be considered part of each X, Y, Z.


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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2017, 21:04
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sevenplusplus wrote:
Thanks for the reply. How do we know that "would explain" is "out" of the XYZ deconstruct? My argument is that it could be considered part of each X, Y, Z.

Sure. So, let's try putting would explain within the XYZ deconstruct.

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period

i) X: would explain the presence of a buried crater
ii) Y: would explain the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth)
iii) Z: would explain explain the presence of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.

Again, as is evident, Z (would explain explain the presence...) is incorrect.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2017, 08:04
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Vyshak wrote:
Topic Tested: Parallelism

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves. -- The original sentence is not parallel

A. account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been - Incorrect. Parallelism error.

B. of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz - Correct. would explain the presence of a buried crater, of the element iridium, and of quartz.

C. the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been - Incorrect. would explain the presence of x, y and explain the presence of z is not parallel again.

D. the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz - Incorrect. Parallelism error again.

E. explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz - Incorrect. Parallelism error.

Answer: B



Hi Vyshak ,

I have a doubt here. When do we use a comma before 'and'?
Usually its like a,b and c.
In what conditions, do we use- a,b, and c? and what's the difference?

Really appreciate if you or anyone on this forum can explain.

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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 11:54
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Imo B
The parallelism is maintained in B
The structure of the list is X,Y and Z
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2018, 03:31
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Quote:
Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.


Quote:
(B) of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz

Why do we need preposition of before two element names?

Quote:
(C) the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been

Is modifier having been correctly used to denote quartz was shattered earlier and than its presence was detected?
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2018, 11:39
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Hello Everyone!

This looks like a great example of a GMAT question that focuses on parallel structure! Let's go through each option carefully to narrow them down to the right answer! To get started, here is the original question:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.

(A) account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been
(B) of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz
(C) the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been
(D) the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz
(E) explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz

One important sign that we're dealing with parallelism is when the options are part of a list. Any time you see a list, it's a good idea to start by asking yourself, "Is each item in the list worded/structured similarly?" Let's take a closer look at each option to throw out any answers that aren't parallel. To make it easier to spot, I've included the non-underlined part of the list because everything MUST match that in structure, verb tense, and tone:

(A) would explain the presence of a buried crater,
account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth),
and the presence of quartz having been

This option is NOT PARALLEL because each item in the list is introduced using a different verb, or none at all: explain / account for / no verb. Therefore, this is INCORRECT because it's not parallel.

(B) would explain the presence of a buried crater,
of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth),
and of quartz

This option is PARALLEL because each item is introduced in a similar manner (using the word "of"). It's much simpler and more concise, too! Therefore, this is the CORRECT option because it uses parallel structure.

(C) would explain the presence of a buried crater,
the element iridium (originating deep within the earth),
and explain the presence of quartz having been

This option is NOT PARALLEL because only 2 out of 3 items starts with "explain the presence of." For this to be parallel, all 3 items need to match. Therefore, this is another INCORRECT option!

(D) would explain the presence of a buried crater,
the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth),
and explain the presence of quartz

This option is also NOT PARALLEL because it only uses the verb "explain" in 2 of 3 items in the list. They're very close to parallel, but not quite good enough! Therefore, this option is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure.

(E) would explain the presence of a buried crater,
explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth),
and the presence of quartz

This option is NOT PARALLEL because each item uses different combinations of the phrases "explain the presence of," "explain," and "the presence of." For this to be parallel, all 3 items need to match. Therefore, this option is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure.

There you go - option B is the correct answer because it's the only one that uses parallel structure!


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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2018, 04:05
egmat wrote:
somtsat99 wrote:
elegantm wrote:
This question tests Parallelism. Parallelism that we need to check may follow either of the 3 below mentioned patterns-
Pattern 1 - Explain the presence of X, Y, & Z - Correct
Pattern 2 - Explain the presence of X, the presence of Y, & the presence of Z - Correct
Pattern 3 - Explain the presence of X, Explain the presence of Y, & Explain the presence of Z - Correct


A) Follows Pattern 2, But use of ACCOUNT FOR is unjustified. Hence Incorrect
B) Follows Pattern 1. Hence Correct
C) Follows mix of Patterns 1, 2, & 3. Hence Incorrect
D) Follows mix of Patterns 2 & 3. Hence Incorrect
E) Follows mix of Patterns 3 & 2. Hence Incorrect


But is follows presence of X and Of Y.

Posted from my mobile device



Hello somtsat99,


I am just adding my two cents here. When the elements in a parallel list are big phrases, the scope of possible parallel elements also increase by far.

Let's take a look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence
    of a buried crater,
    of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and
    of quartz shattered by high-impact shock waves.


Since all the three elements are prepositional phrases, they are perfectly parallel.

Since of has been used in all the three elements, another possible parallel list can be what elegantm has stated in his post as Pattern 1.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


So the use of 'of' before each element of the list is not needed but is not incorrect either?
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2018, 00:57
Sentence Analysis
Here’s the sentence structure:

Positing (A gerund. Main Subject)
an enormous volcanic explosion (Object of ‘Positing’, answering ‘positing what?’)
at the end of the Permian period (Prepositional phrase modifying ‘Positing’)
would explain the presence of a buried crater, (Main Verb: would explain)
account for the presence of the element iridium (‘account’ is parallel to ‘explain’ and is thus a part of the main verb)
(originating deep within the earth), (Verb-ing modifiers modifying ‘iridium’)
and the presence of quartz (Noun ‘the presence’ violates parallelism. Something parallel to ‘explain’ and ‘account’ was needed here.)
having been shattered by high-impact shock waves. (Perfect participle modifying ‘quartz’)
The sentence says that proposing something (a volcanic explosion) at the end of a time (the Permian period) would explain a few things: the presence of a buried crater, the presence of the element iridium, and the presence of quartz that has been shattered by shock waves.

The sentence has the following problems:

Parallelism – The sentence has a deterministic error that ‘the presence of quartz’ is not parallel to ‘explain’ and ‘account’.
The use of the perfect participle ‘having been shattered’ is incorrect here (Deterministic error). We are not presenting a sequence of actions here (It doesn’t make sense to sequence the actions ‘explaining the presence of quartz’ and ‘the shattering of quartz’. These are two very unrelated events). We just need to provide additional information about quartz that it was shattered by high-impact shock waves. Therefore, we need either a verb-ed modifier ‘quartz shattered by …’ or a relative clause ‘quartz that was shattered by…’.
Since ‘account for’ and ‘explain’ mean the same thing, we can skip ‘account for’ in the second element of the list. This is a quality issue. On the same lines, since all the three elements of the list are about ‘the presence of something’, we need not repeat the words ‘the presence of’ in each element of the list.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2018, 17:31
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 763

Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.

(A) account for the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz having been
(B) of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz
(C) the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz having been
(D) the presence of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and explain the presence of quartz
(E) explain the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and the presence of quartz



Hi Experts,
I understand the parallelism issue here.

But I have a few queries regarding option A.

1.Can someone please explain the usage of passive construct "having been shattered at"
2.explain the X,account for ,the presence of ..
I assume (explain and account are verbs ) and presence is noun so structuaraly not possible.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 11:09
Hi experts, my doubt is regarding the 'comma+and' construction here. Shouldn't it be an IC ? what am I missing here?
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New post 08 Mar 2019, 09:45
Srik20 wrote:
Hi experts, my doubt is regarding the 'comma+and' construction here. Shouldn't it be an IC ? what am I missing here?


Let me try
I think you are talking about this part
Quote:
and the presence of quartz having been shattered by high-impact shock waves.

An IC requires a pair of subject and verb which makes sense on its own. If you consider "the presence of quartz" as the subject then the verb "having been" doesn't make sense with the subject. Here "having been shattered by high-impact shock waves" is a modifier for quartz. Therefore this entire part is not an IC.

GMATNinja generis Please confirm.
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2019, 01:16
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Srik20 wrote:
Hi experts, my doubt is regarding the 'comma+and' construction here. Shouldn't it be an IC ? what am I missing here?

Typically, a "comma + and" construction will be used in one of two ways: 1) to separate two independent clauses or 2) to designate the end of a list of elements.

(B) is an example of the second situation. Here's the relevant portion of (B) again: "Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian period would explain the presence of a buried crater, of the element iridium (originating deep within the earth), and of quartz." The volcanic explosion can explain the presence of three elements: a buried crater, the element, iridium, and quartz. Because we have a list, it's appropriate to use "comma + and" to signal to the reader that the list is complete.

Also, the "rules" governing comma usage can be subtle and subjective, so you don't want to be too rigid when debating whether a comma is appropriate. You won't run across many GMAT questions that explicitly test whether the presence or absence of a comma is correct, so it's best to find more concrete reasons to eliminate answer choices. For more on punctuation on the GMAT, check out this video.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Positing an enormous volcanic explosion at the end of the Permian peri   [#permalink] 11 Mar 2019, 01:16

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