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The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through

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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2018, 04:19
The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them.

(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them - Verb+ing modifier stepping is incorrectly modifying moose's long legs . Also them is incorrectly referring to mlong moose's long legs

(B) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around - Same as A

(C) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around them - Here them is referring to moose's long legs instead of moose itself hence incorrect

(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around - Here them has no logical antecedent

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them - CORRECT as it is referring correctly to North American Moose and not the long legs and them is referring to woods
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2018, 12:26
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts (CrackVerbalGMAT/eGmat/GmatNinja/mikemcgarry),

Have a query in option D?
Option D also has a ,+V-ing Modifiew "enabling it ..". That would refer to the subject moose as per the current structure of the sentence. But, I guess as per the meaning of the sentence, it should refer to legs. Hence, I feel the comma before the V-ing modifier must be removed to fix this so that then it will refer to legs.

Is this understanding correct? Please let me know later.

Thanks in advance!


In my opinion, the comma before the V-ing modifier is correct, because "enabling" expresses the result of the main clause. According to MANHATTAN, The -ing form can modify an entire clause as above, as long as the entire clause converted into a noun phrase could function as the subject of the verb that is now in -ing form.

"The long legs of moose enable moose(which "it" refers to) to move quickly ... and to step easily ..."

The problem of option D is that "them" can not refer to "moose".
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2018, 07:42
@e-gmat

Please correct my understanding of the ", + ing modifier".

If the verb-ing modifier appears after a clause and is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the entire preceding clause. It
a. either presents additional information about the preceding clause,
b. or presents the result of the preceding clause.

Here, in option D "enabling shows the result of the preceding idea that the mosse has long legs and this results in enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees.

In your previous post, you have mentioned that this modifier is incorrect in option D.

I am little confused; could you please help to identify the gap in my understanding!
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2019, 08:22
egmat wrote:
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts (CrackVerbalGMAT/eGmat/GmatNinja/mikemcgarry),

Have a query in option D?
Option D also has a ,+V-ing Modifiew "enabling it ..". That would refer to the subject moose as per the current structure of the sentence. But, I guess as per the meaning of the sentence, it should refer to legs. Hence, I feel the comma before the V-ing modifier must be removed to fix this so that then it will refer to legs.

Is this understanding correct? Please let me know later.

Thanks in advance!



Hello SidJainGMAT,

Yes, your analysis is absolutely correct. The moose does not enable itself to move quickly through the woods. It his longs legs that do so. Hence, use of comma + enabling is incorrect in Choice D.



Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha/Other Experts
Let me first thank you for your numerous explanations across posts. They are really helpful.

I have a doubt in regards to this explanation, comma + present participle modifies the preceding clause and applies to the subject of the preceding clause modifying the how/why. In D does "enabling" not modifey the entire preceding clause "Moose has long legs" and thereby correctly applies to the subject Moose and tells how having long legs enable it to move quickly.

Thanks in advance for your reply!
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2019, 05:02
The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them.

(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them

(B) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around- Pronoun issue- no referent for pronoun 'them'

(C) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around themPronoun issue- no referent for pronoun 'them'- pursuing them; parallelism issue- to step should not be parallel to move quickly through the woods

(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around- same as C;

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them- Correct

1. In option E, the verb-ing modifier 'stepping easily over downed trees' modifies the previous that clause?
that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees --->
If the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding 'that' clause, is there any difference between options A and E?

2. I understand that (possessive poison guideline) is not a rule and thus cannot be used to decisively eliminate options A-C.

3. In option D, does the usage of verb-ing modifier 'enabling' make sense with preceding clause 'moose has long legs'?


AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - please enlighten
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2019, 05:28
Skywalker18 I hope you dont mind if i try to resolve your doubts :

Quote:
1. In option E, the verb-ing modifier 'stepping easily over downed trees' modifies the previous that clause?
that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees --->
If the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding 'that' clause, is there any difference between options A and E?

(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them

- moose has long legs ...these long legs enable it to move quickly... HOW??? when we ask the question HOW we need a clause to refer back to !!! whenever we ask the question HOW we need to have a verb !! it cannot refer back to NOUN "long legs" ...can we say " HOW LONG LEGS" ?? we have to have a VERB : long legs ENABLE (HOW?? - by helping the moose step over bla bla bla) . Assuming you know this lets move on to the primary doubt

Difference between A and E

in A (speciifically talking about the modifier part ) : (comma) syepping over...(comma) but predators : Here when we put a comma before "but" we are separating the HOW PART ..We have to tell HOW the moose has an advantage so it is preffered that the entire modifier be in one part and not two diffefrent ones. Additionally, (Comma) stepping(Comma) makes it look like a non essential modifer

In E : we get a whole part ...HOW is the moose at advantage w.r.t long legs ?? stepping ....while predators pursuing .... (one complete modifieier explaining the HOW part ) no comma nothing

Quote:
2. I understand that (possessive poison guideline) is not a rule and thus cannot be used to eliminate options A-C.
- Indeed it isnt a rule BUT GMAT SC is all about BEST ANSWER... if there is a better CLEARER referrent then why choose something we need to INFER???
this gives us liberty to eliminate A and C

Quote:
3. In option D, does the usage of verb-ing modifier 'enabling' make sense with preceding clause 'moose has long legs'?
- NO it does not... Moose has long legs - does this factt enable it to move quickly or the feature "long legs " does... moose has long legs... NOW WHAT DO WE GET FROM LONG LEGS??? enablement of bla bla... long legs enable ...we are asking the question WHAT ..WHAT enables??? ..when we ask the question WHAT we need a NOUN referrent !!!
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The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2019, 12:27
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egmat wrote:
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts (CrackVerbalGMAT/eGmat/GmatNinja/mikemcgarry),

Have a query in option D?
Option D also has a ,+V-ing Modifiew "enabling it ..". That would refer to the subject moose as per the current structure of the sentence. But, I guess as per the meaning of the sentence, it should refer to legs. Hence, I feel the comma before the V-ing modifier must be removed to fix this so that then it will refer to legs.

Is this understanding correct? Please let me know later.

Thanks in advance!

Hello SidJainGMAT,

Yes, your analysis is absolutely correct. The moose does not enable itself to move quickly through the woods. It his longs legs that do so. Hence, use of comma + enabling is incorrect in Choice D.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha

MAnkur wrote:
Hi Shraddha/Other Experts
Let me first thank you for your numerous explanations across posts. They are really helpful.

I have a doubt in regards to this explanation, comma + present participle modifies the preceding clause and applies to the subject of the preceding clause modifying the how/why. In D does "enabling" not modifey the entire preceding clause "Moose has long legs" and thereby correctly applies to the subject Moose and tells how having long legs enable it to move quickly.

Thanks in advance for your reply!


OPTION D IN THE SENTENCE:

(D) The North American moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around [the fallen trees].

Hi MAnkur , Part #1 of your question:
In D does "enabling" not modifey the entire preceding clause "Moose has long legs"

Slightly rewritten in the affirmative: In D, does "enabling" modify the entire preceding clause moose has long legs?

Yes. enabling modifies the entire preceding clause [the] moose has long legs.
comma + present participle (comma + verbING) typically IS a modifier of the entire previous clause.

Part 2 of your question, slightly rephrased:
[Because enabling modifies the entire previous clause, does enabling] thereby correctly apply to the subject Moose and tell how having long legs enables it to move quickly?

• Let's get rid of "thereby correctly apply to the subject Moose"
A participial phrase that modifies an entire clause is adverbial.

That kind of modifier is not a noun modifier.
A modifier that modifies an entire clause does not modify a specific noun.
enabling . . . does not modify moose.

Rather, enabling indicates a result of the whole previous clause.
This notion is hard to convey in English, but I will try,
The fact that the moose has long legs enables it to move quickly and step over trees.
enabling X and Y is a result of the moose has long legs
Animals with short legs cannot move quickly through the woods or step easily over fallen trees.

• the second part of this part 2 is circular: does enabling tell how having long legs enables it to move quickly?
No. enabling it to move quickly is a result of its having long legs.
The previous clause does not mention moving quickly.
This enabling phrase is a result phrase, not a how phrase.

HOW does a moose have long legs? In what way does a moose have long legs?
That question does not really make sense.
(HOW does a moose have long legs? Well, the genes of a moose tell it to have four legs. :? )

Are you under the impression that a participial modifier must modify both the subject and the verb of the previous clause?
If so, that impression is not accurate.

I am fairly sure that Dmitry Farber already addressed your question in THE POST ABOVE, HERE.

Is there something about that answer that does not make sense?

The first part of your question is accurate.
This __ING phrase modifies the entire previous clause.
But that phrase does not modify the subject or the verb.
It modifies the whole clause. Participial phrases are often used to indicate results, as is the case in this question.

Hope that helps. :)
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2019, 12:49
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Skywalker18 wrote:
The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them.

(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them

(B) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around- Pronoun issue- no referent for pronoun 'them'

(C) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around themPronoun issue- no referent for pronoun 'them'- pursuing them; parallelism issue- to step should not be parallel to move quickly through the woods

(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around- same as C;

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them- Correct

1. In option E, the verb-ing modifier 'stepping easily over downed trees' modifies the previous that clause?
that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees --->
If the verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding 'that' clause, is there any difference between options A and E?

2. I understand that (possessive poison guideline) is not a rule and thus cannot be used to decisively eliminate options A-C.

3. In option D, does the usage of verb-ing modifier 'enabling' make sense with preceding clause 'moose has long legs'?


AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , MagooshExpert , GMATGuruNY , VeritasPrepBrian , MartyTargetTestPrep , DmitryFarber , VeritasKarishma , generis , jennpt , VeritasPrepErika , other experts - please enlighten

Skywalker18 , I will change the order of your questions in order to make answering the A v. E question easier.

Quote:
2. I understand that (possessive poison guideline) is not a rule and thus cannot be used to decisively eliminate options A-C.

Possessive poison is indeed a guideline [i.e. it is not an ironclad rule] and as you say, should not be used decisively.

At the same time, we can be on the lookout for a rather uncommon pronoun antecedent.
If two options seem equally correct and one does not use a possessive noun as an antecedent for a regular pronoun but the other does, then choose the option without the possessive noun antecedent.
Most importantly, I qualify my conclusion about GMAC's position on the possessive poison guideline with this condition: as long as meaning is clear.
The phrasing in option A is not as clear as that in option E.

From GMAC's point of view, arguably in (A) it's not clear whether stepping easily over downed trees modifies the subject the moose's long legs or the pronoun it
-- logically, we understand.
-- but E is much clearer

Option E is explicit about the causal linkage between a characteristic of the moose (its long legs) and the moose's ability to move quickly.
E names the subject, moose, and then gives an essential characteristic of the moose:
The moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly

This that-clause clarity, in turn, makes it easy to see that stepping easily over downed trees refers to the pronoun it, the moose.

(E) is absolutely clear and (A) theoretically contains ambiguity. (E) is better.

You asked only about the enabling modification. Option A uses leap (trees). Option E uses leap over trees.

Finally, if we can avoid the use of weird pronoun antecedents, we should do so.
Stated differently, if another option is crystal clear about the pronoun reference and is correct in every other aspect, that option is the better or best one.

Quote:
3. In option D, does the usage of verb-ing modifier 'enabling' make sense with preceding clause 'moose has long legs'?

Yes.
See my post above, HERE, in which I explain that enabling is a result of the entire previous clause.

One result of having long legs is that the moose is enabled to (can) move quickly and step over trees.
Participial phrases (comma + verbING) frequently modify the entire clause and present a result of that clause.

Correct: The woman had a spirited personality, enabling her to make friends easily.

Hope that helps.
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2019, 22:35
generis wrote:
egmat wrote:
SidJainGMAT wrote:
Hi Verbal Experts (CrackVerbalGMAT/eGmat/GmatNinja/mikemcgarry),

Have a query in option D?
Option D also has a ,+V-ing Modifiew "enabling it ..". That would refer to the subject moose as per the current structure of the sentence. But, I guess as per the meaning of the sentence, it should refer to legs. Hence, I feel the comma before the V-ing modifier must be removed to fix this so that then it will refer to legs.

Is this understanding correct? Please let me know later.

Thanks in advance!

Hello SidJainGMAT,

Yes, your analysis is absolutely correct. The moose does not enable itself to move quickly through the woods. It his longs legs that do so. Hence, use of comma + enabling is incorrect in Choice D.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.

Shraddha

MAnkur wrote:
Hi Shraddha/Other Experts
Let me first thank you for your numerous explanations across posts. They are really helpful.

I have a doubt in regards to this explanation, comma + present participle modifies the preceding clause and applies to the subject of the preceding clause modifying the how/why. In D does "enabling" not modifey the entire preceding clause "Moose has long legs" and thereby correctly applies to the subject Moose and tells how having long legs enable it to move quickly.

Thanks in advance for your reply!


OPTION D IN THE SENTENCE:

(D) The North American moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around [the fallen trees].

Hi MAnkur , Part #1 of your question:
In D does "enabling" not modifey the entire preceding clause "Moose has long legs"

Slightly rewritten in the affirmative: In D, does "enabling" modify the entire preceding clause moose has long legs?

Yes. enabling modifies the entire preceding clause [the] moose has long legs.
comma + present participle (comma + verbING) typically IS a modifier of the entire previous clause.

Part 2 of your question, slightly rephrased:
[Because enabling modifies the entire previous clause, does enabling] thereby correctly apply to the subject Moose and tell how having long legs enables it to move quickly?

• Let's get rid of "thereby correctly apply to the subject Moose"
A participial phrase that modifies an entire clause is adverbial.

That kind of modifier is not a noun modifier.
A modifier that modifies an entire clause does not modify a specific noun.
enabling . . . does not modify moose.

Rather, enabling indicates a result of the whole previous clause.
This notion is hard to convey in English, but I will try,
The fact that the moose has long legs enables it to move quickly and step over trees.
enabling X and Y is a result of the moose has long legs
Animals with short legs cannot move quickly through the woods or step easily over fallen trees.

• the second part of this part 2 is circular: does enabling tell how having long legs enables it to move quickly?
No. enabling it to move quickly is a result of its having long legs.
The previous clause does not mention moving quickly.
This enabling phrase is a result phrase, not a how phrase.

HOW does a moose have long legs? In what way does a moose have long legs?
That question does not really make sense.
(HOW does a moose have long legs? Well, the genes of a moose tell it to have four legs. :? )

Are you under the impression that a participial modifier must modify both the subject and the verb of the previous clause?
If so, that impression is not accurate.

I am fairly sure that Dmitry Farber already addressed your question in THE POST ABOVE, HERE.

Is there something about that answer that does not make sense?

The first part of your question is accurate.
This __ING phrase modifies the entire previous clause.
But that phrase does not modify the subject or the verb.
It modifies the whole clause. Participial phrases are often used to indicate results, as is the case in this question.

Hope that helps. :)


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Thanks a lot for such a thorough analysis.

I could very well relate it another question on GMAT
https://gmatclub.com/forum/the-completi ... 68570.html

In this option C is correct and drawing a similar analogy as you did above, linking applies to the entire preceding clause and does not modify the specific noun completion and shows the result of the preceding clause as you rightly pointed that participle phrases are often used to indicate results. Moreover, it would be illogical to ask that how or why of the preceding clause The completion in 1925 of the Holland Tunnel i.e. how the completion linked or why the completion linked - is illogical.

But, I find it hard to get rid of the notion you poiinted - do away with comma+ing at the end of a clause applying to the subject of the preceding clause. Is it not right to say that comma+ing at the end of the clause modifies the action (how/why) of the preceding clause and applies to the subject of that preceding clause.

e.g. Ravin read the lines hastily, playing hamlet for the third time - why did Ravin read lines hastily beacasue he was playing hamlet for the third time. Here playing modifies the entire preceding clause's action (why in this case) and applies to subject Ravin.
Same can be said for below example.
Students can find answers to the graph, using error log - how can students find answers - using error log.

I am aware that the comma+ing after at the end of a clause can also have following functions:
1. Simultaneous to and subordinate to the main clause
2. Cause and effect

So, kindly shed some light whether how/why understanding can be used or must be discarded. Also, will it be right to say that another use of comma+ing at the end of a clause would be to see if some more information is coming. Will it be prudent to check all these factors viz. 1. action of preceding clause 2. simultaneous and subordinate 3. Cause & effect 4. More information and zero down as to which of the four logic will work in the case at hand.
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2019, 01:01
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
this question tests you on pronouns --

Option A - Incorrect

the pronoun "it" cannot refer to the possessive noun "moose's". Note that "stepping easily over downed trees" is a comma + -ing modifier and refers to the subject "the North American Moose's long legs". this does not make sense either.

Option B - Incorrect

The pronoun "it" does not have a logical antecedent. "them" refers to "moose's long legs" -- does not make sense.
"must leap or go around" -- go around what? Not clear.
Note that "stepping easily over downed trees" is a comma + -ing modifier and refers to the subject "the North American Moose's long legs". this does not make sense either.

Option C - Incorrect

The pronoun "it" does not have a logical antecedent. "them" (first instance) refers to "moose's long legs" -- does not make sense.

"them" (second instance) refers to "downed trees". But we have pronouns in the same clause that refer to two different things -- "but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around them"

Option D - Incorrect

"them" refers to "moose's long legs" -- does not make sense. "must leap or go around" -- go around what? Not clear.

Option E - Correct answer

the pronouns and the modifiers make sense.


I have doubt regarding pronoun ambiguity. Is there any criterion for judging the antecedent of "them"......
I mean doesn't it necessary that them should refer back to only one plural noun in sentence.
for example, In option B “them” can refer back to moose's long legs, the woods or even downed trees. That’s the reason its ambiguous.
(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them
Why is option E there is no pronoun ambiguity. “them” can refer back to moose's long legs or the woods

Please help
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2019, 05:42
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Quote:
(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them

Why is option E there is no pronoun ambiguity. “them” can refer back to moose's long legs or the woods
Quote:


Let's please remember this eternally.

As far as pronoun reference is concerned, wordly-wiseness and logic are the ultimate deciders to pronounce the eligible antecedent.
The best way to know this is to actually apply a replacement test, in which you can substitute the various contenders and see which one them rationally fits in.

Let's do the replacement test now in the context by replacing the contested pronoun 'them".

1. Moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around the moose's long legs.

2. Moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around the woods.

3. Moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around the downed trees.

4. Moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around the predators.

You might see, only the third option fits in logically.

HTH
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2019, 13:17
The only issue i can notice with option A that i know for certain is leap vs leap over. I can't seem to judge any other factor that makes it incorrect as the GMAC in many questions has provided correct answers where the pronouns have referred back to possessive nouns. Could any expert please help with sighting any other issue with option A? i thought the modifier "stepping easily over downed trees" is using a cause and effect structure. mikemcgarry GMATNinja VeritasKarishma KevinRocci
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The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2019, 22:30
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hazelnut wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 292
Page:

The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them.

(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them

(B) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around

(C) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around them

(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them

https://www.nytimes.com/1998/10/27/science/make-way-for-moose-as-their-predators-decline-and-forests-grow-herds-head-south.html

The look of the moose derives from its evolutionary adaptation to its environment -- the cold boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere.

Its long legs enable it to fairly glide through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap or go around.


In options A, B and C, the possessive "moose's long legs" is the antecedent of "it" which is clearly wrong. Hence these options are eliminated.

Quote:
(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around

This choice has parallelism error. "enabling" does not go well with "to step". Hence eliminated

Quote:
(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them

This option removes all the errors. Clear winner
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2019, 08:37
daagh wrote:
The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them.

1. ', stepping' wrongly modifies the legs
2. 'It' refers to the singular moose.
3. 'them' refers to the trees


(A) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing it must leap or go around them -- stepping wrongly modifies the legs, rather than the moose.

(B) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around -- 1. same modification problem as in A. 2. 'them' refers to plural animals rather than the singular moose.

(C) moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through the woods and to step easily over downed trees, but predators pursuing them must leap over or go around them -- 'them' has no antecedent.

(D) moose has long legs, enabling it to move quickly through the woods and to stop easily over downed trees while predators pursuing them must leap or go around -- 'them' is the problem

(E) moose has long legs that enable it to move quickly through the woods, stepping easily over downed trees while predators pursuing it must leap over or go around them --- 'it' correctly refers to the singular moose; 'them' refers to the plural woods--- correct choice.


Though I have marked E as the correct answer, I have a doubt regarding the point E (OA).

Pursuing is used after 'while' so it seems that predators require a bonafide verb. I am not being able to understand why the use of pursuing (present participle) is correct here?
If you kindly elaborate.
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Dec 2019, 03:29
Tamalmallick13 wrote:
Pursuing is used after 'while' so it seems that predators require a bonafide verb. I am not being able to understand why the use of pursuing (present participle) is correct here?

Hi Tamal, that bonafide verb is must leap/must go.

pursuing it is just a modifier, modifying predators.
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Re: The North American moose's long legs enable it to move quickly through   [#permalink] 02 Dec 2019, 03:29

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